Section 1: Chemistry Flashcards Preview

DAT Bio > Section 1: Chemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Section 1: Chemistry Deck (112):
1

What are atoms made up of?

Neutrons, Protons, and electrons

2

2 or more atoms held together by chemical bonds are called...

Molecules

3

Chemical bonds result from ____ interactions

electron

4

This is the ability of an atom to attract electrons

Electronegativity

5

What are the 3 bonds types?

Ionic
Covalent (polar and non-polar)
Hydrogen

6

This type of bond is a transfer of electrons from one atom to another due to different electronegativities

Ionic bond

7

This type of bond is the sharing of electrons between atoms with similar electronegativites

Covalent

8

This type of covalent bond is the equal sharing of electrons (identical electronegativites)

This type is the unequal sharing of electrons due to different electronegativities that forms a dipole

Nonpolar

Polar

9

This type of bond is a weak bond between molecules with a hydrogen attached to a highly electronegative atom while also attracted to a negative charge on another molecule (F,O,N)

Hydrogen bond

10

What are the 5 qualities of water?

Excellent solvent
High heat capacity
Ice floats
Cohesion/surface tension
Adhesion

11

This quality of water results from dipoles of H2O being able to break up charged IONIC molecules

Excellent solvent

12

This is defined as the degree in which a substance changes temperature in response to gain/loss of heat

The temperature of large water bodies are very stable in response to temperature changes of surrounding air, a large amount of energy is required to warm up water. So it has a....

It also has a high heat of _____

Heat capacity

High heat capacity

Vaporization

13

This quality of water results from water expanding as it freezes, becoming less dense then it's liquid form.

H bonds become rigid and form a crystal that keeps molecules separated

Ice floats

14

This quality of water results from attraction between LIKE substances due to H-bonds; the strong cohesion between H2O molecules produces a high...

cohesion/surface tension

15

This quality of water is due to attraction to unlike substances; capillary action; ability of liquid to flow without external forces (like against gravity)

Adhesion

16

Organic molecules have what atoms?

Macromolecules form _____ which form ______

Carbon

Monomers which form polymers

17

How many of carbon's 6 electrons are available to form bonds with other atoms?

4

18

This functional group of organic molecules is polar and hydrophilic

hydroxyl (OH)

19

This functional group of organic molecules is polar, hydrophilic, and is a weak acid

carboxyl (COOH)

20

This functional group of organic molecules is polar, hydrophilic, and a weak base

NH2

21

This functional group is polar, hydrophilic, and are present in acidic molecules

Phosphate (-PO3)

(H3PO4, etc)

22

This functional group of organic molecules is polar and hydrophilic. It can be an aldehyde or ketone

Carbonyl

23

This functional group of organic molecules is nonpolar and hydrophobic

Methyl (CH3)

24

This type of biochemical structure forms monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides

Carbohydrates

25

This type of carbohydrate is an alpha or beta sugar molecule base on position of anomeric carbon

An OH pointing up is ____

An OH pointing down is ____

Beta

Alpha

26

This type of carbohydrate is two sugar molecules joined by a glycosidic linkage

Disaccharide

27

What type of linkage occurs between saccharide molecules?

What type of reaction creates this bond?

Glycosidic

Dehydration

28

This type of carbohydrate is a series of connected monosaccharides

They are joined by what type of synthesis?

They are broken down by....

Polysaccharides

Dehydration (loss of water from reacting molecules, forms a water molecule)

Hydrolysis (water is used and added to molecules)

29

This type of carbohydrate is a polymer of α-glucose molecules

Where does it store energy?

Starch

Plant cells

30

This type of carbohydrate is a polymer of α-glucose molecules, but is stored in animal molecules

How is it different from starch?

Glycogen

Polymer branching. Starch is branched every 30 residues and glycogen is branched every 8-12 residues

31

This carbohydrate is a polymer of β-glucose; structural molecule for walls of plant cells and wood

Cellulose

32

This type of carbohydrate is a polymer of β-glucose, but each one has a nitrogen containing group attached to a ring.

Chitin

33

Where is chitin used as a structural molecule?

Fungal cell walls and exoskeleton of insects

34

This type of biochemical molecule is hydrophobic

Used for insulation, energy storage, structural in membrane, and endocrine system (hormones)

Lipids

35

This is three fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol backbone

Triglycerides (triacylglycerols)

36

This type of triglyceride, or fatty acid, has no double bonds

This type of triglyceride or fatty acid has double bonds

Saturated fatty acid

Unsaturated fatty acid

37

Which have a higher boiling point, unsaturated or saturated fatty acids?

Why?

Saturated

They stack more tightly(densely). They form plaques which is why they are considered unhealthy

38

This biochemical molecule is a lipid derivative of two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to a glycerol back bone

What term describes their hydrophobic/hydrophilic tendencies?

