Flashcards in Section 11: Animal Forms and Functions 3 Deck (85)
This part of the eye focuses light
This part of the eye's diameter is controlled by the iris (pigmented)
This part is controlled by cilliary muscles and focuses and image
This part of the eye has light sensitive cells
These structures in the eye are sensitive to color, for high intensity illumination
These structures in the eye are low intensity and are important in night vision, do not see color
The rod pigment _______ is struck by photons from light, causing hyperpolarization transduced into neural AP sent to brain
Photoreceptor cells synapse to bipolar cells ---> ______ cells -------> axions of those cells which bundle to the _______
In the eye, the point at which the optic nerve exits has no photoreceptors there, so it has a......
This structure of the eye is densely packed with cones and is important for high acuity vision
The eye has a jelly lilke part which maintains eye shape and optical properties called the
The eye also has an anterior chamber produced by the eye called the
This is the eye disorder of nearsightedness
This is the eye disorder of farsightedness
This is the eye disorder of an irregularly shaped cornea
This occurs when a lens becomes opaque, meaning light cannot enter
This is increased pressure of the eye due to blocking of flow of the aqueous humor
What are the three parts of the ear?
The ear transduces sound energy into....
Outer, middle and inner
This part of the ear has the auricle/pinna (what we think of as the ear) and the auditory canal
The ear directs sound into the external _______
This part of the ear amplifies sound sound and begins the eardrum, which vibrates at the same frequency as incoming sound
The eardrum is also called the
The middle ear sends the vibration from the eardrum to the
Ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes)
This part of the ear has the wave from the ossicles move through the cochlea. The vibration of ossicles puts pressure on fluid, as the wave moves through the pressure alternates, moving the vestibular membrane in and out
This movement is detected by _______, which are actually specialized stereocilia
Those structures are a part of the _______, which transduces the neural signal into an action potential
Organ of Corti
The inner ear also has ____________ responsible for balance, which a fluid + hair cells sense orientation+motion
This category of contraction can result in movement, stabilization of position, movement of substances throughout the body, and generation of heat
This is the basic framework of the vertebrate skeleton
These are the bones of the appendages, pectoral and pelvic girdles
These are immovable joints (like bones of skull)
This part of a joint forms bone-bone connections and strengthens joints
This part of a joint is muscle to bone; it bends the skeleton at moveable joints
This is the point of attachment of a muscle to a STATIONARY bone
This is the point of attachment of muscle to a bone that MOVES
This type of movement is the straightening of a joint
This type is the bending of a joint
This joint type connects bones without allowing any movement ( skull, pelvis, spinous process and vertbrae)
This joint type is bones attached by cartilage, which allows a little movement
This joint type allows for much more movement than the others
They are filled with this substance which acts as a lubricant (ex: carpals, wrist, elbow, humerus, and ulna, shoulder and hip joints, knee joint
The muscular system consists of contractile fibers help together by ________
Myofibrils are filaments divided into ______
Sarcomeres are individual contractile units separated by a border, called a
This part of the sarcomere stores Ca2+, and surrounds myofibrils
This is the term for the cytoplasm of the sarcomere
This is the plasma membrane of muscle cells which can propagate an action potential
It is invaginated by ______ channels for ion flow
This wraps several myofibrils together to form a muscle cell/fiber
This organelle is present in large amounts in myofibrils
The sarcomere is composed of thin filaments called _____ and thick filaments called
(look at diagrams)
Thin filaments= actin
Thick filaments = myosin
This is the boundary of a single sarcomere that anchors thin filaments
This is the center of a sarcomere
This is the region of a sarcomere containing thin filaments (actin)
This is the region containing thick filaments (myosin) only
This is the region with actin and myosin overlapping with one end of overlap over the other end of overlap
Which among these reduce during contraction: A band, H zone, I band
H zone and I band reduce, A does not
During contraction, the action potential of a neuron releases acetylcholine when it meets the neuromuscular jxn
An action potential is then generated on the sarcolemma throughout the _______
The _______ releases Ca2+
Then ________ form as a result of Ca2+ binding to troponin on actin helix
What does ATP bind to during muscle contraction?
