Flashcards in Section 10: Seed Plants Deck (102):
Seed plants include _____ and _______
Gymnosperms (conifers) and angiosperms (flowering Plants)
Angiosperms are divided into two groups
These are dicots
These are monocots
This is storage tissue that provides nutrition to developing seeding
______ have 2 cotyledons
___ have 1 cotyldeon
This is the pattern of veins in leaves
This is the pattern in dicots (branching patter)
This is the pattern in monocots
Netted (branching pattern)
This is the number of petals, stamens sepals, and other parts of a flower
These have 4s, 5s, or multiples
These have 3s or multiples
This is the arrangement of vascular tissues (xylem+Phloem) in stems
These are scattered
These are organized in a circle
The form of the roots varies between dicots and monocots as well.
These have a taproot, aka single large root
These have a fibrous system, aka many fine roots
In plant tissues, three different kinds of these which differ by the nature of cell walls
This ground tissue of plants is most common, they have thin walls used for storage, photosynthesis and secretion
This ground tissue of plants has a thick but flexible cell wall, serves mechanical and support functions
This ground tissue of plants is thicker than the others, provides mechanical support
Plants have dermal tissue
This covers the outside of plant parts and guards cells that surround somata, hair cells, stinging cells, and glandular cells
Aerial parts of plants have epidermal cells that secrete a waxy protective substance called
This tissue of plants consists of xylem of phloem which form bundles
Vascular Tissues (form vascular bundles)
This vascular tissue of plants is important in the conduction of water and minerals, and plays a role in mechanical support
How many cell walls does it have?
Some places in the walls have absences of a second cell wall, called
At maturity, the cells of it are
There are two kinds of xylem cells
These are long and tapered where water passes from one to another through pits
These are shorter and wider, have less or no taper at ends.
A column of vessel elements (xylem cell type) is called a
These are where H2O passes through from one vessel member to the next (lack both 1st and 2nd cell wall). They are an advantage to tracheids
This vascular tissue of plants transports sugar.
It's made of these cells that form fluid-conducting columns
The columns are called
Sieve tube members
Are sieve tube members (cells) living or dead at maturity?
But they lack two things
Pores on the end of each member form areas where the cytoplasm of one cell makes contact with the next cell, called
Nuclei and Ribosomes
Sieve tubes are associated with living parenchyma that lie adjacent to each sieve tube member, called
They are connected by
The seed of plants consists of three things
Storage material (two types)
There are two types of storage material in seeds, what are they?
Endosperm or cotyledons
There are two cotyledons in ______ (pea)
There is one cotyledon in ____ (corn)
This part of the embryo becomes the shoot tip and is the top portion of the embryo
This part of the embryo is the young leaves often attached to the epicotyl, epicotyl can refer to both together
This part of the embryo becomes the young shoot, it is below the epicotyl and attached to cotyledons
This part of the embryo develops from hypocotyls into root
This part of the embryo is a sheath in monocots that surrounds and protects the epicotyl.
In developing young plants, they emerge first as a
The seed is dormant at maturity until specific environment cues (water, temp, light, seed coat damage) trigger _____
Germination begins with _______ (absorption) of ______
This triggers ____ to begin the process of respiration
Absorbed water causes seed coat to crack, growing tips of _____ produce roots that anchor seeding
This causes the elongation of the
Imbibition of water
In a young seedling, growth occurs at tips of roots and shoots, called the _____; actively dividing cells
This kind of growth is called ___ growth
Apical Meristems (meristematic cells)
Primary Growth (produces primary tissues, 1st xylem and 1st phloem ----> height)
This is the root tip in germination and development, it protects the apical meristem behind
This is formed from dividing cells of the apical meristem
These are the newly formed cells which absorb water and elongate
This is where differentiation ocurs, cells mature into xylem, phloem, parenchyma, or epidermal cells (root hairs may grow here
Zone of cell division
Zone of elongation
Zone of maturation
These are areas in plants where mitosis occurs, due to cell division, it is also where growth occurs
These can be at the tip of lateral growth in the plant
These are responsible for vertical growth and found at root and shoot (apex) tips
Conifers and woody dicots undergo ____ growth in addition to 1st growth. It is the origin of woody plant tissues
What does second growth increase?
