Section 9: Biological Diversity Flashcards Preview

DAT Bio > Section 9: Biological Diversity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Section 9: Biological Diversity Deck (147):
1

Organisms are classified into categories called

A species is given a name consisting of a ______ (closely related animal) name and ___ name

The study of classifying organisms into categories is

Taxa

Genus name and species

Taxonomy

2

Domesticated dog is

Wolf is

Canis familiaris

Canis lupis

3

These are genera that share related features

What is the order of arrangement of classification?

Family

Dumb Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Salad

Species <= Domains.

4

This is the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms (aka phylogeny among organisms)

Systematics

5

EUKARYOTIC/PROKARYOTIC cells contain long, linear DNA with histone encolsed in a nucleus, have organelles, 9+2 microtubule array for flagella and cillia

Eukaryotic

6

EUKARYOTIC/PROKARYOTIC cells have a single chromosome is short, circular DNA with/without histone; may contain plasmid; no nucleus; noorganelles; flagella consist of chains of protein FLAGGELIN instead of "9 + 2" microtubules.

Prokaryotes

7

What do flagella use to spin and give locomotion in bacteria?

Proton Motive Force (electrical gradient)

8

These organisms manufacture their own organic materials using light or chemicals like H2S, NH3, NO2, NO3

Autotrophs

9

These organisms obtain energy by consuming organic materials produced by autotrophs

This specific subtype obtains energy from dead decaying matter (they are the decomposers)

Heterotrophs

Saprobes

10

These organisms must have O2 to live

These must not be in the presence of O2 to live

These grow in the presence of O2, but can switch to anaerobic metabolism when O2 is absent

Obligate aerobes

Obligate anaerobes

Facultative anaerobes

11

Domain Archea are EUKARYOTES/PROKARYOTES but differ from them.

Prokaryotes

12

Archeal cell walls contain ______

Bacteria contain

Plants contain

Fungi contain

Polysaccharide

Peptidoglycan

Cellulose

Chitin

13

In archea, phospholipid components such as ___ are different (isomer of either bacteria or eukaryotes)

Hydrocarbon chain is BRANCHED/UNBRANCHED

What type of linkages are there for the hydrocarbon chains?

Glycerol

Branched (straight chained for others)

Ether-linkages (not ester linkages)

14

DNA of both archea AND eukaryotes are associated with ___, no bacterial DNA

histones

15

Is the ribosome activity of archea inhibited by the antibiotics streptomycin and chloramphenicol?

No, bacteria are tho, This is another way archea are similar to eukaryotes

16

This is a group of archea that are obligate anaerobes that produce CH4 as a by product of obtaining energy from H2 to fix CO2 (mud, guts)

Methanogens

17

These archeas live in extreme environments

Extremophiles

18

These archea are salt lovers, they survive in high salt environments.

Mostly aerobic or anaerobic?

Autotrophic or heterotrophic?

Halophiles

Mostly Aerobic

Mostly Heterotrophic

19

Other anaerobic and photosynthetic halophiles have this pigment?

Bacteriorhopodsin

20

These are heat loving arechea and are sulfur based (chemoautotrophs!)

Thermophiles

21

How many kingdoms comprise the bacteria domain?

Bacteria are distinct from archea and eukaryotes how?

5

Cell Wall (peptidogycan)

bacterial DNA is not associated with histone

Ribosome activity is inhibitied by streptomycin and chloramphenicol

22

This is a polymer of monosaccharide with amino acid

Peptidoglycan (forms bacterial cell walls)

23

Bacteria has the ability to produce this, which are resistant bodies that contain DNA and a small amount of cytoplasm surrounded by a durable wall

Endospore

24

The means of bacteria are unique, they use _____ which produce a _____ motion to glide through slime material

Flagella, corkscrew motion

25

These are the three shapes of bacteria

Spherical

Rod shaped

Spirals

Cocci (spherical)

Bacilli (rod shaped)

Spirilla (spirals)

26

This type of bacterial cell wall is a thick peptidoglycan wall

Gram positve

27

This type of bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan covered with lipopolysaccharides

Gram negative

28

This common group of bacteria is photosynthetic, releases O2, and contains an accessory pigment

The specialized pigment is called

They also have these specialized cells which produce nitrogen fixing enzyme into NH3

Cyanobacteria

Phycobilins

heterocysts

29

Are cyanobacteria photosynthetic?

