Section 11: Animal Forms and Functions 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 11: Animal Forms and Functions 4 Deck (101):
1

The nonspecific first line of defense that offers generalized protection is the

Innate Immunity

2

This is the physical hostile barrier of the immune system covered with oily and acidic (pH 3-5) secretions from sweat glands

Skin

3

This is an antimicrobial protein (one of many) that breaks down the cell wall in bacteria (found in saliva/tears)

Lysozyme

4

These line the lungs and serve to sweep invaders out

This is the stomach juice that kills most microbes

Cilia

Gastric Juice

5

This is the bacteria in the digestive tract and vagina that outcompetes many other organisms

Symbiotic Bacteria

6

Part of the nonspecific 2nd line of defense, all WBCs originate from bone marrow but some multiply and become non naive in the ______

Another term for WBCs is

Lymph Node

Leukocytes

7

These type of cells engulf foreign particles/bacteria/dead or dying cells

Phagocytes

8

This phagocyte functions in destruction of pathogens in infected tissues.

It is drawn to infected or injured tissuesby what process?

They slip between endothelial cells of capillary (into tissue) via

Neutrophils

Chemotaxis

Diapedesis

9

This phagocyte moves into tissues via diapedesis where they develop into macrophages, which phagocytize debris + pathogens, are a profession antigen presenting cell

Monocytes

10

These phagocytes work collectively to surround and destroy multicellular parasites

Eosiniphils

11

These phagocytes are responsible for the ingestion of pathogens and stimulate acquired immunity

They mainly functions as APCs that activate....

Dendritic Cells

T lymphocytes

12

These phagocytes fxn in the allergic response, inflammatory response (histamine release), and anaphylaxis

Mast Cells

13

These phagocytes release histamines for inflammatory response

Basophils

14

Leukocytes engulf pathogens by

Neutrophils and monocytes enlarge into

Other WBCs are called _______, they attack abnormal body cells - tumors or pathogen infected cells

Phagocytosis

Macrophages

Natural Killer Cells (NK cells)

15

These help attract phagocytes to foreign cells and help destroy them by promoting cell lysis

Complements

16

These are secreted by cells that are invaved by viruses/pathogens that stimulate neighboring cells to produce proteins that defend against the virus

Interferons

17

This is a series of non specific events that occur in response to a pathogen, like when skin is damaged and bacteria enters the body

Inflammatory

18

During inflammation, this is released by basophils and causes vasodilation

Histamine

19

This is defined as an increased blood supply to an area, and an increase in temperature that stimulates WBCs and can kill pathogens

What molecule is it stimulated by?

Vasodilation

Histamine

20

Complements help phagocytes engulf foreign cells by stimulating basophils to release _____ to help lyse foreign cells

Histamine

21

This is the specific 3rd line of defense, it develops after the body has been attacked

The immune response targets specific

Acquired Immunity (adaptive immunity)

Antigens

22

This is the mechanism by which the immune system is able to differentiate between self and nonself.

It is a collection of what type of molecule that exists on the membrane of cells? They are unique to individuals and can function in antigen presentation

Major Histocompatibility Complex

Glycoprotein

23

These are primary agents of the immune response, they are leukocytes that originate in bone marrow but concentrate in lympathic tissues such as lymph nodes, thymus gland, and spleen

Lymphocytes

24

These lymphocytes originate and mature in the bone marrow and respond to antigens

The plasma membrane of them contain....

B cells (B for bone)

antigen receptor antibodes (immunoglobulins)

25

There are 5 classes of immunoglobulins, they are...

There is variation in _____

There are constant regions and variable regions

IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM

Y shaped protein

26

Antibodies inactivate antigens upon binding, they mark for ____ or _____ phagocytosis, lysis by ___________, agglutination of antigenic substance, or chemical inactivation (if toxin)

Macrophage or NK cell

Complement proteins

27

When antigen binds to a T cell, what occurs?

These are B cells that release specific antibodies that circulate in blood

These are long lived B cells that do not release antibodies in response to immediate antigen invasion; instead they circulate the body, proliferate and respond quickly to eliminate subsequent invasion by the same antigen

Proliferation in daughter B cells

Plasma Cells

Memory Cells

28

Is the first or second response of an immune system against a specific pathogen faster?