What is it converted to?
Ca2+ then binds to what?
Wha effect does this have?
The myosin head
ADP + Pi, which remain attached to head
Exposes tropomyosin attachment sites
After Ca2+ binds troponin and exposes tropomyosin attachment sites, what forms?
What are then released?
The slidng motion of actin brings ______ together (contraction, power stroke)
What then binds to the myosin head and causes cross bridges to unbind?
Cross bridges between myosin heads and actin filaments
Why are corpses stiff?
Can the strength of the contraction of a single muscle fiber increase?
Because there is no new ATP to release cross bridges from the myosin head
No, the overall strength of contraction increases by number of muscle fibers
This type of muscle response is the response of a single muscle fiber to brief stimulus
There are three phases of a muscle twitch
This is the time between stimulation and onset of contraction; lag
Then a period of time where the fiber is unresponsive to stimulus called
Relaxion (absolute refractory period)
What is happening during the latent period of a muscle twitch?
AP is spreading on sarcolemma and Ca2+ ions released
In this type of muscle response, Contractions combine and become stronger and more prolonged
Summation (repeated APs summate)
In this type of muscle response, continuous sustained contraction occurs, the muscle cannot relax, will release if maintained. Rate of contraction so fast that switches blur into one smooth constant
This type of muscle response is a state of partial contraction, muscle is never completely relaxed
This type of muscle is mainly involunter, has one central nucleus, and lacks striation
Is it stimuluted by autonomic nervous system of peripheral nervous system?
Autonomic Nervous System
This type of muscle cell has no sarcomere organization: intermediate filaments attached to dense bodies spread throughout cell.
Thick & thin filaments attached to IFs, contract --> IF’s pull dense bodies together --> smooth muscle length shrinks
There are two types of smooth muscle:
THis type is visceral, connected by gap jxns, and contracts as a single unit (stomach, uterus, bladder)
This type has each fiber directly attached to a neuron so they can contract independently (iris, bronchioles, etc)
In addition to neuronal response, smooth muscle can respond to...
change in pH, O2, CO2 levels, temperature, [ion]
This type of muscle has a striated appearance (aka sarcomeres); one or two central nuclei, with cells separated by intercalated discs that have a gap jxn to allow APs to chain flow via electrical synapse; involuntary
It hass a lot of what organelle?
Both smooth and cardiac muscle are ________ - capable of contracting without stimuli from nerve cells
Muscle fibers of single muscle don’t all contract at once. Single neuron innervates multiple muscle fibers (collectively called....
Usually smaller motor units activated first, then larger ones as needed ---> smooth increase in force. Fine movement uses smaller motor units.
This skeletal muscle type has lots of myoglobin, lots of mitochondria, and is for aerobic endurance.
This type is for endurance but not as much as the above (anaerobic endurance)
This type has low myoglobin, lots of glycogen, and is used for power
Type I (slow twitch)
Type IIA (fast twitch)
Movement in these unicellular organisms uses cilia and flagella by means of power stroke and recovery stroke
Protozoans and primitive algae
Movement in these unicellular organisms occurs by extension of pseudopodia and the advancing cell membrane moves forward
In invertebrate locomotion, this organism has bilayered muscles, longitudinal and circular, which contract against a hydrostatic skeleton
They contraction causes hydrostatic skeleton to flow longitudinally, lengthening the animal
Movement in this invertebrate advances by action of muscles on hydrostatic skeleton, bristles in lower part of each segment, setae, anchor them in the earth while the muscles pull ahead
Segmented worms (annelids)
Insect skeletons (arthropods) are exoskeletons composed of hard _______
It necessitates ________ for gorwth
Vertebrate skeletons are comprised of what type of skeleton?
This is avascular connective tissue, it is softer and more flexible
Cartilage (ear, nose, larynx, trachea, joints)
This type of cartilage is the most common, it reduces friction and absorbs shock in joints
What are the other two types?
What type of tissue and cell do these derive from?