What molecule do they release?

Yes

O2

30

These bacteria are autotrophs, that are nitrifying bacteria NO2-->NO3

Chemosynthetic

31

This common bacteria are heterotrohps that fix N2, they live in the nodules of plants

What type of relationship do they have with plants?

Nitrogen Fixing

Mutualism

32

This common bacteria is coiled and moves with a corkscrew motion, internal flagella between cell wall layers

Spirochetes

33

How many kingdoms are there in the eukarya domain?

4

34

This kingdom of eukaryotes is an artificial kingdom that is poorly understood.

The algaelike (plant like) members of this group all obtain energy by

Protisa

Photosynthesis

35

These algaelike members of protista have one to three flagella at apical (leading) end; instead of a cellulose wall, thing proteins strips wrap over cell membranes

What are the thin protein strips called?

Euglenoids

Pellicles

36

In the absence of light, are euglenoids heterotrophic or atuotrophic?

Some have an eyespot that permits the ability to move in response to light, called

Heterotrophic

Phototaxis

37

This plant algae like member of protista has two flagella, on is posterior and the 2nd is transverse and rests in encircling mid groove perpendicular to first flagellum

Dinoflagellates

38

Some dinoflagellates are _____, which means that they produce light

Others produce a ___ toxin that concentrates in filter feeding shellfish, causes illness to humans when they are eaten

Bioluminescent

Nerve Toxin

39

These algaelike members of protista have a test (shell) that fits together like a box with a lid

What molecule do they contain?

Diatoms

SiO2

40

This algae like member of protista is multicellular and has flagellated sperm cells (like giant seaweed)

Brown Algae

41

This algaelike like protista is red algae (red accessory pigments phycobilins), they are multicellular gametes and do NOT have flagella

Rhodophyta

42

This algae like protisa is green algae, they have both chlorophyl a and b, cellulose cell walls, and store energy in starch.

Chlorophyta

43

Some chlorophyta species have a gamete where both sperm and egg are equal in size and are motile, called ____ gametes

Others have sperm and eggs that difrer in size, called ____ gametes

Others can have a large cell that remains with the parent and is fertilized by a small/motile sperm, called ______ gametes

Isogamous Gametes

Anisogamous Gametes

Oogamous

44

A lineage of chlorophytes that are believed to be the ancestor of plants...

Charophytes

45

This group is animals like protists that are heterotrophs and unicellular eukaryotes

Protozoa

46

This protozoan is an amoeba that moves by extensions of their cell body. They encircle their food for phagocytosis

These extensions are called

Rhizopoda

Pseudopodia

47

These protozoans are also known as forams, they have tests (shells) usually made of calcium carbonate

What do these shells produce which is important in industry?

Foraminifera

Oil deposits

48

These protozoans are parasites of animals, they have an apical complex, no physical motility, and form spores which are dispersed by hosts that complete their life cycle

What disease is caused by one?

What is the name?

Apicocomplexans

Malaria

Sporozoan (mosquitoes, remember from microbio?

49

Theseprotozoans use cilia for moving and other functions; mouths pores, contractile vacuoles, two kinds of nuclei,

What is the most complex of all cells?

Ciliates

Paramecim

50

This are a genus of protoza, they are shapeless and unicellular

Amoebas

51

There are fungus like protists that resemble fungi,

This one has both funguslike and protozalike characteristics, spores germinate into amoebas which feed on bacteria, when there is no food, amoebas aggregate unto single units

The single units are individual cells of slug mobilized into a stalk with a capsule at the top to release spores--> it germinates and repeats the cycle. The unit is called a

Cellular Slime Molds

Slug

52

These fungus like protists are a single, spreading mass feeding on decaying vegetation.