The second takes less time because of memory

29

So in sum, ____ cells are associated with antibodies

Meanwhile, ____ cells are assoicated with foreign cells

B cells

T cells

30

These immune cells originate in bone marrow but mature in the THYMUS gland

T cells (T for thymus)

31

T cells have antigen receptors but don't make....

They check molecules displayed by nonself cells

Antibodies

32

In the thymus, if a T cells binds to a self antigen, what happens?

if not, it is released for work in ___ tissue

It is destroyed

Lymphoid

33

Discrimination of self and nonself for T cells are as follows:

_____ markers on the plasma membrane of cells distinguish between self/nonself

When a body cell is invaded by a pathogen, it displays a combination of self and nonself markers. ____ cells interpret this as nonself

___ cells or _____ ______ cells are often recognized as nonself due to the combination

MHC

T cells

Cancer cells or tissue transplant cells

34

When T cells encounter nonself cells, they divide and produce 4 kinds of cells

These are killer T cells that recognize and destory by releasing perforin protein to puncture them (lysis)

These stimulate activation of B cells, cytotoxic T cells, and suppressor T cells

These play negative feedback role in the immune system

These have a similar fxn to memory B cells

Cytotoxic T cells

Helper T cells

Suppressor T cells

Memory T cells

35

These cells attack virus infected cells or abnormal body cells (tumors)

Natural Killer Cells

36

When an antigen binds to a B cell or when nonself binds to a T cell, they divde into daughter cells, obly B or T cell that bears the effective antigen receptor is selected and reproduces to make clones. This is called

Clonal Selection

37

There are two responses of the immune system

This type is effective against infected cells. Uses Mostly T cells that responds to any nonself cells, including cell invaded by pathogens.

Cell mediated Response

38

These cells destroy infected cells or pathogens in the cell mediated immune response

These can bind macrophages which engulf pathogens

Which then produce _____ to stimulate proliferation of T cells and B cells and macrophages

Cytotoxic T cells

Helper T cells

Interleukins

39

This immune system response responds to antigens or pathogens that circulate in the lymph or blood (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, blood toxins).

Basically which cell type is used?

Humoral Response

B cell

40

In the humoral response, humor is blody fluid and the following events:

B cells produce ____ cells
B cells produce ___ cells
Macrophage and helper T cells stimule ____ cell production
General progession ---> Naive--->Mature--->Plasma----> ______

Plasma Cells
Memory Cells
B cells

Antibody

41

Note that antibodies are released from what type of B cell?

A single B lymphocyte produces how many different antibody types?

Plasma cells

Only one type. Can have many of the same tho.

42

Humans supplement natural body defenses by:

Using chemical derived from bacteria/fungi that are harmful to other microorganisms, called

Stimulating production of memory cells from inactivated viruses or weakened bacteria, called

Transferred antibodies from another individual (ex: newborns from mother). They are acquired immediately, but are short lived and nonspecific.

Antibiotics

Vaccines

Passive Immunity

43

This is a type of passive immunity that can confer temporary protection against hepatitis diseases, they are blood containing antibodies

Gamma Globulin

44

The first time the immune system is exposed to an antigen, it elicits the primary response which takes ___ days to reach full potential

20

45

The first step of humoral response (during bacterial infection) is

What then engulf the bacteria?

The interstitial fluid is then rushed into the lympatic system where _____ are waiting in lymph nodes

_______es process and present antigens to

With help of ______ cells, B cells differentiate into plasma and memory cells

Inflammation

Macrophages + Neutrophils

Lymphocytes

Macrophages process and present antigens to B lymphocytes

T helper cells

46

This is the system of the body that synthesizes and secretes hormones into the bloodstream

Endocrine

47

This is the system of the body that secretes substances into ducts (gall bladder, sweat glands, oil glands, mucous, digestive, mammary glands)

What organ is both exocrine and endocrine?

Exocrine

Pancreas

48

This is cell signaling when a target is nearby

This is cell signaling via hormone/chemical messenger thta binds to receptors on the same cell

Paracrine

Autocrine

49

These are locally acting autocrine/paracrine messenger molecules that have a physiological effect (like contracting/relaxing smooth muscle)

Prostaglandins

50

These molecules are transported in the body by blood, a small amount has a large impact but a slower effect

Hormones

51

This hormone type acts on surface receptors typically via secondary messengers (ex: cyclic AMP)

Where are they synthesized?

