RSL - Cardio Flashcards Preview

Ryan's shit list - Step 1 > RSL - Cardio > Flashcards

Flashcards in RSL - Cardio Deck (94):
1

Bulbus cordis

Smooth parts of left and right ventricles

2

Primative pulmonary vein

smooth part of left atrium

3

Right horn of sinus venosus

Smooth part of right atrium

4

Left horn of sinus venosus

Coronary sinus

5

Valve development

A/P: endocardial cushions of outflow tract M/T: fused endocardial cushions of AV canal

6

Allantois --> urachus -->

Median umbilical ligament

7

Ubilical arteries -->

Medial umbilical ligaments

8

Umbilical vein

LIgamentum teres hepatis (contained in falciform ligament)

9

Aortic stenosis radiation

to corotids

10

Pulsus parvus et tardus

Aortic stenosis

11

Mitral regurg radiation

Axilla

12

Tricuspid regurg radiation

right sternal border

13

Hyperdynamic pulse / bounding

Aortic regurg

14

Quinkes

Aortic regurg

15

Opening snap

Mitral stenosis

16

continuous machine gun murmor

PDA

17

Left infraclavicular area

PDA

18

J Joint

Junction between end of QRS and beginning of ST segment

19

Speed of conduction: (atria, AV, purkinje, Ventricles)

Purkinje > Atria > Ventricles > AV node

20

Speed of Pace makers: SA, AV, Bundle of His/purkinje/ventricles

SA>AV>Bundle of His/purkinje/ventricles

21

Conduction pathway after AV node:

Common bundles --> Bundle branches --> fascicles --> purkinje fibers --> ventricles

22

Blood supply to AV node

RCA, located in the posteroinferior part of interatrial septum

23

Romano-Ward syndrome

AD, Congenital long QT syndrome (pure cardio phenotype)

24

Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome

AR, Congenital Long QT syndrome (Sensorineural deafness)

25

Brugada syndrome

AD, Asian males, ECG pattern of pseudo-right bundle branch block and ST elevations in V1-V3. Increased risk of V-tach, and SCD Treat: implantable defibrillator

26

Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome

MCC of ventricular pre-excitation syndrome. Atria -->Bundle of kent --> ventricles --> characteristic delta wave with widened QRS complex and shortened PR interval Complications: Re-entry circuit --> supraventricular tachycardia

27

Cushing reaction:

Triad of Systolic HTN, Bradycardia, Respiratory irregularity Phase 1: Increased ICP --> constricted arterioles --> cerebral ischemia --> increased pCO2 / H+ --> reflex increased sympathetics --> Increased cardiac output / vasoconstriction Phase 2: Increased CO --> aortic arch --> reflex PSNS --> brady cardia (Also; Mechanical pressure on vagus --> PSNS)

28

Prostacyclin: Platelet aggregation, vaso___, vascular permeabilty, Leukocytes

increased Platelet aggregation, vasodilation, increased vascular permeabilty, Leukocytes chemotaxis

29

Prostacyclin physiological antagonist

TXA2

30

Alcohol exposure (anomalies):

VSD, ASD, PDA, Tetralogy of Fallot

31

Congenital rubella (Cardiac anomolies):

Septal defects, PDA, pulmnoary artery stenosis

32

(Cardiac anomolies): Down syndrome

ASD, VSD

33

(Cardiac anomolies): Diabetic mother

Transposition of great vessels

34

(Cardiac anomolies): Marfan/Ehlers Danlos

MVP, Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection, aortic regurgitation

35

(Cardiac anomolies): Prenatal lithium

Ebstein anomaly (moved tricuspid)

36

(Cardiac anomolies): Turner syndrome

Bicuspid aorta, coarctation of aorta

37

(Cardiac anomolies): Williams syndrome

Supravalvular aortic stenosis

38

(Cardiac anomolies): 22q11

Truncus arteriosus, tetralogy of fallot

39

Hypertensive urgency

BP > 180 / >120

40

Corneal arcus

Lipid deposit in cornea (hypercholesterolemia)

41

Arteriolosclerosis (which vessels)

Small arteries

42

Mönckeberg (medial calcific sclerosis)

medium-sized arteries.

Calcification of elastic lamina of arteries.

Vascular stiffening with out obstruction.

Pipestream appearance on X-Ray.

