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Flashcards in RSL - Behavioural Science Deck (39):
1

Cross sectional study: Asks?

What is happening (72 % of the people with COPD smoke)

2

Cross sectional study: Measures

Disease prevelance

3

Case-control study: Asks?

What happened (People with COPD had a higher odds of history of smoking)

4

Case-control study: Measures?

Odds ratio

5

Cohort study: Asks?

What will happen (smokers had higher risk of developing COPD)

6

Cohort study: Measures?

Relative risk

7

Prevelance and PPV/NPV

prevalence:PPV
Prevalence: 1/NPV

8

Odds ratio

OR = AD/BC

9

Relative risk

RR = a/(a+b) ÷ c/(c+d)
[risk of getting disease in exposed / risk of getting disease in non-exposed]

10

Prevalence, OR, RR

If prevalence is low, RR = OR

11

Attributable risk

AR = a/(a+b) – c/(c+d)
[how much the risk is increased by the exposure]

12

Relative risk reduction

RRR = 1 – RR

13

Absolute risk reduction

ARR = c/(c+d) – a/(a+b)

14

Number needed to treat

NNT = 1/ARR
[Number of patients needed to be treated for one patient to benefit]

15

Number needed to harm

NNH = 1/AR

[Number needed to be exposed to a risk factor for 1 patient to be harmed]

16

Berkson bias

research participants are more unhealthy than general population

17

Healthy worker bias

Research participants are more healthy than general population

18

recall bias

Awareness of disorder affects recall (retrospective studies)

19

measurement bias

Miscalibrated scale

20

Procedure bias

subjects in different groups are not treated the same

21

Lead time bias:

early detection is associated with increased survival

22

Type 1 error

Alpha (false-positive)
H1 = False
H1 = Accepted

23

Type 2 error

Beta (false negative)
H1 = True
H1 = Rejected

24

Power

1 – beta

25

power and sample size

Increase sample size : increase power

26

t-test

two groups

27

ANOVA

≥3 groups

28

Chi-squared

≥2 groups of percentages / proportions

29

Correlation coefficient

r

30

Coefficient of determination

r^2

31

primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary disease prevention

1. prevention
2. screening
3. treatment
4. unecessary treatment

32

Medicare

≥65

33

Medicaid

Very low income

34

Medicare: A

Hospital insurance

35

Medicare: B

Basic medical bill

36

Medicare: C

A + B delivered by approved private companies

37

Medicare: D

Prescription drugs

38

Apgar score

Appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration
≥7 = good
4-6 = assist and stimulate

39

Serotonin nuclei in brain

Raphe nuclei