Where are they modified?

Peptides

Rough ER

Golgi Apparatus

52

Peptide hormones are manufactured in the _______ as a larger preprohormone

It is then cleaved in the _______ to prohormone

It is cleaved again in the ______ to the final form

Rough ER

ER lumen

Golgi

53

Peptide hormones enter the cell via _______________,

A protein stimulates the production of _________ (G-protein ---> cAMP produced from ATP, IP3produced from membrane phospholipids which triggers Ca release from RE)

Receptor Mediated Endocytosis

2nd messengers

54

The peptide hormones include (AP) FSH, LH, ACTH, hGH, TSH, prolactin; (PP) ADH & oxytocin; (PT) PTH; (PANCR) glucagon & insulin

!

55

These hormones are synthesized from cholesterol

Where are they synthesized?

How do they enter into cell?

Steroid hormones

Smooth ER

Freely diffuse but require protein transport molecule to dissolve in blood; intracellular receptors

56

Steroid hormones enter the cell by direct stimulation: it diffuses past the plasma membrane and binds receptor in cytoplasm, the hormone and receptor are transported to the nucleus where it binds to activate a portion of

DNA

57

What type of hormone are the glucorticoids and mineralicortioids of the adrenal cortex? aka cortisol and aldosterone

What about estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone?

Steroid

Steroids as well

58

These hormones are formed by enzymes

Where are they formed?

Tyrosine Derivatives

Cytosol or rough ER

59

These are lipid soluble tyrosine derivatives that require a protein carrier in the blood, binds to receptors in the nucleus

Thyroid Hormones

60

These are water soluble tyrosine derivatives that dissolve in the blood and bind to receptors on target tissue and mainly act via a 2nd messenger

Catecholamines (epi and norepi)

61

The thyroid hormones (T1 and T4) are what type of hormones

Tyrosine derivatives

62

All hormones bind to receptors that are SPECIFIC/UNSPECIFIC to them

Some have receptors on almost all cells, while some have receptors only on specific tissues.

Hormone regulation can occur by increasing or decreasing the # of theose receptors in response to hormone amount

Highly specific

63

This brain part monitors the external environment and internal conditions of the body.

It contains neurosecretory cells that link it to what gland?

Hypothalamus

Pituitary Gland

64

Regulation of the pituitary gland is POSITIVE/NEGATIVE feedback mechanisms

It also secretes releasing and inhibiting hormones. It secretes ___ and _____ to be stored in posterior pituitary

It also secretes _____ from neurons, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to release ___ and ____

Negative Feedback

ADH and Oxytocin

GnRH

FSH and LH

65

This part of the body mainly regulates hormone production by other glands, it is itself regulated by the hypothalamus. It directly stimulates target organs and stimulates other glands.

Anterior Pituitary Gland

66

This direct hormone from the anterior pituitary gland stimulates bone and muscle growth, aka somatotropin

Growth Hormone (HGH)

67

This direct hormone of the anterior pituitary gland stimulates milk production in females

Prolactin

68

This directhormone of the anterior pituitary gland inhibits the perception of pain, is technically a neurohormone

Endorphins

69

These are hormones of the anterior pituitary that stimulate other endocrine glands

Tropic Hormones

70

This tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary gland stimulates the adrenal cortex and releases glucocorticoids

Glucocorticoids is involved in the regulation of metabolism of ______

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)

Glucose (duh)

71

This tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary gland stimulates the thyroid gland (increases size and cell #) to release thyroid hormone (T4 and T3)

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

72

This tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary gland in females stimulates the formation of corpus luteum

In males it stimulates interstitial cells of testes to produce testosterone

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

73

This tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary gland stimulates maturation of ovarian follicles to secrete estrogen

In males it stimulates the maturation of seminefarious tubules and sperm period

Follice Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

74

This gland of the endocrine system does not synthesize hormones, it stores ADH and oxytocin produced by the hypothalamus

Posterior Pituitary GLand

75

This hormone stored in the posterior pituitary and produced in the hypothalamus increases reabsorption of water by increasing permeability of nephron's collecting duct causing water absorption and increased blood volume and pressure

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH/vasopressin)

76

What hormone does coffee block?

