Section 13: Animal Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 13: Animal Behavior Deck (49):

Behavior can be inherited through ______ (innate-molded by natural selection to increase fitness) OR learned



This is the study of behavior that seeks to explain how specific behaviors influence fitness

Behavioral Ecology


This type of reflex is an automatic 2 nerve (afferent/efferent) response to stimulus controlled @ the spinal cord (lower animals)

Simple Reflex


This type of reflex is an automatic response to a significant stimulus (controlled @ brain stem or even cerebrum)

An example of this is the startle response, which is controlled by the ________ system

Complex Reflex

Reticular activating system


This is a behavior that is innate or inherited

For example, care for offspring in mammals is done by the ___ parent




These are innate behaviors following a regular, unvarying pattern.

Fixed Action Patterns (FAP)



Fixed action patterns (FAPs) are initiated by a specific stimulus called a _______, it is completed even if the original intent of the behavior cannot be fulfilled

When the stimulus is between members of the same species, it is a

Sign Stimuli

Releaser (?)


The goose methodically rolling an egg back to the nest even if it slips away or is removed is a

The male stickleback fish defending its territory against any object with a red underside is too

The swimming actions of fish and flying actions of locusts are aw well

Fixed Action Pattern


This is an innate program for acquiring specific behavior only if an appropriate stimulus is experienced during the critical period. Once acquired, the trait it IRREVERSIBLE

Ex: Gray goslings accepting any moving object as mother during first day of life

Ex: salmon hatch in freshwater, migrate to ocean to feed, return to birthplace to breed based on imprinted
odors associated w/ birthplace



This occurs when an animal recognizes (learns) that events are connected

A specific form called _____ occurs when an animal performs a behavior in response to substituted stimulus rather than the normal stimulus

Ex: Dogs salivate when presented with food. PAVLOV bell ringing prior to food, could stimulate
salivation with bell alone

Associative Learning

Classical Conditioning (bad explanation)


An established innate reflex is a _________ stimulus (food causing salivation)

Natural response to that is the _______ response

The association of a bell with food leads to it becoming a _______ stimulus that will elicit a response even in the absensce of the unconditioned stmiulus

The product of the conditioning experience is the ____ reflex

Unconditioned stimulus

Unconditioned Response (salivation)

Conditioned Stimulus

Conditioned Reflex (salivation)


This type of associative learning is trial an error learning, it occurs when the animal connects its own behavior with an environmental response, causing the animal to repeat the behavior

The positive environmental response is also called a

If a negative/ undesirable response occurs, the animal avoids that behavior

Operant Conditioning



In operant conditioning, this is adding something good to increase a behavior

This is taking something bad away to increase a behavior

Positive reinforcement

Negative Reinforcement


This type of punishment is adding something bad to decrease a behavior

This type of punishment is taking something good away to decrease a behavior

Positive Punishment

Negative Punishment


This is another form of associative learning where an animal associates attributes of a landmark with a reward of identifying and returning to that location

Ex: Wasps able to associate pinecones with location of the nest

Spatial Learning


This is a learned behavior that allows an animal to disregard meaningless stimuli

Ex: Sea anemones disregarding repeated “feeding” stimulation with a stick

If a stimulus no longer regularly applies, the response will recover over time. This process is called


Spontaneous Recovery


This occurs when an animal copies the behavior of another without having experienced any feedback themselves

Ex: All monkeys followed lead of first by washing off potato in water

Observational Learning


This occurs when an animal exposed to a new situation without prior experience performs a behavior that generates a positive outcome

Ex: Chimpanzee stacks boxes to reach bananas previously out of reach



Some behaviors appear learned but are actually innate behaviors that require _______

Ex: (ex: bird appears to learn to fly by trial+error or observational learning,
but if raised in isolation will fly on first try if physically capable --> flight ability is innate but requires what is mentioned above



Inherited behaviors evolved because they increase _______

Imprinting, in contrast, provides ______, if a mother is killed, imprint---> new mother chosen (likely same species)




This allows individuals to benefit from exposure to unexpected repeated events.

