Section 10: Seed Plants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 10: Seed Plants Deck (102):
1

Seed plants include _____ and _______

Gymnosperms (conifers) and angiosperms (flowering Plants)

2

Angiosperms are divided into two groups

These are dicots

These are monocots

Dicotyledons

Monocotyledons

3

This is storage tissue that provides nutrition to developing seeding

______ have 2 cotyledons

___ have 1 cotyldeon

Cotyledons

Dicots

Monocots

4

This is the pattern of veins in leaves

This is the pattern in dicots (branching patter)

This is the pattern in monocots

Leaf venation

Netted (branching pattern)

Parallel

5

This is the number of petals, stamens sepals, and other parts of a flower

These have 4s, 5s, or multiples

These have 3s or multiples

Flowering Parts

Dicots

Monocots

6

This is the arrangement of vascular tissues (xylem+Phloem) in stems

These are scattered

These are organized in a circle

Vascular Bundles

Monocots

Dicots

7

The form of the roots varies between dicots and monocots as well.

These have a taproot, aka single large root

These have a fibrous system, aka many fine roots

Dicots

Monocots

8

In plant tissues, three different kinds of these which differ by the nature of cell walls

Ground Tissues

9

This ground tissue of plants is most common, they have thin walls used for storage, photosynthesis and secretion

Parenchyma

10

This ground tissue of plants has a thick but flexible cell wall, serves mechanical and support functions

Collenchyma

11

This ground tissue of plants is thicker than the others, provides mechanical support

Sclerenchyma

12

Plants have dermal tissue

This covers the outside of plant parts and guards cells that surround somata, hair cells, stinging cells, and glandular cells

Epidermis

13

Aerial parts of plants have epidermal cells that secrete a waxy protective substance called

Cuticle

14

This tissue of plants consists of xylem of phloem which form bundles

Vascular Tissues (form vascular bundles)

15

This vascular tissue of plants is important in the conduction of water and minerals, and plays a role in mechanical support

How many cell walls does it have?

Some places in the walls have absences of a second cell wall, called

At maturity, the cells of it are

Xylem

2

Pits

Dead

16

There are two kinds of xylem cells

These are long and tapered where water passes from one to another through pits

These are shorter and wider, have less or no taper at ends.

tracheids

Vessel elements

17

A column of vessel elements (xylem cell type) is called a

These are where H2O passes through from one vessel member to the next (lack both 1st and 2nd cell wall). They are an advantage to tracheids

Vessel

Perforations

18

This vascular tissue of plants transports sugar.

It's made of these cells that form fluid-conducting columns

The columns are called

Phloem

Sieve tube members

Sieve Tubes

19

Are sieve tube members (cells) living or dead at maturity?

But they lack two things

Pores on the end of each member form areas where the cytoplasm of one cell makes contact with the next cell, called

Living

Nuclei and Ribosomes

Sieve Plates

20

Sieve tubes are associated with living parenchyma that lie adjacent to each sieve tube member, called

They are connected by

Companion Cells

Plasmodesmata

21

The seed of plants consists of three things

Embryo

Seed Coat

Storage material (two types)

22

There are two types of storage material in seeds, what are they?

Endosperm or cotyledons

23

There are two cotyledons in ______ (pea)

There is one cotyledon in ____ (corn)

dicots

monocots

24

This part of the embryo becomes the shoot tip and is the top portion of the embryo

Epicotyl

25

This part of the embryo is the young leaves often attached to the epicotyl, epicotyl can refer to both together

Plumule

26

This part of the embryo becomes the young shoot, it is below the epicotyl and attached to cotyledons

Hypocotyl

27

This part of the embryo develops from hypocotyls into root

Radicles

28

This part of the embryo is a sheath in monocots that surrounds and protects the epicotyl.

In developing young plants, they emerge first as a

Coleoptiles

Leaf

29

The seed is dormant at maturity until specific environment cues (water, temp, light, seed coat damage) trigger _____

germination

30

Germination begins with _______ (absorption) of ______

This triggers ____ to begin the process of respiration

Absorbed water causes seed coat to crack, growing tips of _____ produce roots that anchor seeding

This causes the elongation of the

Imbibition of water

enzymes

Radical

Hypocotyl

31

In a young seedling, growth occurs at tips of roots and shoots, called the _____; actively dividing cells

This kind of growth is called ___ growth

Apical Meristems (meristematic cells)

Primary Growth (produces primary tissues, 1st xylem and 1st phloem ----> height)

32

This is the root tip in germination and development, it protects the apical meristem behind

This is formed from dividing cells of the apical meristem

These are the newly formed cells which absorb water and elongate

This is where differentiation ocurs, cells mature into xylem, phloem, parenchyma, or epidermal cells (root hairs may grow here

Root Cap

Zone of cell division

Zone of elongation

Zone of maturation

33

These are areas in plants where mitosis occurs, due to cell division, it is also where growth occurs

These can be at the tip of lateral growth in the plant

These are responsible for vertical growth and found at root and shoot (apex) tips

Meristems

Lateral Meristems

Apical Meristems

34

Conifers and woody dicots undergo ____ growth in addition to 1st growth. It is the origin of woody plant tissues

What does second growth increase?