Then there is no food, stalks bearing spore ____ form, HAPLOID/DIPLOID spores released from it germinate into HAPLOID/DIPLOID amoeboid/flagellated cells

They fuse to form HAPLOID/DIPLOID cells

Then they grow into ____, not mutualistic with others

Plasmodial Slime Molds

Capsules

Haploid, haploid

Diploid cells

Plasmodium (single, spreading masses)

53

This fungus like protist is in water molds, white rusts. They can be parasites or saprobes; the form filaments which secrete enzymes that digest surrounding substances like fungi

They contain many nuclei within a single cell

What are their cell walls made of?

Oomycota

Cellulose

54

Found in oomycota, these get nutrition from nonliving/decaying organic matter

These are also in oomycotas, they are filaments which secret enzymes that digest surrounding substances like fungi

Sabrobes

Hyphae

55

Hyphae (found in oomycotas), lack a crosswall which in in true fungi that partitions filaments into comparments, called

The term for lacking septa is

Septa

Coenocytic

56

In this Kingdom, fungi grow as filaments called

This is the term for a mass of hyphae

Kingdom Fungi

filaments called hyphae

Mycellium

57

Some fungi have ______ which divide filament (hyphae) into compartments containing a single nucleus

Septum

58

The cell walls of fungi are made of this N-containing polysaccharide

Chitin

59

Fungi are either ___ or ______

They absorb food products due to digestive ___

Parasites or Saprobes (decomposers)

enzymes

60

Parasitic fungi have hyphae that penetrate its host, they are called

Haustoria

61

In the stages of sexual reproduction of fungi, the first step is the fusing of cells from two different fungal strains to produce a single cell with the nuclei of both strains. This step is called

A pair of DIPLOID/HAPLOID nuclei

This is the term for a fungus with two nuclei inside one compartment

Plasmogamy

Haploid

Dikaryon (dikaryotic hypha is hypha containing dikaryon)

62

The second step of sexual reproduction in fungi is the fusing of two haploid nuclei of a dikaryon to form a single diploid nucleus

Karyogamy

63

The final stage of sexual reproduction of fungi has the diploid nucleus restoring haploid conditions; daughter cells develop into haploid spres which germinate into haploid hyphae (has 1 fungal strain) which merge into dikaryon and repeat

Meiosis

64

In the stages of asexual reproduction of fungi, the first step is breaking up the hyphae

The second step is small hypal outgrowth

The last step can be two different types of

Fragmentation

Budding

Asexual spores

65

This type of asexual fungal spore is produced in capsules that are each borne on a stalk

The capsules are called

The stalks are called

Sprongiospores

Sporangia

Sporangiophore

66

This type of asexual reproduction is formed at tips of specialized hyphae, it is not enclosed inside a sac; Has hyphae bearing conidia

The hyphae carrying condida are called

Conidia

Conidiophores

67

How many fungus groups are there?

What goes at the end of the name?

Six

-mycota (division) or -mycete (classes)

68

This division of fungi lacks septa, except filaments border reproductive filaments

They reproduce SEXUALLY/ASEXUALLY by fusion of hyphae from different strains and the following steps

Haploid _____ are produced which germinate into new hyphae

Ex: bread molds

Zygomycota

Sexually

Zygospores

69

This division of fungi lacks septa, but does not produce zygospores. They have mutualistic associations with roots of plants, the plants provide carbs, the fungus increases the ability of plants to absorb nutrients

The roots of plants are called

The nutrient they often help absorb is

Glomeromycota

Mycorrhizae

Phosphorous

70

This division of fungi has septa they reproduce sexually, producing haploid____

After plasmogamy of hyphae from different strains, dikaryotic hypha produces more filaments by ____

Karyogamy and meiosis occurs in terminal hypal

Ascomycota

ascospores

mitosis

71

In ascomycota, 4 haploid cells divide by ___ to produce 8 haploid cells in a sac called...