Where does is occur?
This is the second xylem and phloem
Thisis the periderm protective material that lines the outside of a woody plant
At the 2 lateral meristems
In the primary structure of roots, this is the outside surface of the root.
In the zone of ________, epidermal cell produce ____
When the that zone ages, the structures they produce die!
New epidermal cells from the zone of _____ becomes cell of new zone of maturatoin
Maturation; root hair
This part makes up the bulk of the root, storage of starch, contains intercellular spaces providing aeration of cells for respiration
This is a ring of tightly packed cells at the inner most portion of the cortex in roots
A band of fatty material (suberin) called _____ creates water impenetrable barrier between cells
Therefore, all water passing through the endodermis must pass through endodermal cells and not between cells, controlling the movement of water
This part of the root makes up tissues inside the endodermis (phloem, xylem, pericycle). The outer part consists of one or several layers of cells
This is the part from which the lateral root arise, inside of it is vascular tissue
Vascular Cylinder (stele)
In DICOTS/MONODICOTS, xylem cells fill the center of the vascular cylinder, shape X with phloem in the spaces of X
In DICOTS/MONOCOTS, groups of phloem and xylem alternate in a ring with the pith in the middle
Look at picture/diagrams!
Does the primary structure of stems have endodermins?
No need for water absorption
This part of the stem contains epidermal cells covered with waxy substance which forms a protective layer called a _______
The waxy substance is
This part of the stem is the ground tissue types that lies between epidermis and the vascular cylinder (many contain chloroplasts)
This part of the stem consists of xylem, phloem, and pith.
In dicots, this is a single layer of cells between the xylem (inside) and phloem (outside) that may remain undifferentiated and later be created
In the secondary structure of stems and roots, this part of the stem becomes a cylinder of tissue that extends the length of the stem and root
Secondary growth occurs in a
The cambium layer is meristematic, producing new cells on both the inside and outside of the ______
Cells on the inside of the vascular cambium differentiate into the 2nd _______
Those on the outside develop into the 2nd ______
Over years, the 2nd _____ accumulates and increases girth of stem and root
Outside of the cambium layer, the new 2nd phloem are added yearly and pushes tissue outward. These tissue include ______ tissue (epidermis and cortex) which break apart and shed
In order to replace shed cells, _____ produces new cells on the outside, cork cells impregnated with suberin
On the inside, _____ may be produced.
Together, they are called
In dicots, __________ originates from the cortex and root, it originates from the pericycle
This is formed from xylem tissues at maturity (dead).
Only the recent ones remain active to transport water, these cells are called
Older xylem cells are located at the center and function only as support, these cells are called
In wood, these result from the alternation of grwoth (active vascular cambium divides) and dormancy due to season in secondary xylem tissue.
The size of the ring tells you...
The number of rings tells you..
Age of the tree
In the structure of the leaf, this is the protective part that is covered with cuticle
The cuticle reduces water loss through evaporation, aka
Leaves may bear _____, aka hair, scales and glands
This part of the leaf consists of parenchyma cells with chloroplasts and large surface area
What is is specialized for?
It's oriented at the upper surface, but in dry areas it's on both surfaces!
