Flashcards in Section 11: Animal Forms and Functions 4 Deck (101):
The nonspecific first line of defense that offers generalized protection is the
This is the physical hostile barrier of the immune system covered with oily and acidic (pH 3-5) secretions from sweat glands
This is an antimicrobial protein (one of many) that breaks down the cell wall in bacteria (found in saliva/tears)
These line the lungs and serve to sweep invaders out
This is the stomach juice that kills most microbes
This is the bacteria in the digestive tract and vagina that outcompetes many other organisms
Part of the nonspecific 2nd line of defense, all WBCs originate from bone marrow but some multiply and become non naive in the ______
Another term for WBCs is
These type of cells engulf foreign particles/bacteria/dead or dying cells
This phagocyte functions in destruction of pathogens in infected tissues.
It is drawn to infected or injured tissuesby what process?
They slip between endothelial cells of capillary (into tissue) via
This phagocyte moves into tissues via diapedesis where they develop into macrophages, which phagocytize debris + pathogens, are a profession antigen presenting cell
These phagocytes work collectively to surround and destroy multicellular parasites
These phagocytes are responsible for the ingestion of pathogens and stimulate acquired immunity
They mainly functions as APCs that activate....
These phagocytes fxn in the allergic response, inflammatory response (histamine release), and anaphylaxis
These phagocytes release histamines for inflammatory response
Leukocytes engulf pathogens by
Neutrophils and monocytes enlarge into
Other WBCs are called _______, they attack abnormal body cells - tumors or pathogen infected cells
Natural Killer Cells (NK cells)
These help attract phagocytes to foreign cells and help destroy them by promoting cell lysis
These are secreted by cells that are invaved by viruses/pathogens that stimulate neighboring cells to produce proteins that defend against the virus
This is a series of non specific events that occur in response to a pathogen, like when skin is damaged and bacteria enters the body
During inflammation, this is released by basophils and causes vasodilation
This is defined as an increased blood supply to an area, and an increase in temperature that stimulates WBCs and can kill pathogens
What molecule is it stimulated by?
Complements help phagocytes engulf foreign cells by stimulating basophils to release _____ to help lyse foreign cells
This is the specific 3rd line of defense, it develops after the body has been attacked
The immune response targets specific
Acquired Immunity (adaptive immunity)
This is the mechanism by which the immune system is able to differentiate between self and nonself.
It is a collection of what type of molecule that exists on the membrane of cells? They are unique to individuals and can function in antigen presentation
Major Histocompatibility Complex
These are primary agents of the immune response, they are leukocytes that originate in bone marrow but concentrate in lympathic tissues such as lymph nodes, thymus gland, and spleen
These lymphocytes originate and mature in the bone marrow and respond to antigens
The plasma membrane of them contain....
B cells (B for bone)
antigen receptor antibodes (immunoglobulins)
There are 5 classes of immunoglobulins, they are...
There is variation in _____
There are constant regions and variable regions
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
Y shaped protein
Antibodies inactivate antigens upon binding, they mark for ____ or _____ phagocytosis, lysis by ___________, agglutination of antigenic substance, or chemical inactivation (if toxin)
Macrophage or NK cell
When antigen binds to a T cell, what occurs?
These are B cells that release specific antibodies that circulate in blood
These are long lived B cells that do not release antibodies in response to immediate antigen invasion; instead they circulate the body, proliferate and respond quickly to eliminate subsequent invasion by the same antigen
Proliferation in daughter B cells
Is the first or second response of an immune system against a specific pathogen faster?
The second takes less time because of memory
So in sum, ____ cells are associated with antibodies
Meanwhile, ____ cells are assoicated with foreign cells
These immune cells originate in bone marrow but mature in the THYMUS gland
T cells (T for thymus)
T cells have antigen receptors but don't make....
They check molecules displayed by nonself cells
In the thymus, if a T cells binds to a self antigen, what happens?
if not, it is released for work in ___ tissue
It is destroyed
Discrimination of self and nonself for T cells are as follows:
_____ markers on the plasma membrane of cells distinguish between self/nonself
When a body cell is invaded by a pathogen, it displays a combination of self and nonself markers. ____ cells interpret this as nonself
___ cells or _____ ______ cells are often recognized as nonself due to the combination
Cancer cells or tissue transplant cells
When T cells encounter nonself cells, they divide and produce 4 kinds of cells
These are killer T cells that recognize and destory by releasing perforin protein to puncture them (lysis)
These stimulate activation of B cells, cytotoxic T cells, and suppressor T cells
These play negative feedback role in the immune system
These have a similar fxn to memory B cells
Cytotoxic T cells
Helper T cells
Suppressor T cells
Memory T cells
These cells attack virus infected cells or abnormal body cells (tumors)
Natural Killer Cells
When an antigen binds to a B cell or when nonself binds to a T cell, they divde into daughter cells, obly B or T cell that bears the effective antigen receptor is selected and reproduces to make clones. This is called
There are two responses of the immune system
This type is effective against infected cells. Uses Mostly T cells that responds to any nonself cells, including cell invaded by pathogens.