They are grouped together in a fruiting body called

An example of this is

Mitosis

Ascus

Ascocarp

Yeast

72

This division of fungi has septa and reproduces sexually by producing haploid basidiospores.

Plasmogamy, then mitosis, then a fruiting body called ___ such as a mushroom

Karyogamy occurs in terminal hypal cells called _____

This is followed by meiosis to produce how many haploid basidiospores

Basidiomycota

Basidiocarp

Basidia

4 haploid basidiospores

73

This division of fungi is imperfect fungi, an artificial group (no sexual reproductive cycle)

What is an important example of this?

Deuteromycota

Penicillium produces penicillin

74

This division of fungi has mutualistic assocations with algae, usually chlorophyta/cyanobacteria provide carbs.

The algae can also provide ______ if it fixes it

The fungus, called the _____, provides water and protection from UV light or toxic chemical for grazers (aka from the environment

Lichens

Nitrogen

Ascomycete

75

This next kingdom has adaptation for survival on land

Kingdom Plantae

76

The dominant generation of the kingdom plantae is the _______ ______ generation, it provides two copies against genetic damage

Except these...

Diploid sporophyte generation

Primitive bryophytes - mosses, liverworts, and hornworts

77

This is the waxy covering of plants that reduces dessication (drying up/water loss)

Cuticle

78

The vascular system of plants reduces depency of ________

This led to the formation of....

water (cells no longer need to be close to it)

Specialized tissues (true leaves, true stems, true roots)

79

The term for water transport in plants is

The term for sugar transport in plants is

Xylem

Phloem

80

In ADVANCED/PRIMITIVE plant divisions, flagellated sperm require water to swim to eggs

In ADVANCED/PRIMITIVE plant divisions (coniferophyta and anthophyta), sperm is packaged as pollen (delivered by wind)

Primitive

Advanced

81

This group of plants has gametophytes that are enclosed (protected) inside an ovary

Anthophyta (largest group of plants)

82

Plants have various ______ of season variations in availability of water and light

Some plants are ____ meaning they shed leaves to prevent water loss through slow growing seasons

Adaptations

Deciduous

83

This plant division encompasses the mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.

Gametes are produced in protective structures on gametophytes called ______

Dominant _____ stage of life cycle in them

Bryophytes

Gamtangia

Haploid

84

Male gametangium in bryophytes produces flagellated sperm that swim through water, the male gametangium are called

The female gametangium called _______, produces egg,

The zygote grows into a HAPLOID/DIPLOID structure still connected to the gametophyte

Antheridium

Archegonium

Diploid

85

In mosses (bryophytes), the diploid structure is a stalk bearing ____ which contains HAPLOID/DIPLOID sores produced by meiosis

The spores are dispersed by wind and germinate and grow into HAPLOID/DIPLOID gametophytes which produces the antheridium and archegonium

Capsules

Haploid

Haploid gametophytes

86

Do bryophytes have true structures?

Therefore it must remain in

No true roots, leaves true stems (lacks vascular tissues)

It must remain in water

87

The other major plant divisions (non bryophytes) are vascular plants with true roots, leaves, stems. The word for this type of plant is

Tracheophyte

88

The dominant generation of tracheophes is a...

DIploid zygote in sporophyte, produced by germination of antheridium and archegonium

89

These division of plants includes club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts (herbaceous plants)

Club and spike mosses produce clusters of spore-bearing sporangia in a conelike structure called

Spike mosses can recover from a dead appearance after being watered, they are called a

Lycophyta

Strobili

Resurrection Plant (there are others)

90

There are three groups of this division called ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns

Pterophyta

91

This group of pterophyta produces clusters of sporangia that develop on the undersurface of fern fronds

The clusters of sporangia are called

The spores are formed from MEIOSIS/MITOSIS

Ferns

Sori

Meiosis

92

This group of pterophyta includes extinct woody trees; hollow, ribbed stems that are jointed at nodes, strobili bear spores

Stems, branches, and leaves are green (photosynthetic) and have rough texture due to silica (SiO2)

Horsetails

93

this group of pterophyta has branching stems without roots. Leaves are reduced to small appendages or are absent.

