Section 11: Animal Forms and Functions 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 11: Animal Forms and Functions 3 Deck (85):
1

This part of the eye focuses light

This part of the eye's diameter is controlled by the iris (pigmented)

This part is controlled by cilliary muscles and focuses and image

This part of the eye has light sensitive cells

Cornea

Pupil

Lens

Retina

2

These structures in the eye are sensitive to color, for high intensity illumination

Cones

3

These structures in the eye are low intensity and are important in night vision, do not see color

The rod pigment _______ is struck by photons from light, causing hyperpolarization transduced into neural AP sent to brain

Photoreceptor cells synapse to bipolar cells ---> ______ cells -------> axions of those cells which bundle to the _______

Rods

Rhodopsin

ganglion cells

Optic nerve

4

In the eye, the point at which the optic nerve exits has no photoreceptors there, so it has a......

Blind Spot

5

This structure of the eye is densely packed with cones and is important for high acuity vision

Fovea

6

The eye has a jelly lilke part which maintains eye shape and optical properties called the

The eye also has an anterior chamber produced by the eye called the

Vitrous humor

Aqueous humor

7

This is the eye disorder of nearsightedness

This is the eye disorder of farsightedness

This is the eye disorder of an irregularly shaped cornea

This occurs when a lens becomes opaque, meaning light cannot enter

Myopia

Hyperopia

Astigmatism

Cataracts

8

This is increased pressure of the eye due to blocking of flow of the aqueous humor

Glaucoma

9

What are the three parts of the ear?

The ear transduces sound energy into....

Outer, middle and inner

impulses

10

This part of the ear has the auricle/pinna (what we think of as the ear) and the auditory canal

The ear directs sound into the external _______

Out Ear

Auditory Canal

11

This part of the ear amplifies sound sound and begins the eardrum, which vibrates at the same frequency as incoming sound

The eardrum is also called the

The middle ear sends the vibration from the eardrum to the

Middle Ear

Tympanic Membrane

Ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes)

12

This part of the ear has the wave from the ossicles move through the cochlea. The vibration of ossicles puts pressure on fluid, as the wave moves through the pressure alternates, moving the vestibular membrane in and out

This movement is detected by _______, which are actually specialized stereocilia

Those structures are a part of the _______, which transduces the neural signal into an action potential

Inner Ear

Hair Cells

Organ of Corti

13

The inner ear also has ____________ responsible for balance, which a fluid + hair cells sense orientation+motion

Semicircular canals

14

This category of contraction can result in movement, stabilization of position, movement of substances throughout the body, and generation of heat

Muscle Contraction

15

This is the basic framework of the vertebrate skeleton

These are the bones of the appendages, pectoral and pelvic girdles

Axial Skeleon

Appendicular Skeleton

16

These are immovable joints (like bones of skull)

This part of a joint forms bone-bone connections and strengthens joints

This part of a joint is muscle to bone; it bends the skeleton at moveable joints

Sutures

Ligaments

Tendons

17

This is the point of attachment of a muscle to a STATIONARY bone

This is the point of attachment of muscle to a bone that MOVES

Origin

Insertion

18

This type of movement is the straightening of a joint

This type is the bending of a joint

Extension

Flexion

19

This joint type connects bones without allowing any movement ( skull, pelvis, spinous process and vertbrae)

Fibrous Joint

20

This joint type is bones attached by cartilage, which allows a little movement

Cartilaginous Joint

21

This joint type allows for much more movement than the others

They are filled with this substance which acts as a lubricant (ex: carpals, wrist, elbow, humerus, and ulna, shoulder and hip joints, knee joint

Synovial Joint

Synovial fluid

22

The muscular system consists of contractile fibers help together by ________

Connective Tissue

23

Myofibrils are filaments divided into ______

Sarcomeres

24

Sarcomeres are individual contractile units separated by a border, called a

This part of the sarcomere stores Ca2+, and surrounds myofibrils

Z-line

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

25

This is the term for the cytoplasm of the sarcomere

This is the plasma membrane of muscle cells which can propagate an action potential

It is invaginated by ______ channels for ion flow

Sarcoplasm

Sarcolemma

T-tubules

26

This wraps several myofibrils together to form a muscle cell/fiber

This organelle is present in large amounts in myofibrils

Sarcolemma

Mitochondria

27

The sarcomere is composed of thin filaments called _____ and thick filaments called

(look at diagrams)

Thin filaments= actin

Thick filaments = myosin

28

This is the boundary of a single sarcomere that anchors thin filaments

This is the center of a sarcomere

Z line

M line

29

This is the region of a sarcomere containing thin filaments (actin)

This is the region containing thick filaments (myosin) only

This is the region with actin and myosin overlapping with one end of overlap over the other end of overlap

I band

H zone

A band

30

Which among these reduce during contraction: A band, H zone, I band

H zone and I band reduce, A does not

31

During contraction, the action potential of a neuron releases acetylcholine when it meets the neuromuscular jxn

An action potential is then generated on the sarcolemma throughout the _______

The _______ releases Ca2+

Then ________ form as a result of Ca2+ binding to troponin on actin helix

T-tubules

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

Cross bridges

32

What does ATP bind to during muscle contraction?