This part of the leaf is parenchyma cells loosely arranged below the palisade mesophyll. There are numerous intercellular chambers for air chambers for CO2
This part of the leaf is specialized epidermal cells that control the opening and closing of stomata, allowing gas exchange
This part of the leaf consists of xylem (water for photosyntehsis) and phloem (sugar and by product transport to other parts of plants from photosynthesis)
This structure surrounds it, so non of it is exposed to the intercellular space so no air bubbles that enter can impede the movement of water. Also provides anaerobic environment for CO2 fixation in C4 plant
Bundle Sheath Cell
In the transport of water in plants, water enters through root hairs by ______
There are two ways water can enter root hairs by osmosis
One has water move through cell walls and intercellular spaces from one to another without ever entering cells. This pathway is called ____, which means the nonliving portion of the cell
There are two ways water can enter root hairs by osmosis
Water can move through the cytoplasm of one cell to another through small tubes that connect cytoplasms of adjacent cells, called
The living portion of the cell is called the
In the transportation of water, once H2O reaches it endodermis, it can only enter by _______
This is due to ________
It enters into the _____ which is selectively permeable
Once through the endodermis, the _____ pathway takes over to reach the xylem
This process moves water from soil through root and into xylem by a gradient (continuous movement of water out of root by xylem, and high mineral content inside stele)
Osmotic force (root pressure) can be seen as ______, which is formation of small droplets of sap on ends of leaves in the morning
This is the rise of liquids in narrow tubes which contributes to the movement of H2O up the xylem
What forces does it result from?
What forms at the top of the water column? It is NOT present in an active Xylem
Adhesion (molecular attraction between unlike substances) between the water and tube
Most water movement in plants is explained by this, it is the MAJOR contributor (above two are minimal)
This concept is part of the cohesion tension theory, the evaporation of water froms plants removes water from leaves causing _____ (tension) to develop within leaves and xylem.
This process is known as
This concept is part of the cohesion theory, the attraction between like substances; within xylem cells they behave as a single polymer like molecule
Part of the cohesion theory, when a water molecule is lost from a leaf by transpiration, it pulls up behind an entire column of water molecules (generated by transpiration, which itself is caused by heat action of the sun)
When stomata are closed , CO2 iS AVAILABLE/UNAVAILABLE to enter leaf
Therefore, photosynthesis CAN/CANNOT occur
When stomata are open, CO2 is AVAILABLE/UNAVAILABLE to enter leaf
Therefore, photosynthesis CAN/CANNOT occur
Two of these surround the stomata, their cell walls are thicker when they border the stomata. They expand when water diffuses in
Due to the irregular thickness and radical shape, the sides with thinner cell walls expand creating an opening called a ______. Water diffuses out and the kidney shape collapses and the stoma closes
In high high temps, are stomata open or closed?
If there is a low concentration of CO2 inside the cells of the plant, are the stomata open or closed?
Stomata are open during the DAT/NIGHT. Why?
CO2 is low during daylight because it is used by photosyntehsis. CO2 levels are high at night because of respiration
In the opening of the stomata, what diffuses into the guard cell to create a gradient causing more water to move in?
This creates an unbalanced charged state. ____ can come in or ______ gets pumped out
Cl- can come in
or H+ can get pumped out
In the transport of sugars, this is the movement of carbohydrate through the phloem from a source to sink
What is the source?
The sink is wherever carbs are utilized
In translocation, sugars enter __________
Sugars are SOLUBLE/INSOLUBLE, move from site of production (palisade mesophyl) to the above structures in the phloem
What type of transport does this occur by?
There is a high solute concentration at the SOURCE/SINK and a low solute concentration at the SOURCE/SINK
There is a high solute concentration at the SOURCE and a low solute concentration at the SINK
In translocation, where does water enter and how?
Sievetube members as well, by osmosis
________ in sieve-tube members at source moves water and sugars to sieve-tube members at sink through sieve tubes:
When water enters do the rigid cell walls expand?
Water and sugar move by _____ through plates between siebe tubees
No! this creates pressure
At the sink, pressure is reduced in sieve tube members in the sink as sugars are used by nearby cells.
How are the removed?
This increases the concentration of ____ in the sink
Water. It then diffuses out of the cell to relieve pressure
Cells in plants store energy as insoluble ________
What is the benefit of this?
Any cell can act as a sink and get the sugar and water transported there. Also, by breaking down starch, any cell can act as a source
This is a plant hormone that promotes plant growth (aka the elongation of cells)
It increases the concentration of _____ in primary cell walls
This activates enzymes which loosen ____ fiber, increasing cell wall plasticity, turgor pressure expands cells to grow
Where is it produced?