Phospholipid

Ampiphatic (both hydrophilic and hydrophobic = membrane bilayer)

39

This biochemical molecule is a lipid derivative of three 6 membered rings and on 5 membered ring, form hormones and cholesterol

Steroids

40

This lipid derivative is an ester of long chain fatty acids and monohydroxylic alcohols. It is used as protective coating or exoskeleton

waxes

41

These lipid derivatives are fatty acid carbon chains with conjugated double bonds and six membered rings at each ends

Carotenoids

42

This lipid derivative produces colors in plants and animals

Carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls)

43

These lipids are 4 joined pyrole rings. Often complexed with a metal, like heme and iron in Hb, chlorphyll with Mg)

Porphyrins (tetrapyroles)

44

You should probably review what all those lipid structures look like and quiz yourself!

You know you want to.

45

Specialized fat cells whose cytoplasm contains nothing but triglycerides

Adipocytes

46

These are similar to phospholipids but have a carbon group instead of a phosphate group

Glycolipids

47

Lipids are SOLUBLE/INSOLUBLE

insoluble

48

Since lipids are insoluble, how are they transported in the blood?

Lipoproteins

49

This structure is a lipid core surrounded by phospholipids and apolipoproteins

Lipoproteins (used to transport lipids in the blood)

50

Cell membranes need to maintain a certain degree of ______ and are capable of changing fatty acid composition to do so

Fluidity

51

In cold weather, to avoid rigidity, cells incorporate more mono and __________ fatty acids into the membrane as they have lower melting points and are more kinked to increase fluidity

In warm weather climates, cells show the opposite trend

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

52

Which has a higher boiling point, unsaturated or saturated fatty acids?

Which has a lower melting point?

Unsaturated have higher boiling point

Unsaturated have lower melting point

Tricky business!

53

Explain why unsaturated fatty acids have a higher boiling point but a lower melting point

Double bonds increase bond polarity

But a more kinked structure leads to less dense packing

54

What is the structure of amino acids?

hydrogen group, amine group, carboxyl group, and a variable R group

55

What is the storage protein in milk?

Casein

56

What is the storage protein in egg whites?

ovalbumin

57

What is the storage protein in corn seeds?

Zein

58

This is the transport protein which carries oxygen around the body

Hemoglobin

59

These are the transport proteins which carry electrons around the body

Cytochromes

60

Does ATP contain ribose or deoxyribose?

Ribose!

61

What enzyme catalyzes the reaction that breaks the the α-glycosidic bonds in starch?

Amylase

62

These catalyze reaction in both the forward and reverse direction based upon [substrate] (the concentration of substrate)

Enzymes

63

What determines an enzyme's efficiency?

Temperature and pH

64

Do enzymes change the spontaneity of a reaction?

No!

65

Enzymes are almost always considered to be proteins, but what else can act as an enzyme?

RNA (a nucleic acid)

66

These are NON PROTEIN molecules that assist enzymes

Cofactors

67

This is the term for the unioned cofactor and the enzyme

What is the term for when the protein is not combined with its cofactor?

Holoenzyme

Apoenzyme/apoprotein

68

Can cofactors be both organic and inorganic?

Yes

69

These are organic cofactors

These are inorganic cofactors

Coenzymes

Metal ions

70

What is it called when a cofactor strongly bonds to an enzyme?

Prosthetic Group

71

This classification of protein structure is one made entirely of AAs

This classification are functional and act as carriers or enzymes

These are fibrous, structural (like collagen)

These are made of a simple protein and nonprotein

Simple

Albumins and Globulins

Schleroproteins

Conjugated

72

This type of protein is bound to a lipid

This type of protein is bound to a carbohydrate

This type of protein is bound to a pigmented molecule

This type of protein is complexed around a metal ion

This type of protein contains a histone or protamine, is bound to nucleic acid

Lipoprotein

Mucoprotein

Chromoprotein

Metalloprotein

Nucleoprotein

73

This is the structure of proteins that is the sequence of AAs

Primary structure

74

This is the structure of proteins that is the 3d shape due to H-bonding between amino and carboxyl groups of adjacent amino acids

Secondary structure (Alpha helix, beta sheet)

75

This is the structure of proteins that is the 3d structure due to noncovalent interactions between amino acid R groups (subunit interactions)

Tertiary structure

76

What are the interactions between R chains that can cause tertiary structure to form?