What is it converted to?

Ca2+ then binds to what?
Wha effect does this have?

The myosin head

ADP + Pi, which remain attached to head

Troponin

Exposes tropomyosin attachment sites

33

After Ca2+ binds troponin and exposes tropomyosin attachment sites, what forms?

What are then released?

The slidng motion of actin brings ______ together (contraction, power stroke)

What then binds to the myosin head and causes cross bridges to unbind?

Cross bridges between myosin heads and actin filaments

ADP+ Pi

Z lines

New ATP

34

Why are corpses stiff?

Can the strength of the contraction of a single muscle fiber increase?

Because there is no new ATP to release cross bridges from the myosin head

No, the overall strength of contraction increases by number of muscle fibers

35

This type of muscle response is the response of a single muscle fiber to brief stimulus

Simple Twitch

36

There are three phases of a muscle twitch

This is the time between stimulation and onset of contraction; lag

Then....

Then a period of time where the fiber is unresponsive to stimulus called

Latent Period

Contraction

Relaxion (absolute refractory period)

37

What is happening during the latent period of a muscle twitch?

AP is spreading on sarcolemma and Ca2+ ions released

38

In this type of muscle response, Contractions combine and become stronger and more prolonged

Summation (repeated APs summate)

39

In this type of muscle response, continuous sustained contraction occurs, the muscle cannot relax, will release if maintained. Rate of contraction so fast that switches blur into one smooth constant

Tetanus

40

This type of muscle response is a state of partial contraction, muscle is never completely relaxed

Tonus

41

This type of muscle is mainly involunter, has one central nucleus, and lacks striation

Is it stimuluted by autonomic nervous system of peripheral nervous system?

Smooth Muscle

Autonomic Nervous System

42

This type of muscle cell has no sarcomere organization: intermediate filaments attached to dense bodies spread throughout cell.

Thick & thin filaments attached to IFs, contract --> IF’s pull dense bodies together --> smooth muscle length shrinks

Smooth muscle

43

There are two types of smooth muscle:

THis type is visceral, connected by gap jxns, and contracts as a single unit (stomach, uterus, bladder)

This type has each fiber directly attached to a neuron so they can contract independently (iris, bronchioles, etc)

Single Unit

Multi Unit

44

In addition to neuronal response, smooth muscle can respond to...

change in pH, O2, CO2 levels, temperature, [ion]

45

This type of muscle has a striated appearance (aka sarcomeres); one or two central nuclei, with cells separated by intercalated discs that have a gap jxn to allow APs to chain flow via electrical synapse; involuntary

It hass a lot of what organelle?

Cardiac Muscle

Mitochondria

46

Both smooth and cardiac muscle are ________ - capable of contracting without stimuli from nerve cells

Myogenic

47

Muscle fibers of single muscle don’t all contract at once. Single neuron innervates multiple muscle fibers (collectively called....

Usually smaller motor units activated first, then larger ones as needed ---> smooth increase in force. Fine movement uses smaller motor units.

Motor Units

48

This skeletal muscle type has lots of myoglobin, lots of mitochondria, and is for aerobic endurance.

This type is for endurance but not as much as the above (anaerobic endurance)

This type has low myoglobin, lots of glycogen, and is used for power

Type I (slow twitch)

Type IIA (fast twitch)

Type IIB

49

Movement in these unicellular organisms uses cilia and flagella by means of power stroke and recovery stroke

Protozoans and primitive algae

50

Movement in these unicellular organisms occurs by extension of pseudopodia and the advancing cell membrane moves forward

Amoeba

51

In invertebrate locomotion, this organism has bilayered muscles, longitudinal and circular, which contract against a hydrostatic skeleton

They contraction causes hydrostatic skeleton to flow longitudinally, lengthening the animal

Flatowrms

52

Movement in this invertebrate advances by action of muscles on hydrostatic skeleton, bristles in lower part of each segment, setae, anchor them in the earth while the muscles pull ahead

Segmented worms (annelids)

53

Insect skeletons (arthropods) are exoskeletons composed of hard _______

It necessitates ________ for gorwth

Chitin

Molting (shedding)

54

Vertebrate skeletons are comprised of what type of skeleton?

Endoskeleton

55

This is avascular connective tissue, it is softer and more flexible

Cartilage (ear, nose, larynx, trachea, joints)

56

This type of cartilage is the most common, it reduces friction and absorbs shock in joints

What are the other two types?

What type of tissue and cell do these derive from?

