Flashcards in Section 1: Chemistry Deck (112)
What are atoms made up of?
Neutrons, Protons, and electrons
2 or more atoms held together by chemical bonds are called...
Chemical bonds result from ____ interactions
This is the ability of an atom to attract electrons
What are the 3 bonds types?
Covalent (polar and non-polar)
This type of bond is a transfer of electrons from one atom to another due to different electronegativities
This type of bond is the sharing of electrons between atoms with similar electronegativites
This type of covalent bond is the equal sharing of electrons (identical electronegativites)
This type is the unequal sharing of electrons due to different electronegativities that forms a dipole
This type of bond is a weak bond between molecules with a hydrogen attached to a highly electronegative atom while also attracted to a negative charge on another molecule (F,O,N)
What are the 5 qualities of water?
High heat capacity
This quality of water results from dipoles of H2O being able to break up charged IONIC molecules
This is defined as the degree in which a substance changes temperature in response to gain/loss of heat
The temperature of large water bodies are very stable in response to temperature changes of surrounding air, a large amount of energy is required to warm up water. So it has a....
It also has a high heat of _____
High heat capacity
This quality of water results from water expanding as it freezes, becoming less dense then it's liquid form.
H bonds become rigid and form a crystal that keeps molecules separated
This quality of water results from attraction between LIKE substances due to H-bonds; the strong cohesion between H2O molecules produces a high...
This quality of water is due to attraction to unlike substances; capillary action; ability of liquid to flow without external forces (like against gravity)
Organic molecules have what atoms?
Macromolecules form _____ which form ______
Monomers which form polymers
How many of carbon's 6 electrons are available to form bonds with other atoms?
This functional group of organic molecules is polar and hydrophilic
This functional group of organic molecules is polar, hydrophilic, and is a weak acid
This functional group of organic molecules is polar, hydrophilic, and a weak base
This functional group is polar, hydrophilic, and are present in acidic molecules
This functional group of organic molecules is polar and hydrophilic. It can be an aldehyde or ketone
This functional group of organic molecules is nonpolar and hydrophobic
This type of biochemical structure forms monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
This type of carbohydrate is an alpha or beta sugar molecule base on position of anomeric carbon
An OH pointing up is ____
An OH pointing down is ____
This type of carbohydrate is two sugar molecules joined by a glycosidic linkage
What type of linkage occurs between saccharide molecules?
What type of reaction creates this bond?
This type of carbohydrate is a series of connected monosaccharides
They are joined by what type of synthesis?
They are broken down by....
Dehydration (loss of water from reacting molecules, forms a water molecule)
Hydrolysis (water is used and added to molecules)
This type of carbohydrate is a polymer of α-glucose molecules
Where does it store energy?
This type of carbohydrate is a polymer of α-glucose molecules, but is stored in animal molecules
How is it different from starch?
Polymer branching. Starch is branched every 30 residues and glycogen is branched every 8-12 residues
This carbohydrate is a polymer of β-glucose; structural molecule for walls of plant cells and wood
This type of carbohydrate is a polymer of β-glucose, but each one has a nitrogen containing group attached to a ring.
Where is chitin used as a structural molecule?
Fungal cell walls and exoskeleton of insects
This type of biochemical molecule is hydrophobic
Used for insulation, energy storage, structural in membrane, and endocrine system (hormones)
This is three fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol backbone
This type of triglyceride, or fatty acid, has no double bonds
This type of triglyceride or fatty acid has double bonds
Saturated fatty acid
Unsaturated fatty acid
Which have a higher boiling point, unsaturated or saturated fatty acids?
They stack more tightly(densely). They form plaques which is why they are considered unhealthy
This biochemical molecule is a lipid derivative of two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to a glycerol back bone
What term describes their hydrophobic/hydrophilic tendencies?
Ampiphatic (both hydrophilic and hydrophobic = membrane bilayer)
This biochemical molecule is a lipid derivative of three 6 membered rings and on 5 membered ring, form hormones and cholesterol
This lipid derivative is an ester of long chain fatty acids and monohydroxylic alcohols. It is used as protective coating or exoskeleton
These lipid derivatives are fatty acid carbon chains with conjugated double bonds and six membered rings at each ends
This lipid derivative produces colors in plants and animals
Carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls)
These lipids are 4 joined pyrole rings. Often complexed with a metal, like heme and iron in Hb, chlorphyll with Mg)
You should probably review what all those lipid structures look like and quiz yourself!
You know you want to.
Specialized fat cells whose cytoplasm contains nothing but triglycerides
These are similar to phospholipids but have a carbon group instead of a phosphate group
Lipids are SOLUBLE/INSOLUBLE
Since lipids are insoluble, how are they transported in the blood?
This structure is a lipid core surrounded by phospholipids and apolipoproteins
Lipoproteins (used to transport lipids in the blood)
Cell membranes need to maintain a certain degree of ______ and are capable of changing fatty acid composition to do so
In cold weather, to avoid rigidity, cells incorporate more mono and __________ fatty acids into the membrane as they have lower melting points and are more kinked to increase fluidity
In warm weather climates, cells show the opposite trend
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Which has a higher boiling point, unsaturated or saturated fatty acids?
Which has a lower melting point?
Unsaturated have higher boiling point
Unsaturated have lower melting point
Explain why unsaturated fatty acids have a higher boiling point but a lower melting point
Double bonds increase bond polarity
But a more kinked structure leads to less dense packing
What is the structure of amino acids?
hydrogen group, amine group, carboxyl group, and a variable R group
What is the storage protein in milk?
What is the storage protein in egg whites?
What is the storage protein in corn seeds?