Absence of roots/leaves is considered

Whisk Ferns

Secondary Loss

94

These produce males spores

These produce female spores

Microsporangia (produce microspores)

Macrosporangia (macrospores)

95

This produces numerous microspore mother cells, which divide by meiosis to produce 4 haploid cells

They mature into ______ which represent the gametophyte generation which divides into 3 or 4 cells

In conifers it is 3/4 cells?

In flowering plants it is 3/4 cells?

One is a _____ tube cell that controls the growth of the pollen tube, the others are...

Microsporangium

Pollen grains

Conifers = 4 cells

Flowering plants = 3 cells

Vegetative tube, sperm cell

96

These are called nucellus and produce a megaspore mother cell

The megaspore mother cells divide by meiosis to produce _____ haploid cells

One survives to become a

The megaspore undergoes _____ to create one egg or two eggs

In flowering plants it creates 1/2 eggs

In conifers it creates 1/2 eggs

Megasporangium

4

Megaspore (female gametophyte generation)

Mitosis

1 egg in flowering plants

2 eggs in conifers

97

In megasporangium, after the creation of eggs, one to two tissue layers surround the megasporangium, these tissue layers are also called

The integument +nucellus+megaspore daughter cells are called the

This is the opening through integuments for pllen to access the egg

Integuement

Ovule

Micropyle

98

Once a pollen grain contacts megasporangium, this directs the growth of a pollen tube through the microphyl and toward the egg

This leads to fertilization and the creation of a

Leading to the beginning of the sporophyte generation called

What forms the seed coat?

Tube cell of sperm

Zygote

Embryo

Integument

99

This plant division is the cone bearing plants (pines, firs, spruces, junipers, redwoods, cedars)

The pollen bearing male + ovule ------>

These are naked seeds produced in unprotected megapores near the surface of the reproductive structure

Fertilization and seed development requires one to three ____ (unit of time)

Coniferophyta

Female bearing cones

Gymnosperms

Years

100

This division of plants is the angiosperms, or the flowering plants.

What are the 3 major parts of the flower?

Anthophyta

Pistil

Stamen

Petals

101

This part of the flower is the female reproductive structure with three parts

The three parts are

Pistil

Ovary (egg bearing), Style, and stigma

102

This part of the flower is the male reproductive structure

It contains a pollen bearing ____ and stalk, _____

Stamen

Anther, filament

103

This part of the flower functions to attract pollinators

Also called

Petals

Sepals

104

The major evolutionary advancements of angiosperms (anthophyta)...

attracts pollinators (insects + birds);

ovule protected inside ovary which develops into fruit => dispersal of seeds by wind or other animals

105

In the process of fertilization of flowering plants, pollen lands on a stick ______

The pollen tube that contains the ________ grows down the style toward an ovule, the ovule has two _______ cells inside the pollen tube

Stigma

Vegetative Nucleus

Two sperm cells inside pollen tube

106

In the second step of fertilization of flowering plants, the ovule within the ________, which consists of the megaspore mother cell surrounded by nucellus + integuments.

The megaspore mother cell undergoes _____ to 4 haploid megaspores

One survives and undergoes _____ 3 times creating _____ nuclei

Ovary

meiosis

mitosis 3x creating 8 nuclei

107

6 of the nuclei produced during the 3 mitosis cycles in the fertilization process of plants undergo _____ and form plasma membranes, also known as ______

At the micropyle of the above plasma membranes are 3 cells, what are they?