Where does is occur?

This is the second xylem and phloem

Thisis the periderm protective material that lines the outside of a woody plant

2nd growth

Girth

At the 2 lateral meristems

Vascular Cambium

Cork Cambium

35

In the primary structure of roots, this is the outside surface of the root.

In the zone of ________, epidermal cell produce ____

When the that zone ages, the structures they produce die!

New epidermal cells from the zone of _____ becomes cell of new zone of maturatoin

Epidermis

Maturation; root hair

Elongation

36

This part makes up the bulk of the root, storage of starch, contains intercellular spaces providing aeration of cells for respiration

Cortex

37

This is a ring of tightly packed cells at the inner most portion of the cortex in roots

A band of fatty material (suberin) called _____ creates water impenetrable barrier between cells

Therefore, all water passing through the endodermis must pass through endodermal cells and not between cells, controlling the movement of water

Endodermis

Casparian Strip

38

This part of the root makes up tissues inside the endodermis (phloem, xylem, pericycle). The outer part consists of one or several layers of cells

This is the part from which the lateral root arise, inside of it is vascular tissue

Vascular Cylinder (stele)

Pericycle

39

In DICOTS/MONODICOTS, xylem cells fill the center of the vascular cylinder, shape X with phloem in the spaces of X

In DICOTS/MONOCOTS, groups of phloem and xylem alternate in a ring with the pith in the middle

Look at picture/diagrams!

Dicots

Monocot

40

Does the primary structure of stems have endodermins?

Casparian strips?

Why not?

No

No

No need for water absorption

41

This part of the stem contains epidermal cells covered with waxy substance which forms a protective layer called a _______

The waxy substance is

Epidermis

Cuticle

fatty cutin

42

This part of the stem is the ground tissue types that lies between epidermis and the vascular cylinder (many contain chloroplasts)

Cortex

43

This part of the stem consists of xylem, phloem, and pith.

In dicots, this is a single layer of cells between the xylem (inside) and phloem (outside) that may remain undifferentiated and later be created

Vascular Cylinder

Vascular Cambium

44

In the secondary structure of stems and roots, this part of the stem becomes a cylinder of tissue that extends the length of the stem and root

Secondary growth occurs in a

The cambium layer is meristematic, producing new cells on both the inside and outside of the ______

Vascular Cambium


Stem

Cambium Cylinder

45

Cells on the inside of the vascular cambium differentiate into the 2nd _______

Those on the outside develop into the 2nd ______

Over years, the 2nd _____ accumulates and increases girth of stem and root

Xylen

Phloem

Xylem

46

Outside of the cambium layer, the new 2nd phloem are added yearly and pushes tissue outward. These tissue include ______ tissue (epidermis and cortex) which break apart and shed

In order to replace shed cells, _____ produces new cells on the outside, cork cells impregnated with suberin

On the inside, _____ may be produced.

Together, they are called

Primary Tissue

Cork Cambium

Cork Cells

Phelloderm

Periderm

47

In dicots, __________ originates from the cortex and root, it originates from the pericycle

Cork Cambium

48

This is formed from xylem tissues at maturity (dead).

Only the recent ones remain active to transport water, these cells are called

Older xylem cells are located at the center and function only as support, these cells are called

Wood

Sapwood

Heartwood

49

In wood, these result from the alternation of grwoth (active vascular cambium divides) and dormancy due to season in secondary xylem tissue.

The size of the ring tells you...

The number of rings tells you..

Annual Rings

Rainfall history

Age of the tree

50

In the structure of the leaf, this is the protective part that is covered with cuticle

The cuticle reduces water loss through evaporation, aka

Leaves may bear _____, aka hair, scales and glands

Epidermis

Transpiration

Trichomes

51

This part of the leaf consists of parenchyma cells with chloroplasts and large surface area

What is is specialized for?

It's oriented at the upper surface, but in dry areas it's on both surfaces!