Associative learning


This allows individuals to ignore repetitive
events known to be inconsequential from exp.  can remain focused on other, more meaningful events



These two things provide mechanism to learn new behaviors in response to unexpected events w/out receiving reinforcement --> reduces time for new behavior to be acquired

Observational and Insight


Daily cycles of behavior are ______

Circadian Rhythms


Learning involves ____ responses to the environment

In higher animals the capacity of learning is closely associated with _______ development




This is when a conditioned organism responds to stimuli similar but not identical to original conditioned stimulus.

This involves involves the ability of the learning organism to differentially respond to slightly different stimuli (e.g. only respond to 990 to 1010 Hz range)

This implies that the further from the original conditioned stimulus a stimulus is, the lesser the magnitude of the response

Stimulus Generalization

Stimulus Discrimination

Stimulus Generalization Gradient


In animal movements, this is an undirected (without direction) change in the speed on an animal's movement in response to a stimulus

Like slowing down in a favorable environment or speeding up in an unfavorable environment

Ex: animals scurrying when a rock is lifted up



This is directed movement in response to a stimulus. Movement is either towards or away from the stimulus

This is the movement towards light

Ex: moths moving toward light, sharks moving toward food odors




This is long distance, seasonal movement of animals. Usually in response to availability of food/degradation of environmental conditions

Ex: migration by whales, birds, elk, insects, and bats to warmer climates



Chemicals used for communication in animals are called

Chemicals that trigger reversible behavioral changes are called

Those that cause long term physiological and behavioral changes are called


Releaser Pheromones

Primer pheromones


Pheromones may be detected by ______ing or ______ing them

Smelling or eating them


In heat, doe secrete _____ what type of pheromones?

Queen bees and aunts secrete _______ pheromones to prevent the development of reproductive capability

Releaser pheromones

Primer Pheromones


This type of communication occurs during displays of aggression (agonistic behavior) or during courtship

Visual Communication


Wolves baring teeth or laying on back is what type of communication?



There is also audio communication like whale sounds, elephant infrasound, frog calls, and songs of male bird



This type of communication is common in social bonding, infant care, like grooming and mating

Tactile Communication


This is behavior that optimizes feeding by minimizing the energy spent and the risk

Foraging Behavior


Heds, flocks, and schools have several advantages in foraging behavior, the use ______ to carry out a behavior more successfully as a group



This benefit of herds, flocks, and schools, allows most individuals in the flock to be hidden from view

Also, in a group individuals can trade off foraging and watching for predators, called

Also, a group of individuals can shield their young or mob their predator





This type of group enables members to corner and successfully attack large prey



These help animals find favored or plentifiul food based on specific and or abbreviated target images (like spotting a police car via black and white, or a book on a shelf by the color and shape without reading title)

Search Images


This category of social behavior can be aggressive or submissive, like a dog wagging its tail. It originates from the competition for food, mates, or territory. It is ritualized so injuries and time spent in contests are minimized

Agonistic Behavior


In animal social behavior, these indicate power and status relationships in a group, and minimize fighting for food/mates

Dominance Hierarchies


This is a linear order of status used to describe the dominance hierarchy in chickens

Pecking Order


This is active possession and defense of territory, it ensures adequate food/place to mate



This is a seemingly unselfish behavior that appears to reduce fitness of an individual, like when an animal risks its safety in defense of another or in order to help another rear its young

It increases _____ fitness

Altruistic Behavior

Inclusive fitness


This is defined as the fitness of an individual plus its relatives who share some identical genes

Inclusive Fitness


This is natural selection that increases inclusive fitness

ex: Squirrels alarm when predator comes ---> risky to self but save daughters, mothers, sisters, and aunts

Kin Selection


This is another example of kin selection the ______ reproductive system of bees

MALES/FEMALES are haploid (unfertilized egg) and MALE/FEMALE workers and queen are diploid (fertilized eggs)

The MALES/FEMALES are all highly related to each other because they have the same father whose genes all come from a queen mother, inclusive fitness of them is greater if they help each other


Males are haploid

Females are diploid

The females work together to increase inclusive fitness