At the other end of the micropyle are 3 _____ cells

In the middle are 2 haploid cells called

Cytokinesis

Embryo Sacs

egg + 2 synergids

antipodal cells

polar nuclei

108

In the third step of fertilization of flowering plants, the pollen tube, with 2 sperm cells, enters the _________ through the micropyle

1 sperm cell fertilizes the egg forming a

The nucleus of the 2nd sperm fuses with both ______ forming a ____ nucleus

It undergoes mitosis to create ___ which provides nutrients

Embryo Sac

Diploid zygote

Polar nuclei

Triploid (3N) nucleus

Endosperm

109

In the fertilization of flowering plants, vegetative propagation is the fertilization of the egg and polar nuclei each by a separate sperm. This process is called

Double Fertilization

110

In the bryophytes, the common names are (look at table on page 27 it really helps)

The dominant generation is

Fluid transport is VASCULAR/NONVASCULAR

Sperm transport is done via

The dispersal unit is

Mosses, Liverworts, hornworts

Gametophytes

Nonvascular

Flagellated sperm

Spores

111

In the lycophyta, the common names are the

The dominant generation is the

Fluid transport is

Sperm transport occurs via

The dispersal unit is

Club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts

Sporophyte

Vascular

Flagellated Sperm

Spores

112

In the pterophyta the common names are

The dominant generation is

Fluid transport is

Sperm transport occurs via

The dispersal unit is

Ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns

Sporophytes

Vascular

Flagellated Sperm

Spores

113

In the coniferphyta the common names are

The dominant generation is

Fluid transport is

Sperm transport occurs via

The dispersal unit is

Conifers

Sporophytes

Vascular

Wind Dispersed

Seeds

114

In the anthophyta the common names are

The dominant generation is

Fluid transport is

Sperm transport occurs via

The dispersal unit is

Flowering Plants

Sporophytes

Vascular

Wind/animal

Seeds

115

The animalia kingdom can all be traced back to one common ancestor, represented by the term ______


They vary in characteristics from the other kingdoms, they are MULTICELLULAR, HETEROTROPHIC, DIPLOID GENERATION, AND ___ LAYERS OF EMBYRONIC DEVELOPMENT

Monophyletic

3 layers of embryonic development

116

Kingdom animalia has tissue complexity, these are functioning cells organized into tissues

They can have two or three primary layers of the germ in blastula, called

Another group where cells are not organized into tissues, meaning organs don't develop, is called

Eumetazoa

Diplobastic and triploblastic (ecto, meso, endoderm)

Parazoa

117

Kingdom animalia demonstrates body symmetries

This type of symmetry is one orientation, front to back

This type of symmetry is dorsal/ventral (top-bottom), anterior/posterior (head/tail)

Radical Symmetry

Bilateral symmetry

118

In animals with bilateral symmetry, they demonstrate ____, which means greater nerve tissue at anterior end such as the brain

Cephalization

119

Animals have guts, which digest food, and two openings which form the digestive tract. This system is called the

Gastrovascular tract

120

This part of animals is derived from the mesoderm, it is a fluid filled cushion for internal organs.

These type of animals lack it

These animals have a cavity, but it is not completely lined by this mesoderm-derived tissue

Coelom

Acoelomate

Pseudocoelomate

121

This occurs in animalia in insects and worms

Segmentation

122

Animalia have cleavages, aka cell divisions in the zygote called

Protosomes and deuterosomes

123

This is the primitive guy that forms during gastrulation in the developing blastula. It develops into the digestive tract of an animal

Archenteron

124

This is a mobile cell in the body of invertebrates such as echinoderms, mollusks, or sponges

They move by a temporary protrusion of the cytoplasm - actin of an amoeba, serving for locomotion or the engulfment of food

Amebocyte

Pseudopodia

125

This is an animal phyla that comprises the sponges, which feed by filtering water through the sponge wall of flagellated cells

These cells line the interior of sponges, flagella creating a flow of water for the feed filter. They pass food to _____

Water exits through the

The sponge wall contains skeletal needles made from CaCO3 or SiO2, called

Porifera (parazoa)