Palisade Mesophyll

Photosynthesis

52

This part of the leaf is parenchyma cells loosely arranged below the palisade mesophyll. There are numerous intercellular chambers for air chambers for CO2

Spongy Mesophyll

53

This part of the leaf is specialized epidermal cells that control the opening and closing of stomata, allowing gas exchange

Guard Cells

54

This part of the leaf consists of xylem (water for photosyntehsis) and phloem (sugar and by product transport to other parts of plants from photosynthesis)

This structure surrounds it, so non of it is exposed to the intercellular space so no air bubbles that enter can impede the movement of water. Also provides anaerobic environment for CO2 fixation in C4 plant

Vascular Bundle

Bundle Sheath Cell

55

In the transport of water in plants, water enters through root hairs by ______

Osmosis

56

There are two ways water can enter root hairs by osmosis

One has water move through cell walls and intercellular spaces from one to another without ever entering cells. This pathway is called ____, which means the nonliving portion of the cell

Apoplast

57

There are two ways water can enter root hairs by osmosis

Water can move through the cytoplasm of one cell to another through small tubes that connect cytoplasms of adjacent cells, called

The living portion of the cell is called the

Plasmodesmata

Symblast

58

In the transportation of water, once H2O reaches it endodermis, it can only enter by _______

This is due to ________

It enters into the _____ which is selectively permeable

Once through the endodermis, the _____ pathway takes over to reach the xylem

Symblast

Casparian Strips

Vascular Cylinder

Apoplast

59

This process moves water from soil through root and into xylem by a gradient (continuous movement of water out of root by xylem, and high mineral content inside stele)

Osmosis

60

Osmotic force (root pressure) can be seen as ______, which is formation of small droplets of sap on ends of leaves in the morning

Guttation

61

This is the rise of liquids in narrow tubes which contributes to the movement of H2O up the xylem

What forces does it result from?

What forms at the top of the water column? It is NOT present in an active Xylem

Capillary Action

Adhesion (molecular attraction between unlike substances) between the water and tube

Meniscus

62

Most water movement in plants is explained by this, it is the MAJOR contributor (above two are minimal)

Cohesion-tension theory

63

This concept is part of the cohesion tension theory, the evaporation of water froms plants removes water from leaves causing _____ (tension) to develop within leaves and xylem.

This process is known as

Negative pressure

Transpiration

64

This concept is part of the cohesion theory, the attraction between like substances; within xylem cells they behave as a single polymer like molecule

Cohesion

65

Part of the cohesion theory, when a water molecule is lost from a leaf by transpiration, it pulls up behind an entire column of water molecules (generated by transpiration, which itself is caused by heat action of the sun)

Bulk Flow

66

When stomata are closed , CO2 iS AVAILABLE/UNAVAILABLE to enter leaf

Therefore, photosynthesis CAN/CANNOT occur

Unavailable

Cannot

67

When stomata are open, CO2 is AVAILABLE/UNAVAILABLE to enter leaf

Therefore, photosynthesis CAN/CANNOT occur

Available

Can occur

68

Two of these surround the stomata, their cell walls are thicker when they border the stomata. They expand when water diffuses in

Due to the irregular thickness and radical shape, the sides with thinner cell walls expand creating an opening called a ______. Water diffuses out and the kidney shape collapses and the stoma closes

Guard Cells

stoma

69

In high high temps, are stomata open or closed?

If there is a low concentration of CO2 inside the cells of the plant, are the stomata open or closed?

Stomata are open during the DAT/NIGHT. Why?

Closed

Open

Day

CO2 is low during daylight because it is used by photosyntehsis. CO2 levels are high at night because of respiration

70

In the opening of the stomata, what diffuses into the guard cell to create a gradient causing more water to move in?

This creates an unbalanced charged state. ____ can come in or ______ gets pumped out

K+

Cl- can come in

or H+ can get pumped out

71

In the transport of sugars, this is the movement of carbohydrate through the phloem from a source to sink

What is the source?

The sink is wherever carbs are utilized

Translocation

Leaves

72

In translocation, sugars enter __________

Sugars are SOLUBLE/INSOLUBLE, move from site of production (palisade mesophyl) to the above structures in the phloem

What type of transport does this occur by?

There is a high solute concentration at the SOURCE/SINK and a low solute concentration at the SOURCE/SINK

sieve-tube members

Soluble

Active transport

There is a high solute concentration at the SOURCE and a low solute concentration at the SINK

73

In translocation, where does water enter and how?

Sievetube members as well, by osmosis

74

________ in sieve-tube members at source moves water and sugars to sieve-tube members at sink through sieve tubes:

When water enters do the rigid cell walls expand?

Water and sugar move by _____ through plates between siebe tubees

Pressure

No! this creates pressure

Bulk flow

75

At the sink, pressure is reduced in sieve tube members in the sink as sugars are used by nearby cells.

How are the removed?

This increases the concentration of ____ in the sink

Active transport

Water. It then diffuses out of the cell to relieve pressure

76

Cells in plants store energy as insoluble ________

What is the benefit of this?

Starch

Any cell can act as a sink and get the sugar and water transported there. Also, by breaking down starch, any cell can act as a source

77

This is a plant hormone that promotes plant growth (aka the elongation of cells)

It increases the concentration of _____ in primary cell walls

This activates enzymes which loosen ____ fiber, increasing cell wall plasticity, turgor pressure expands cells to grow

Where is it produced?