This is the transport protein which carries oxygen around the body
These are the transport proteins which carry electrons around the body
Does ATP contain ribose or deoxyribose?
What enzyme catalyzes the reaction that breaks the the α-glycosidic bonds in starch?
These catalyze reaction in both the forward and reverse direction based upon [substrate] (the concentration of substrate)
What determines an enzyme's efficiency?
Temperature and pH
Do enzymes change the spontaneity of a reaction?
Enzymes are almost always considered to be proteins, but what else can act as an enzyme?
RNA (a nucleic acid)
These are NON PROTEIN molecules that assist enzymes
This is the term for the unioned cofactor and the enzyme
What is the term for when the protein is not combined with its cofactor?
Can cofactors be both organic and inorganic?
These are organic cofactors
These are inorganic cofactors
What is it called when a cofactor strongly bonds to an enzyme?
This classification of protein structure is one made entirely of AAs
This classification are functional and act as carriers or enzymes
These are fibrous, structural (like collagen)
These are made of a simple protein and nonprotein
Albumins and Globulins
This type of protein is bound to a lipid
This type of protein is bound to a carbohydrate
This type of protein is bound to a pigmented molecule
This type of protein is complexed around a metal ion
This type of protein contains a histone or protamine, is bound to nucleic acid
This is the structure of proteins that is the sequence of AAs
This is the structure of proteins that is the 3d shape due to H-bonding between amino and carboxyl groups of adjacent amino acids
Secondary structure (Alpha helix, beta sheet)
This is the structure of proteins that is the 3d structure due to noncovalent interactions between amino acid R groups (subunit interactions)
What are the interactions between R chains that can cause tertiary structure to form?
Van der waals
All proteins have a primary structure, and most have a secondary structure. Larger proteins can have a tertiary and quarternary structure. Of these proteins, there are two main broad categories:
Globular and Fibrous
This category of proteins is somewhat water soluble, has many fxns: enzymes, hormones, membrane pumps/channels/receptors, inter and intracellular storage and transport, osmotic regulation, immune response, etc
This category of proteins is not water soluble, made from long polymers, maintain + add strength to cellular and matrix structure
_____ proteins are mostly comprised of secondary structure
_____ proteins are mostly comprised of tertiary structure
DNA is a polymer of ______
What are the parts of a nucleotide?
Nitrogen base, five carbon sugar deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
What are the purines?
What are the pyrimidines?
Adenine, guanine = purines
cytosine, thymine = pyrdimidines
Which nitrogen base pair has 3 H-bonds?
Which has two?
What is the name for a nucleic acid structure which is only comprised of a sugar and nitrogen base?
DNA is comprised of two ANTIPARALLEL/PARALLEL strands of a double helix
RNA is a polymer of nucleotides that contain ___, not ____
What nitrogen base is replaced by uracil in RNA?
ribose, not deoxyribose
Thymine (pairs with adenine)
Is RNA usually single or double stranded
RNA is usually single stranded
What are the 4 principles of cell doctrine/theory?
1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure, function, and
organization in all organisms.
3. All cells come from preexisting, living cells. 4. Cells carry hereditary information
This theory proposes that self-replicating ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules were precursors to current life (based on
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), RNA and proteins).
RNA world hypothesis
RNA STORES GENETIC INFORMATION like DNA and CATALYZES CHEMICAL REACTIONS like an ENZYME protein, so it may have played a major step in the evolution of cellular life.
RNA is unstable STABLE/UNSTABLE compared to DNA, so more likely to
participate in chemical rxns (due to its extra hydroxyl group).
RNA world hypothesis
RNA is unstable compared to DNA, due to its hydroxyl group, so it is more likely to participate in chemical reactions
What is the central dogma of genetics?
iological information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid;
DNA ->RNA -> proteins
Which type of microscopy is basic, the phase contrast doesn't kill or stain tissue?
This type of microscopy is high magnification and resolution but kills tissue (scanning and magnification)
This type of microscopy is used to observe chromosomes during mitosis
Centrifugation spins and separates liquified cell homogenates into layers based upon
Which layer is the most dense?
How do catalysts accelerate the rate of a rxn?
They lower the activation energy
catabolism + anabolism + energy transfer
Concentration of ___ and _____ determines which way a rxn will go
Reactants and products
When the rate of forward and reverse rxns is the same, there is 0 net production, and the reaction is in
Enzymes are ___ proteins that act as catalysts
They are specific for what?
Do enzymes change after a reaction?
Do they only catalyze reactions in the forward direction?
Where do substrates bind enzymes? What occurs?
No, both forward and reverse
The substrates binds at the active site. Induced fit occurs.
Cofactors are nonprotein molecules that assist enzymes usually by donating or accepting some component of a
These are organic cofactors that usually donate or accept electrons
Are vitamins coenzymes or metallic ions?
Inorganic cofactors are usually _____
If metal ions bind covalently, it becomes a
This is a common source of activation energy
How is new ATP formed (what reaction)?
ATP is formed from _______ + phosphate using energy from an energy rich molecule like _____
Is ATP potential energy?
No, but it contains potential energy
These are enzymes that have both an active site for substrate binding and an allosteric site for the binding of an allosteric effector (activator or inhibitor)
This is a substance that mimics the substrate and thereby inhibits the enzyme by binding the active site.
It's effects can be overcome by
Increased substrate concentration
What changes with competitive enzymes?
Kmax is increased, Vmax is unaffected
This is a substance that inhibits enzyme binding by binding elsewhere than the active site of an enzyme, the substrate can still bind.
What changes in noncompetitive inhibition?
Km is unchanged, Vmax decreases