Choanocytes

Amebocytes

Osculum

Spicules

126

These animal phyla comprises the hydrozoans, jellyfish, sea anemones, corals

They have two body forms this type is a floating umbrella shaped body with tentacles

This type is a sessile cylinder shape with rising tentacles

Cnidaria

Medusa

Polyp

127

There are specialized cells located in the tentacles and bodywalls of coloenterates (cnidaria),

Their interior is filled with stinging cells called

Cnidoblasts

Nematocysts

128

This animal phyla comprises three acoelomate flatwors: free living flatworms, flukes, and tapeworms

Platyhelminthes

129

This platyhelminthes is an acoelomate flatworm that are planarians (carnivores) in marine or freshwater

Free living flatworms

130

This platyhelminthes is an acoelomate flatworm that are internal animal parasites or external parasites that suck tissue fluids/blood

Flukes

131

This platyhelminthes is an acoelomate flatwork are internal parasites that often live in the digestive tract of vertebrates

They appear segmented, but aren't actually. Do they have a digestive tract?

Tapeworms

No, they absorb predigested food around them

132

This animal phyla includes roundwords, they are pseudocoelomates with a complete digestive tract.

They are free living soil dwellers that help decompose and recycle nutrients

They cause this is humans from incompletely cooked meat

Nematoda

Trichinosis

133

This animal phyla is multicellular with specialized organs enclosed in pseudocoelom, they have a complete digestive tract and are filter feeders

Rotifera

134

This animal phyla includes snails, octopus, squids, bivalves (clams and mussels)

This animal of mollusca has no shell

This one has a small and internal shell

They have coelomate bodies, a complete digestive tract, and an open ciruclatory system with an internal cavity called

Their exoskeletons are mad eof

Mollusca

Octopus

Squid

Homocoel

Calcium Carbonate

135

This class of mollusca is the largest, includes snails and slugs, characterized by a single shell

This class includes octopus and squid, have high O2 demand, giant nerve fibers, closed circulatory system

This class includes clams, mussels, scallops, and oysters

Class Gastropoda

Class Cephalopoda

Class Bivalvia

136

This animal phyla includes segmented worms, leeches, earthworms, polychaete worms

These have suckers on both ends

Amnelida

Leeches

137

This animal phyla includes spiders, insects, crustaceans; they have jointed appendages, a well shaped nervous system, body segments and an exoskeleton

What is the exoskeleton made of?

There are two kinds of life cycles this one has a small version of an adult, it changes shape as growth proceeds

These are maggots specialized for eating, when they reach a certain size they enclose themselves in a ___ to undergo metamorphasis

Arthropoda

Chitin

Nymph

Larvae, pupa,

138

This class of arthropods has 3 pairs of legs, spiracles, tracheal tubes for breathing

Insects

139

This animal phyla has four pairs of legs and book lungs, include spiders and scorpions

Arachnids

140

This animal phyla has a segmented body with variable numbers of appendages and have gills; include crab, shrimp, lobster, crayfish, and barnacles

Crustaceans

141

This animal phyla includes sea stars, urchin, sand dollars. They are coelomate deuterostomes, have a complete digestive tract

Adults have _____ symmetry but are ____ when young

Echinodermata

adults have radia, young are bilateral (ancestors believed to be bilateral)

142

This animal phyla has temporary features during embryonic development and are the vertebrates

Chordata

143

This temporary feature of chordata provides a dorsal, flexible rod that functions as support and is replaced by bone during development

It becomes the _______ of intervertebral discs; arrived from mesoder

Notochord

Nucleus Pulposus

144

This temporary feature of chordata forms the basis of the nervous system --> the brain and spinal chord

Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord

145

This temporary feature of chordata provides channels across the pharynx to outside body, they become gills for O2 or filter feeding, they disappear during embryonic development in other

Pharyngeal Gill Slits

146

This temporary feature of chordatas is lost during embryonic development in humans

Muscular Tail

147

There are two groups of chordatas which are

Invertebrates and vertebrates