What AA is it a modification of?

Auxin (IAA-indoleacetic acid)

H+

Cellulose

Apical meristem (tips of roots and shoots)

tryptophan

78

Auxin (IAA-indoleacetic acid) is actively transported from cell to cell in a specific direction by means of ______

chemiosmosis

79

These hormones in plants promote cell growth (flower and stem elongation) and the inhibition of aging in leaves, promote fruit developmenr and seed germination

High concentrations of them cause ____, which is rapid elongation of stems

Gibberellins (GA)

Bolting

80

These stimulate cytokineses, stimule organogenesis, stimulate growth of lateral buds, delay senescence of leaves. They include zeratin and kinetin

Structurally, they are variations of

Cytokinins

Adenine (nitrogen base)

81

This is delayed by cytokinins, it is the aging of leaves

This is the development of organs and tissues that is stimulated by cytokinins

Senescence

organogenesis

82

This hormone is important in the ripening of fruit, production of flowers, and influences leaf abcission.

Together with ______, it can inhibit the elongation of roots, stems, and leaves

Ethylene

Auxin

83

This is senescence and dropping of leaves

Leaf Abcission

84

This plant hormone is a growth inhibitor, in buds it delays growth and forms scales, maintains dormancy

Maintenance can be broken by an increase in _____ or mechanistic response to environmental cues

Abscisic acid (ABA)

Gibberellins (GA)

85

This is the term for a growth pattern that occurs in response to an environmental stimulus (since plants can't move)

Tropism

86

This is the growth pattern that occurs in response to light

What hormone achieves this?

How does it move down the zone of elongation to generate growth?

Phototropism

Auxin (produced in apical meristem)

Active Transport

87

For a stem to grow straight via phototropism, all sides of the apical meristem must be equally

When they are not, auxin moves towards which side?

Illuminated

Shady side so it bends toward light

88

This is growth in response to gravity by stems and roots (auxin and gibberellins)

If the stem is horizontal, auxin concentrates on which side?

If the root it horizontal, auxin is produced where?

Gravitropism

The lower side to bend the stem upward

Apical Meristem

It moves up in the root and concentrates on lower side, however, auxin inhibits growth in roots due to higher [] at root than



89

Note: Dissolved ions, auxins, gibberellins, and other hormones do not directly respond to gravity. But what insoluble molecule does?

It is believed that specialized starch storing plastids called ______ settle at the lower ends of cells and somehow influence the direction of auxin movement

Starch

Statliths

90

This is growth in response to touch (vines on surface)

Thigmotropism

91

This is the response of plants to changes in photoperiod (relative length of daylight and night)

Plants maintain a clock that measures the length of daylight and night, called the

This is an internal clock that continues to keep time even if external cues are absent. What is the term for this type of process?

What reset the clock for accuracy?

Photoperiodism

circadian rhythm

Endogenous mechanism

External cues (dawn, dusk)

92

This is a protein modified with a light absorbing chromophore.

There are two forms which are reversible, what are they?

Phytochrome

Pr (P660-red)

Pfr(P730-far red)

93

When Pr is exposed to red light, what happens?

Opposite happens if Pfr is exposed to far red light

Pfr becomes the active form of phytochrome (and vice versa)

94

Which is the synthesized phytochrome form in plant cells, Pr of Pfr?

Where is it synthesized?

Pr

In the leaves

95

During the daylight, Pr and Pfr are ________

At night, what accumulates?

in equilibrium. Red light is present as sunlight and far red is also present (Pfr---> Pr and Pr--->Pfr)

Pr

96

At daybreak, light rapidly converts accumulated ____ (phytochrome) to ______ (phytochrome)

Pr to Pfr to achieve equilibrium

97

Night length is responsible for resetting the internal clock.

Red flashes cause longer/shorter night length?

Far red flashes cause longer/shorter night length?

Red shortens night length

Far red restores night length

?

98

The flowering response is initiated in plants due to the

When do long day plants flower?

Short day?

Day-neutral?

Photoperiod

Spring and early summer when daylight is increasing

Late summer and early fall when daylight is decreasing

Do not flower in response to daylight changes but temp or water

99

When flowering is initiated, this flowering hormone is produced in leaves and travels to shoot tips

Florigen

100

Red ti far red ratio is measured by _____ to sense quality of light (i.e. if it is being shaded by other plants)

Phytochrome

101

In C3 plants, CO2 levels are relatively HIGH/LOW in leaves when photosynthesis is active during the day when stomata is open.

It is the opposite for night when stomata are closed

Low

High at night

102

In CAMP plants, stomata are closed during the day but photosynthesis proceeds because CO2 is supplied by metabolic conversion of...

Malic acid