Cell mediated Response
These cells destroy infected cells or pathogens in the cell mediated immune response
These can bind macrophages which engulf pathogens
Which then produce _____ to stimulate proliferation of T cells and B cells and macrophages
Cytotoxic T cells
Helper T cells
This immune system response responds to antigens or pathogens that circulate in the lymph or blood (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, blood toxins).
Basically which cell type is used?
In the humoral response, humor is blody fluid and the following events:
B cells produce ____ cells
B cells produce ___ cells
Macrophage and helper T cells stimule ____ cell production
General progession ---> Naive--->Mature--->Plasma----> ______
Note that antibodies are released from what type of B cell?
A single B lymphocyte produces how many different antibody types?
Only one type. Can have many of the same tho.
Humans supplement natural body defenses by:
Using chemical derived from bacteria/fungi that are harmful to other microorganisms, called
Stimulating production of memory cells from inactivated viruses or weakened bacteria, called
Transferred antibodies from another individual (ex: newborns from mother). They are acquired immediately, but are short lived and nonspecific.
This is a type of passive immunity that can confer temporary protection against hepatitis diseases, they are blood containing antibodies
The first time the immune system is exposed to an antigen, it elicits the primary response which takes ___ days to reach full potential
The first step of humoral response (during bacterial infection) is
What then engulf the bacteria?
The interstitial fluid is then rushed into the lympatic system where _____ are waiting in lymph nodes
_______es process and present antigens to
With help of ______ cells, B cells differentiate into plasma and memory cells
Macrophages + Neutrophils
Macrophages process and present antigens to B lymphocytes
T helper cells
This is the system of the body that synthesizes and secretes hormones into the bloodstream
This is the system of the body that secretes substances into ducts (gall bladder, sweat glands, oil glands, mucous, digestive, mammary glands)
What organ is both exocrine and endocrine?
This is cell signaling when a target is nearby
This is cell signaling via hormone/chemical messenger thta binds to receptors on the same cell
These are locally acting autocrine/paracrine messenger molecules that have a physiological effect (like contracting/relaxing smooth muscle)
These molecules are transported in the body by blood, a small amount has a large impact but a slower effect
This hormone type acts on surface receptors typically via secondary messengers (ex: cyclic AMP)
Where are they synthesized?
Where are they modified?
Peptide hormones are manufactured in the _______ as a larger preprohormone
It is then cleaved in the _______ to prohormone
It is cleaved again in the ______ to the final form
Peptide hormones enter the cell via _______________,
A protein stimulates the production of _________ (G-protein ---> cAMP produced from ATP, IP3produced from membrane phospholipids which triggers Ca release from RE)
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
The peptide hormones include (AP) FSH, LH, ACTH, hGH, TSH, prolactin; (PP) ADH & oxytocin; (PT) PTH; (PANCR) glucagon & insulin
These hormones are synthesized from cholesterol
Where are they synthesized?
How do they enter into cell?
Freely diffuse but require protein transport molecule to dissolve in blood; intracellular receptors
Steroid hormones enter the cell by direct stimulation: it diffuses past the plasma membrane and binds receptor in cytoplasm, the hormone and receptor are transported to the nucleus where it binds to activate a portion of
What type of hormone are the glucorticoids and mineralicortioids of the adrenal cortex? aka cortisol and aldosterone
What about estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone?
Steroids as well
These hormones are formed by enzymes
Where are they formed?
Cytosol or rough ER
These are lipid soluble tyrosine derivatives that require a protein carrier in the blood, binds to receptors in the nucleus
These are water soluble tyrosine derivatives that dissolve in the blood and bind to receptors on target tissue and mainly act via a 2nd messenger
Catecholamines (epi and norepi)
The thyroid hormones (T1 and T4) are what type of hormones
All hormones bind to receptors that are SPECIFIC/UNSPECIFIC to them
Some have receptors on almost all cells, while some have receptors only on specific tissues.
Hormone regulation can occur by increasing or decreasing the # of theose receptors in response to hormone amount
This brain part monitors the external environment and internal conditions of the body.
It contains neurosecretory cells that link it to what gland?
Regulation of the pituitary gland is POSITIVE/NEGATIVE feedback mechanisms
It also secretes releasing and inhibiting hormones. It secretes ___ and _____ to be stored in posterior pituitary
It also secretes _____ from neurons, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to release ___ and ____
ADH and Oxytocin
FSH and LH
This part of the body mainly regulates hormone production by other glands, it is itself regulated by the hypothalamus. It directly stimulates target organs and stimulates other glands.
