Flashcards in Section 11: Animal Forms and Functions Deck (146)
What are the 4 tissue types in animals?
Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, and Muscle
What are the connective tissue types?
Bone, cartilage, blood
Skin, internal covering
This is feedback where the original condition is canceled so that conditions are returned to normal
This feedback causes an action to intensify a condition so that it is driven beyond normal limits (labor contraction, lactation, sexual orgasm)
This is the movement of gases in and out of the body, also means cellular respiration producing ATP within _______
This type of organism obtains body heat from the environment
Warm or cold blooded?
Cold blooded (aka poiklotherms)
This type of organism generates its own body heat
Warm or cold blooded?
Warm blooded (aka homeotherms)
This regulatory mechanism of heat removes body heat as liquid evaporates
Endergonic or exergonic?
This regulatory mechanism has muscle contraction and other metabolic activities generating heat
This regulatory method can have vasodilation or vasoconstruction of extremity vessels resulting in heat retention or removal
Surface area (blood flow to ears reduces body temp, countercurrent exchange keeps central parts of body warm)
This system of the body comprises gas exchange mechanisms
The Respiratory System
In invertebrate respiration, the cnidaria (protozoa and hydra) how do they interact with the environment
Gases enter from outside environment by _____. For animals, it only happens in small ones
Directly With environment. Large surfaces areas and every cell is exposed to the environment or close to it.
This group of organisms secretes mucous which provides a moist surface for gaseous exchange by diffusion
The circulatory system brings _____ to cells and waste products, like ____, back to skin for extinction
This group comprises 80% of all living species, includes insects, spiders, crustaceans, etc
This arthropod has a series of chitin lined respiratory tubules that are open to surface in openings through which O2 enters and CO2 exits
The tubules are called
The openings are called
Is an oxygen carrier needed?
No, due to direct distribution and removal of respiratory gases between air and body cells, diffusion happens across moistened tracheal endings
This organism has stacks of flattened membranes enclosed in an internal chamber for respiration
What is this called?
In this organism, water enters the mouth and passes over gills
Gills are _____ structures which create a large surface area, they take O2 and deposit CO. They can be external/unprotected or internal/protected
The water exits through the gill cover. called the
This type of interaction between movements of water and underlying blood maximizes the diffusion of O2 into blood and CO2 into water
These are invaginated structures in humans for the respiratory system
In humans CO2 is transported as ____ in the plasma
The converson of CO2 to this product is catalyzed by...
Some CO2 mixes directly with the plasma as gas, or it binds with ________ in RBCs
What is the net equation for the conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate
CO2 + H2O --> H2CO3 --> H(+) + HCO3(-)
In the lungs, this is where gas exchange with the circulatory system occurs
What reduces the surface tension?
This part of the body filters, moistens, and warms incoming air
This is the passageway in the throat for both food and air, dus/mucus swept here for disposal via spitting or swallowing
This is the voice box, if a non gas enters the cough reflex activates
This is ringed cartilage in the respiratory system
Wahat covers it during swallowing?
There are two of these structure which enter the lungs and branch into narrower structures called _____
Each bronciole branch ends in these smalls sacs which are surrounded by blood carrying capillaries
Diffusion happens between alveolar chambers and ______
In the diffusion between alveoli and blood, gas exchange happens across the moist sac membranes of the alveoli. O2 diffuses through alveolar wall, through pulmonary capillary wall, into blood, and into red blood cells. CO2 is opposite
After diffusion into red blood cells, O2 is transported through the body within ______ containing RBCs
What is the type of movement of O2 in this instance?
Once binded to hemoglobin and in the tissues, O2 diffuses out of RBCs across ______ walls
It then proceeds to interstitial fluids and across cell membranes
What does the opposite?
CO2 is mainly transported as ______ ions in plasma, the liquid portion of blood.
It is produced by _________ in RBCs
Can CO2 mix directly with plasma or bind Hb inside RBCs?
Air enters lungs via ________
This occurs when the diaphragm (under lungs) and intercostal mustcles (between ribs) contract/flattens, it increases in volume and decreases pressure in lungs
This is a passive process, it decreases lung volume and increases air pressure, air rushes out and the diaphragm relaxes and expands
Does the hemogloboin O2 binding affinity increases or decreases under conditions of low pH?
Decreases under conditions of low pH (from biochem test, remember?)
A decrease in CO2 increases or decreases hemoglobin binding to O2?
An increase in pH will increase or decrease oxygen binding
This is known as the
Increase (results of equation----> CO2 + H2O -->H2CO3 ---->H+ + HCO3-
Oxygen diffuses from alveorlar air into blood, CO2 diffuses from where into the lungs?
Human respiration is controlled by what?
When the ppCo2 INCREASES/DECREASES, medulla stimulates increase in rate of ventilation
Blood into the lungs
Central _______ in the medulla and peripheral _______ (same words) in the carotid arteries and aorta monitor CO2 cxn of blood
In an active body, there is increased ____ production
It enters plasma and is converted to HCO3- and H+, dropping blood pH. What happens to the respiratory rate?