Fibrocartilage and elastic
Mesenchyme--->chondrocytes--->collagen (composed mostly of collagen)
This connective tissue type is hard and strong while elastic and lightweight. It supports soft tissue, protects internal organs, assists in body movement, stores minerals, produces blood cells, and stores energy in adipose cells in marrow
These bone cells differentiate into osteoblasts
These secrete collagen and organic compounds upon which bone is formed. They are INCAPABLE of mitosis. As the matrix is released around them, they are enveloped by it, and the differentiate into osteocytes
These bone cell are incapable of mitosis, exchange nutrients and waste material with blood
These bone cells reabsorb (destroy) bone matrix, releasing minerals back to blood. They develop from monocytes
This is highly organized, dense bone that doesn’t appear to have cavities from outside
Osteoclasts burrow tunnels, called _______, throughout
They are followed by _________, which lay down new matrix into tunnel walls forming concentric rings called
Osteocytes trapped between the lamella (lacunae) exchange nutrients via
Haversion canals also contain blood +lymph vessels and are connected by ________
An entire system in compact bone of lamellae + Haversion canals is called a
Compact bone is filled with yellow bone marrow that contains ______ cells for fat storage
This type of bone is less dense and consists of interconnecting lattice of bony spicules
The bony spicules are called
It is filled with this substance which is important for RBC development
Spongy (cancellous) bone
Red bone marrow
In bone, growth occurs at cartilaginous ________ that are replaced by bone in adulthood. Bone increases in length but also in diameter along the _______
Diaphysis (see illustration)
Most of the Ca2+ in the body is stored in the bone matrix as....
During the fetal stage in bone formation, this forms cartilage
In this type of formation, undifferentiated connective tissue is replaced by bone
What type of bone does it form?
Long Bone (long bone: limbs, fingers, toes)
Flat Bone (skull, sternum, mandible, clavicles)
This function of the skin means that it helps regulate body temperature
It also is a physical barrier, providing
It gathers info about the environment by sensing temp, pressure, pain, and touch
Protection (abrasion, bacteria, dehydration, many chemicals, UV radiation)
Environmental Sensory Input
The skin is also important for _______ of salts and water
It is important for _____ because of specialized cells of the epidermis
It also holds up to 10% of blood in an adult, so it is a
It also is important in the synthesis of this vitamin because of a precursor molecule it has that is activated by UV radiation
Vit D synthesis
This is the superficial layer of the epidermis. It is AVASCULAR epithelial tissue
What is the top down order of the layers of the epidermis
Stratum Basale (germinativum)
This layer of the epidermis is 25-30 dead layers of cells filled with keratin and surrounded by lipids
What makes it water repellant?
This layer of the epidermis only occurs in the palms and soles of feet and finger tips, it is 3-5 layers of clear dead cells
This layer of the epidermis is 3-5 layers of DYING cells, lamellar bodies release hydrophobic lipids
This layer of the epidermis gives it strength and flexibility, 8-10 layers held together by demosomes (keratin involving adhesin proteins)
This layer of the epidermis contains Merkel cells and stem cells that divide to produce keratinocytes
These cells are pushed to the top layer of the epidermis where they accumulate keratin and die and slough off the body (lose cytoplasm nucleus, other organelles beforehand)
Stratum basale (germinitivum)
-attached by basement membrane
These cells of the epidermis produce the protein keratin that helps waterproof the skin
These cells of the epidermis transfer the skin pigment melanin to keratinocytes
These cells of the epidermis interact with helper T cells of the immune system
These cells of the immune system attach to sensory neurons and fxn in touch sensation
This layer of the skin is primarily connective tissue of collagen and elastic fibers ; contains hair follicles, glands, nerves, and blood vessels
This is the top 20% of it
This is the dense connective tissue layer of collagen and elastic fibers with oil glands, sweat gland ducts, fat and hair follicles
This layer of the skin is not actually part of the skin, it is areolar and adipose tissue for fat storage and has pressure sensing nerve endings and provides the passage for blood vessels
These glands of the skin are connected to hair follicles and are absent in palms and soles
Sebaceous (oil) glands
These sweat glands of the body regulate temperature through perspiration and eliminate urea
These are found in arppits, pubic region, and nipples, the secretions are more viscous