Anterior Pituitary Gland
This direct hormone from the anterior pituitary gland stimulates bone and muscle growth, aka somatotropin
Growth Hormone (HGH)
This direct hormone of the anterior pituitary gland stimulates milk production in females
This directhormone of the anterior pituitary gland inhibits the perception of pain, is technically a neurohormone
These are hormones of the anterior pituitary that stimulate other endocrine glands
This tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary gland stimulates the adrenal cortex and releases glucocorticoids
Glucocorticoids is involved in the regulation of metabolism of ______
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
This tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary gland stimulates the thyroid gland (increases size and cell #) to release thyroid hormone (T4 and T3)
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
This tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary gland in females stimulates the formation of corpus luteum
In males it stimulates interstitial cells of testes to produce testosterone
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
This tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary gland stimulates maturation of ovarian follicles to secrete estrogen
In males it stimulates the maturation of seminefarious tubules and sperm period
Follice Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
This gland of the endocrine system does not synthesize hormones, it stores ADH and oxytocin produced by the hypothalamus
Posterior Pituitary GLand
This hormone stored in the posterior pituitary and produced in the hypothalamus increases reabsorption of water by increasing permeability of nephron's collecting duct causing water absorption and increased blood volume and pressure
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH/vasopressin)
What hormone does coffee block?
This hormone stored in the posterior pituitary gland and produced by the hypothalamus is secreted during childbirth and increases the strength of uterine contractions and stimulates milk ejection
This gland of the endocrine system secretes melatonin, which plays a role in the circadian rhythm
This gland of the endocrine system is located on the ventral surface of the trachea
What hormones does it produce?
Thyroxine and triiodothyronine (T4 and T3)
These molecules produced by the thyroid gland are necessary for growth and neurogical development in children AND increase basal metabolic rate in the body (negative feedback on TSH)
They are derived from...
T3 (thyroxine) and T4 (triiodothyronine)
This is under secretion of T4 and T3 which causes a low heart rate and respiratory rate
This oversecretion of T3 and T4 which leads to increased metabolic rate and sweating
Both lead to swelling in the neck called
This hormone of the thyroid tones down plasma Ca2+ in blood by inhibiting its release from bone.
Therefore, what bone cell does it inhibit?
This disorder of the thyroid induces dwarfism
This disorder of the thyroid causes premature aging
These are 4 pea shaped structures attached to the back of the thyroid
This hormone is antagonistic to calcitonin. It increases blood Ca2+ concentration by stimulating its release from bone
Therefore, it increases the activities of what bone cells?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
This gland is involved in the immune response
It secretes _____ that stimulate lymphocytes (WBCs) to become T cells
This gland is on top of the kidneys and consists of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla
This part of the adrenal gland only secretes steroid hormones
These hormones raise blood glucose levels (stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver) and affects fat and protein metabolism, are also the stress hormones
Glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone)
These hormones of the adrenal cortex increase the reabsorption of Na_ and excretion of K+, causing passive reabsorption of water in the nephron and a rise in blood volume/pressure
This hormone of the adrenal cortex include the male sex hormones, effect is small due to testis
Cortical sex hormones (androgens)
These hormones are produced by the adrenal medulla and are involved in the fight or flight response
They convert glycogen to glucose, vasoconstrictor to intern organs + skin but vasodilator to skeletal muscle and increase heartbeat
Catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine)
This organ is both endocrie and exocrine
It has bundles of cell which contain alpha and beta cells, the bundles are called
Islet of Landerhans
These cells which comprise the islet of landerhans in the pancreas secrete glucagon; it is catabolic, released when energy charge low and raises glucose levels. Stimulates liver to glycogen ----> glucose
These cell which comprise the islet of landerhans in the pancrease are anabolic, released when energy charge is high, lower blood glucose levels
stimulates liver cells to absorb glucose, liver and muscle cells glucose----->glycogen; fat cells: glucose ----> fat
This is released by delta cells of the pancreas, inhibits both insulin and glucagon, possibly increases nutrient absorption time
this organ in males produces testosterone, which is important for spermatogenesis and secondary sex characteristics
This organ in females produces estrogen and progesterone
This hormone is important in the mestrual cycle and pregnancy
This hormone is important in the menstrual cycle and secondary sex characteristics
This gastrointestinal hormone is released with food in the stomach, stimulates secretion of HCl
This gastrointestinal hormone is in the small intestine, when acidic food enters from the stomach it neutralizes the acidity of chime by secretion of alkaline bicarbonate
This gastrointestinal hormone is in the small intestine, when there is fats it causes contraction of the gall bladder and release of bile