Does not obstruct blood flow

43

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm risk factors

Associated with Atherosclerosis; (increased age, smoking, male, family history

44

Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm risk factors

Associated with Cystic medial degeneration; (HTN, bicuspid aortic valve, connective tissue disease, syphillis)

45

Stanford type A dissection

involves ascending aorta

46

Stanford Type B dissection

does not involve ascending aorta

47

Stable angina ST segment

depression

48

Variant (prinzmetal) angina ST segment

Transient elevation

49

Variant (prinzmetal) angina triggers

Smoking, cocaine, triptans, unknown

50

ST elevation indicates damage to?

Transmural

51

ST depression indicates damage to?

Subendocardium

52

MI complications

Arrythmia, cardiogenic shock, HF

53

MI complications 1day - 3days

Postinfarct fibrinous pericarditis

54

MI complications ~10days

Free wall rupture --> cardiac tamponade Papillary muscle rupture --> mitral regurg Interventricular septum rupture Ventricular pseudoaneurysm

55

MI complications >2weeks

Dressler syndrome, HF, ventricular aneurysm (mural thrombus)

56

Leads V1-2

Anteroseptal (LAD)

57

Leads V3-4

Anteroapical (distal LAD)

58

Leads V5-6

Anterolateral (LAD or LCX)

59

I, aVL

Lateral (LCX)

60

II, III, aVF

Inferior (RCA)

61

V1

Right ventricle

62

Dilated cardiomyopathy - etiologies

Idiopathic/familial, Alcohol, wet Beriberi, Coxsackie B virus, Chronic Cocaine, Chagas, Doxorubicin, Sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis, peripartum

63

Eccentric hypertrophy associations

Volume overload, decreased contractility, increased compliance

64

Dilated cardiomyopathy - findings

HF, S3, systolic regurgitant murmur, dilated heart, arrythmias

65

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Findings

S4, systolic murmur (functional aortic stenosis), possibly mitral regurg

66

Restrictive cardiomyopathy - etiologies

Sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, hemachromatosis, Loeffler syndrome, postradiation fibrosis, endocardial fibroelastosis

67

Pulse associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Bisferiens

68

Systolic dysfunction is characterized by:

Decreased contractibility

69

Diastolic dysfunction is characterized by:

Decreased compliance

70

Reverse Bernheim

Right heart --> left heart failure

71

Initial insult: Hypovolemic shock

Decreased CVP

72

Initial insult: Cardiogenic / obstructive

Decreased CO

73

Initial insult: Distributive

Decreased SVR

74

Roth Spots

round white spots on retina surrounded by hemorrhage

75

Osler nodes

Raised tender lesions on finger or toe pads

76

janeway lesions

Small painless, erethemaous lesions on palm or sole

77

Bacterial endocarditis - S. aureus:

Acute onset; Large vegetations on previously normal valves

78

Bacterial endocarditis - S. viridans:

Subacute; small vegetations on abnormal or diseased valves

79

Bacterial endocarditis - S. Bovis

Colon cancer

80

Bacterial endocarditis - S. epidermidis

prosthetic valves

81

Bacterial endocarditis - IV drug use

Tricuspid; S. aureus, pseudomonas, Candida

82

Libbman sacks endocarditis

Bacterial vegetations on both sides of mitral valve

83

Aschoff bodies

granuloma with giant cells

84

Anitschkow cells

Enlarged macrophages with ovoid, wavy, rod-like nucleus

85

Rheumatic fever (major criteria)

JONES Joints Carditis Nodules in skin Erythema marginatum Sydenham chorea

86

Acute pericarditis ECG changes

ST elevation / PR depression

87

Beck triad

hypotension, distended neck veins, distant heart sounds

88

Pulsus paradoxus

COPD, Asthma, cardiac tamponade, Constrictive pericarditis, Obstructive sleep apnea, croup

89

Kussmaul sign

Paradoxical increase in JVP on inspiration (constricive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomegaly, right atrial or ventricular tumors, tricuspid stenosis)

90

Pericardial knock

More accentuated version of S3 heard earlier in constrictive pericarditis

91

Torsades de pointes

Causes

low K+, Mg+, drugs

92

ANP: what stimulates release?

Increased volume and pressure

93

BNP: what stimulates release?

tension

94

PR depression

Acute pericarditis