Hyaline

Fibrocartilage and elastic

Mesenchyme--->chondrocytes--->collagen (composed mostly of collagen)

57

This connective tissue type is hard and strong while elastic and lightweight. It supports soft tissue, protects internal organs, assists in body movement, stores minerals, produces blood cells, and stores energy in adipose cells in marrow

Bone

58

These bone cells differentiate into osteoblasts

These secrete collagen and organic compounds upon which bone is formed. They are INCAPABLE of mitosis. As the matrix is released around them, they are enveloped by it, and the differentiate into osteocytes

Osteoprogenitor/Osteogenic

Osteoblasts

59

These bone cell are incapable of mitosis, exchange nutrients and waste material with blood

These bone cells reabsorb (destroy) bone matrix, releasing minerals back to blood. They develop from monocytes

Osteocytes

Osteoclasts

60

This is highly organized, dense bone that doesn’t appear to have cavities from outside

Osteoclasts burrow tunnels, called _______, throughout

They are followed by _________, which lay down new matrix into tunnel walls forming concentric rings called

Osteocytes trapped between the lamella (lacunae) exchange nutrients via

Compact bone

Haversion Canals

Osteoblasts, Lamellae

Cannaliculi

61

Haversion canals also contain blood +lymph vessels and are connected by ________

Volksmann's canals

62

An entire system in compact bone of lamellae + Haversion canals is called a

Osteon

63

Compact bone is filled with yellow bone marrow that contains ______ cells for fat storage

Adipose

64

This type of bone is less dense and consists of interconnecting lattice of bony spicules

The bony spicules are called

It is filled with this substance which is important for RBC development

Spongy (cancellous) bone

Trabeculae

Red bone marrow

65

In bone, growth occurs at cartilaginous ________ that are replaced by bone in adulthood. Bone increases in length but also in diameter along the _______

Epiphyseal plates

Diaphysis (see illustration)

66

Most of the Ca2+ in the body is stored in the bone matrix as....

Hydroxyapatite

67

During the fetal stage in bone formation, this forms cartilage

Cartilage forms

In this type of formation, undifferentiated connective tissue is replaced by bone

What type of bone does it form?

Endochondral ossification

Long Bone (long bone: limbs, fingers, toes)

Intramembranous Ossification

Flat Bone (skull, sternum, mandible, clavicles)

68

This function of the skin means that it helps regulate body temperature

It also is a physical barrier, providing

It gathers info about the environment by sensing temp, pressure, pain, and touch

Thermoregulation

Protection (abrasion, bacteria, dehydration, many chemicals, UV radiation)

Environmental Sensory Input

69

The skin is also important for _______ of salts and water

It is important for _____ because of specialized cells of the epidermis

It also holds up to 10% of blood in an adult, so it is a

It also is important in the synthesis of this vitamin because of a precursor molecule it has that is activated by UV radiation

Excretion

Immunity

Blood Reservoir

Vit D synthesis

70

This is the superficial layer of the epidermis. It is AVASCULAR epithelial tissue

Epidermis

71

What is the top down order of the layers of the epidermis

Stratum corneum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Basale (germinativum)

72

This layer of the epidermis is 25-30 dead layers of cells filled with keratin and surrounded by lipids

What makes it water repellant?

Stratum Corneum

Lamellar Granules

73

This layer of the epidermis only occurs in the palms and soles of feet and finger tips, it is 3-5 layers of clear dead cells

Stratum Lucidum

74

This layer of the epidermis is 3-5 layers of DYING cells, lamellar bodies release hydrophobic lipids

Stratum Granulosum

75

This layer of the epidermis gives it strength and flexibility, 8-10 layers held together by demosomes (keratin involving adhesin proteins)

Stratum Spinosum

76

This layer of the epidermis contains Merkel cells and stem cells that divide to produce keratinocytes

These cells are pushed to the top layer of the epidermis where they accumulate keratin and die and slough off the body (lose cytoplasm nucleus, other organelles beforehand)

Stratum basale (germinitivum)
-attached by basement membrane

Keratinocytes

77

These cells of the epidermis produce the protein keratin that helps waterproof the skin

Keratinocytes

78

These cells of the epidermis transfer the skin pigment melanin to keratinocytes

Melanocytes

79

These cells of the epidermis interact with helper T cells of the immune system

Langerhans Cells

80

These cells of the immune system attach to sensory neurons and fxn in touch sensation

Merkel Cells

81

This layer of the skin is primarily connective tissue of collagen and elastic fibers ; contains hair follicles, glands, nerves, and blood vessels

This is the top 20% of it

This is the dense connective tissue layer of collagen and elastic fibers with oil glands, sweat gland ducts, fat and hair follicles

Dermis

Papillary region

Reticular Region

82

This layer of the skin is not actually part of the skin, it is areolar and adipose tissue for fat storage and has pressure sensing nerve endings and provides the passage for blood vessels

Hypodermis

83

These glands of the skin are connected to hair follicles and are absent in palms and soles

Sebaceous (oil) glands

84

These sweat glands of the body regulate temperature through perspiration and eliminate urea

These are found in arppits, pubic region, and nipples, the secretions are more viscous

Eccrine

Apocrine

85

This glands of the skin are found in the ear canal and produce wax like material as barrier to entrance

These excrete breast milk

Ceruminous (wax) glands

Mammary Glands