ADH

77

This hormone stored in the posterior pituitary gland and produced by the hypothalamus is secreted during childbirth and increases the strength of uterine contractions and stimulates milk ejection

Oxytocin

78

This gland of the endocrine system secretes melatonin, which plays a role in the circadian rhythm

Pineal Gland

79

This gland of the endocrine system is located on the ventral surface of the trachea

What hormones does it produce?

Thyroid

Thyroxine and triiodothyronine (T4 and T3)

80

These molecules produced by the thyroid gland are necessary for growth and neurogical development in children AND increase basal metabolic rate in the body (negative feedback on TSH)

They are derived from...

T3 (thyroxine) and T4 (triiodothyronine)

Tyrosine

81

This is under secretion of T4 and T3 which causes a low heart rate and respiratory rate

This oversecretion of T3 and T4 which leads to increased metabolic rate and sweating

Both lead to swelling in the neck called

Hypothyroidism

Hyperthyroidism

Goiters

82

This hormone of the thyroid tones down plasma Ca2+ in blood by inhibiting its release from bone.

Therefore, what bone cell does it inhibit?

Calcitonin

Osteoclasts

83

This disorder of the thyroid induces dwarfism

This disorder of the thyroid causes premature aging

Anchondroplasia

Progeria

84

These are 4 pea shaped structures attached to the back of the thyroid

Parathyroid

85

This hormone is antagonistic to calcitonin. It increases blood Ca2+ concentration by stimulating its release from bone

Therefore, it increases the activities of what bone cells?

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Osteoclasts

86

This gland is involved in the immune response

It secretes _____ that stimulate lymphocytes (WBCs) to become T cells

Thymus

Thymosins

87

This gland is on top of the kidneys and consists of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla

Adrenal Gland

88

This part of the adrenal gland only secretes steroid hormones

These hormones raise blood glucose levels (stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver) and affects fat and protein metabolism, are also the stress hormones

Adrenal Cortex

Glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone)

89

These hormones of the adrenal cortex increase the reabsorption of Na_ and excretion of K+, causing passive reabsorption of water in the nephron and a rise in blood volume/pressure

Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)

90

This hormone of the adrenal cortex include the male sex hormones, effect is small due to testis

Cortical sex hormones (androgens)

91

These hormones are produced by the adrenal medulla and are involved in the fight or flight response

They convert glycogen to glucose, vasoconstrictor to intern organs + skin but vasodilator to skeletal muscle and increase heartbeat

Catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine)

92

This organ is both endocrie and exocrine

It has bundles of cell which contain alpha and beta cells, the bundles are called

Pancreas

Islet of Landerhans

93

These cells which comprise the islet of landerhans in the pancreas secrete glucagon; it is catabolic, released when energy charge low and raises glucose levels. Stimulates liver to glycogen ----> glucose

Alpha Cells

94

These cell which comprise the islet of landerhans in the pancrease are anabolic, released when energy charge is high, lower blood glucose levels

stimulates liver cells to absorb glucose, liver and muscle cells glucose----->glycogen; fat cells: glucose ----> fat

Beta cells

95

This is released by delta cells of the pancreas, inhibits both insulin and glucagon, possibly increases nutrient absorption time

Somatostatin

96

this organ in males produces testosterone, which is important for spermatogenesis and secondary sex characteristics

Testis

97

This organ in females produces estrogen and progesterone

This hormone is important in the mestrual cycle and pregnancy

This hormone is important in the menstrual cycle and secondary sex characteristics

Ovaries

Progesterone

Estrogen

98

This gastrointestinal hormone is released with food in the stomach, stimulates secretion of HCl

Gastrin

99

This gastrointestinal hormone is in the small intestine, when acidic food enters from the stomach it neutralizes the acidity of chime by secretion of alkaline bicarbonate

Secretin

100

This gastrointestinal hormone is in the small intestine, when there is fats it causes contraction of the gall bladder and release of bile

Cholecystokinin

101

The table on page 52 is a good summary of all of the hormones!

LOOK AT IT!!! LOOK AT IT!!!!! LOOK AT IIIIITTTTTT