H bonding
Ionic Bonding
Hydrophobic Interactions
Disulfide Bonds
Van der waals

77

All proteins have a primary structure, and most have a secondary structure. Larger proteins can have a tertiary and quarternary structure. Of these proteins, there are two main broad categories:

Globular and Fibrous

78

This category of proteins is somewhat water soluble, has many fxns: enzymes, hormones, membrane pumps/channels/receptors, inter and intracellular storage and transport, osmotic regulation, immune response, etc

Globular Proteins

79

This category of proteins is not water soluble, made from long polymers, maintain + add strength to cellular and matrix structure

Fibrous proteins

80

_____ proteins are mostly comprised of secondary structure

_____ proteins are mostly comprised of tertiary structure

Fibrous

Globular

81

DNA is a polymer of ______

nucleotides

82

What are the parts of a nucleotide?

Nitrogen base, five carbon sugar deoxyribose, and a phosphate group

83

What are the purines?

What are the pyrimidines?

Adenine, guanine = purines

cytosine, thymine = pyrdimidines

84

Which nitrogen base pair has 3 H-bonds?

Which has two?

C-G

A-T

85

What is the name for a nucleic acid structure which is only comprised of a sugar and nitrogen base?

nucleoside

86

DNA is comprised of two ANTIPARALLEL/PARALLEL strands of a double helix

Antiparallel

87

RNA is a polymer of nucleotides that contain ___, not ____

What nitrogen base is replaced by uracil in RNA?

ribose, not deoxyribose

Thymine (pairs with adenine)

88

Is RNA usually single or double stranded

RNA is usually single stranded

89

What are the 4 principles of cell doctrine/theory?

1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure, function, and
organization in all organisms.
3. All cells come from preexisting, living cells. 4. Cells carry hereditary information

90

This theory proposes that self-replicating ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules were precursors to current life (based on
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), RNA and proteins).

RNA world hypothesis

91

RNA STORES GENETIC INFORMATION like DNA and CATALYZES CHEMICAL REACTIONS like an ENZYME protein, so it may have played a major step in the evolution of cellular life.

RNA is unstable STABLE/UNSTABLE compared to DNA, so more likely to
participate in chemical rxns (due to its extra hydroxyl group).

RNA world hypothesis

RNA is unstable compared to DNA, due to its hydroxyl group, so it is more likely to participate in chemical reactions

92

What is the central dogma of genetics?

iological information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid;

DNA ->RNA -> proteins

93

Which type of microscopy is basic, the phase contrast doesn't kill or stain tissue?

Light microscopy

94

This type of microscopy is high magnification and resolution but kills tissue (scanning and magnification)

Electron Microscopes

95

This type of microscopy is used to observe chromosomes during mitosis

Fluorescence microscopy

96

Centrifugation spins and separates liquified cell homogenates into layers based upon

Which layer is the most dense?

What's next?

What's next?

Density

Nuclei Layer

Mitochondria

Ribosomes

97

How do catalysts accelerate the rate of a rxn?

They lower the activation energy

98

Metabolism =

catabolism + anabolism + energy transfer

99

Concentration of ___ and _____ determines which way a rxn will go

Reactants and products

100

When the rate of forward and reverse rxns is the same, there is 0 net production, and the reaction is in

Equilibrium

101

Enzymes are ___ proteins that act as catalysts

They are specific for what?

Do enzymes change after a reaction?

Do they only catalyze reactions in the forward direction?

Where do substrates bind enzymes? What occurs?

Globular

Substrate

No.

No, both forward and reverse

The substrates binds at the active site. Induced fit occurs.

102

Cofactors are nonprotein molecules that assist enzymes usually by donating or accepting some component of a
rxn like....

These are organic cofactors that usually donate or accept electrons

electrons

Coenzymes

103

Are vitamins coenzymes or metallic ions?

Inorganic cofactors are usually _____

If metal ions bind covalently, it becomes a

Coenzymes

metal ions

Prosthetic group

104

This is a common source of activation energy

How is new ATP formed (what reaction)?

ATP

Phosphorylation

105

ATP is formed from _______ + phosphate using energy from an energy rich molecule like _____

ADP

Glucose

106

Is ATP potential energy?

No, but it contains potential energy

107

These are enzymes that have both an active site for substrate binding and an allosteric site for the binding of an allosteric effector (activator or inhibitor)

Allosteric Enzymes

108

This is a substance that mimics the substrate and thereby inhibits the enzyme by binding the active site.

It's effects can be overcome by

Competitive Inhibitor

Increased substrate concentration

109

What changes with competitive enzymes?

Kmax is increased, Vmax is unaffected

110

This is a substance that inhibits enzyme binding by binding elsewhere than the active site of an enzyme, the substrate can still bind.

Noncompetitive Inhibition

111

What changes in noncompetitive inhibition?

Km is unchanged, Vmax decreases

112

This is the property of enzymes where the enzyme becomes more receptive to additional substrate molecules after one substrate molecule attaches to an active site

What class of structures is this usually seen in?

What was the example in class?

Cooperativity

Quaternary - enzymes with multiple subunits that each have an active site

Hemoglobin (NOT myoglobin)