What AA is it a modification of?
Auxin (IAA-indoleacetic acid)
Apical meristem (tips of roots and shoots)
Auxin (IAA-indoleacetic acid) is actively transported from cell to cell in a specific direction by means of ______
These hormones in plants promote cell growth (flower and stem elongation) and the inhibition of aging in leaves, promote fruit developmenr and seed germination
High concentrations of them cause ____, which is rapid elongation of stems
These stimulate cytokineses, stimule organogenesis, stimulate growth of lateral buds, delay senescence of leaves. They include zeratin and kinetin
Structurally, they are variations of
Adenine (nitrogen base)
This is delayed by cytokinins, it is the aging of leaves
This is the development of organs and tissues that is stimulated by cytokinins
This hormone is important in the ripening of fruit, production of flowers, and influences leaf abcission.
Together with ______, it can inhibit the elongation of roots, stems, and leaves
This is senescence and dropping of leaves
This plant hormone is a growth inhibitor, in buds it delays growth and forms scales, maintains dormancy
Maintenance can be broken by an increase in _____ or mechanistic response to environmental cues
Abscisic acid (ABA)
This is the term for a growth pattern that occurs in response to an environmental stimulus (since plants can't move)
This is the growth pattern that occurs in response to light
What hormone achieves this?
How does it move down the zone of elongation to generate growth?
Auxin (produced in apical meristem)
For a stem to grow straight via phototropism, all sides of the apical meristem must be equally
When they are not, auxin moves towards which side?
Shady side so it bends toward light
This is growth in response to gravity by stems and roots (auxin and gibberellins)
If the stem is horizontal, auxin concentrates on which side?
If the root it horizontal, auxin is produced where?
The lower side to bend the stem upward
It moves up in the root and concentrates on lower side, however, auxin inhibits growth in roots due to higher  at root than
Note: Dissolved ions, auxins, gibberellins, and other hormones do not directly respond to gravity. But what insoluble molecule does?
It is believed that specialized starch storing plastids called ______ settle at the lower ends of cells and somehow influence the direction of auxin movement
This is growth in response to touch (vines on surface)
This is the response of plants to changes in photoperiod (relative length of daylight and night)
Plants maintain a clock that measures the length of daylight and night, called the
This is an internal clock that continues to keep time even if external cues are absent. What is the term for this type of process?
What reset the clock for accuracy?
External cues (dawn, dusk)
This is a protein modified with a light absorbing chromophore.
There are two forms which are reversible, what are they?
When Pr is exposed to red light, what happens?
Opposite happens if Pfr is exposed to far red light
Pfr becomes the active form of phytochrome (and vice versa)
Which is the synthesized phytochrome form in plant cells, Pr of Pfr?
Where is it synthesized?
In the leaves
During the daylight, Pr and Pfr are ________
At night, what accumulates?
in equilibrium. Red light is present as sunlight and far red is also present (Pfr---> Pr and Pr--->Pfr)
At daybreak, light rapidly converts accumulated ____ (phytochrome) to ______ (phytochrome)
Pr to Pfr to achieve equilibrium
Night length is responsible for resetting the internal clock.
Red flashes cause longer/shorter night length?
Far red flashes cause longer/shorter night length?
Red shortens night length
Far red restores night length
The flowering response is initiated in plants due to the
When do long day plants flower?
Spring and early summer when daylight is increasing
Late summer and early fall when daylight is decreasing
Do not flower in response to daylight changes but temp or water
When flowering is initiated, this flowering hormone is produced in leaves and travels to shoot tips
Red ti far red ratio is measured by _____ to sense quality of light (i.e. if it is being shaded by other plants)
In C3 plants, CO2 levels are relatively HIGH/LOW in leaves when photosynthesis is active during the day when stomata is open.
It is the opposite for night when stomata are closed
High at night