Oxygen and pH mainly are monitered in the medulla, carotid arteries, and aorta are monitored by
98% of blood oxygen binds rapidly and reversibly with protein hemoglobin inside RBCs, forming...
How many polypeptide units Hb?
Each has a ____ cofactor that has a _____ atom in the center
How many O2 molecules can each iron bind?
4 polypeptide subunits
How does O2 bind in Hb? If one binds, the rest bind easier. Likewise, if one O2 is released the rest release easier
Cooperatively (from class!)
As O2 pressure increases, does the O2 saturation of hemoglobin increases or decrease?
This is ideal because in the lungs we are O2 rich and want to keep it binded, but in the tissues we are O2 poor and so the Hb will release the O2 into the tissues
O2 saturation depends upon ___ pressure, ____ and _____
CO2 pressure, temperature, and pH
The oxygen dissocation curve shows what?
With increased CO2 pressure, it the curve shifted to the right or left? Increased H+ cxn? increased temp?
the percentage of hemoglobin bound w/ O2 at various partial pressures of O2
Right for all (higher O2 pressure needed)
This is the phenomena where hemoglobin O2 binding affinity decreases under conditions of low pH (high CO2 & [H+]) ---> oxygen loads released by
hemoglobin because both O2 and H+ compete for binding at hemoglobin molecule
Increased 2,3 BPG cxn shifts the oxygen binding curve to the right or left?
Right (decreases O2 binding, higher pO2 needed)
Metabolic vs respiratory acidosis/alkalosis is distinguishible by the....
In this, carbonic anhydrase is in RBCs, at the tissues to balance bicarbonate ions diffuse out of cells, Cl- enters
cause of the imbalance
CO2 is carried in the blood in three forms:
The majority is carried as
In physical solution, as bicarbonate ion, and in carbamino compounds (combined with Hb and other proteins)
Myoglobin binding of O2 has what shape in the curve?
Why is it this shape?
Does it do allosteric cooperative binding?
It saturates quickly and releases very low oxygen, unless in emergency situations
No, it is a single subunit
Fetal hb is shifted in which direction?
To the left, must have a higher binding affinity to grab from maternal blood
This type of invertebrate's circulatory system is the movement of gas through simple diffusion within the cell
Protozoans (unicellular, animal like protists)
This type of invertebrate's circulatory system has body walls two cells thick, therefore all cells are in direct contact with either internal or external environment
Cnidarians (ex: hydra)
This type of organism has an open circulatory system, it pumps blood into an internal cavity, which bathes tissues in oxygen and nutrient containing fluid. This fluid returns to pumping mechanism through holes called.....
The internal cavity where blood is pumped is called
The nutrient containing fluid is called
The pumping mechanism is the..
Arthropods (most insects and molluscs)
This invertebrate's circulatory system is closed, blood is confined to _____
This is also seen in certain _____
Away from the heart, the blood goes from
Back to the heart, the blood goes from
Molluscs (octopus and squid) and vertebrates
Human and bird hearts have how many chambers?
Reptiles and amphibians have how many?
Fish have how many?
In the human heart, where does deoxygenated blood enters via superior and inferior vena cava
Blood moves through right Av/tricuspid valve into ________ which contracts and pumps blood into ______ through the pulmonary semilunar valve
When the right ventricle contracts, what closes to prevent backflow?
When the right ventricle relaxes, what prevents backflow from the pulmonary artery back to ventricles?
AV valve (atrioventricular)
This is the blood pathway from the right side of the heart the lungs to the left side of the heart
This is the circulation pathway through the body between left and right sides of the heart
After entering the lungs, the newly oxygenated blood enters _____ via pulmonary veins
After going through the left AV, valve, blood from _____ goes to aorta through aortic sumilunar valve into rest of the body
Another term for left AV valve is
Mitral or bicuspid
What prevents backflow into atrium on the left side, and what prevents it into ventricle?
Left AV valve (as the other side) prevents backflow into atrium, aortic semilunar valve prevents it into ventricle
So right/left AV valves and pulmonary/aortic SL valves
In the cardiac cycle, it is regulated by autorhythmic cells that initiate contractions independently of ______ cells
What initiates it by contracting BOTH the atria and sending delayed impulses to stimulate the AV node?
SA (sinoatrial node) or a pacemaker
What does the sinoatrial node, or pacemaker, stimulate by contracting both atria and sending a delayed impulse to that starts the catalytic cycle?
AV node (atrioventricular node)
The SA node spreads contraction to surrounding cardiac muscles via _____ made from gap junctions
The pace of the SA node is SLOWER/FASTER than a normal heartbeat
But, the ______ innervates the SA node to slow contractions. It also increases the digestive activity of the intestines
Parasympathetic vagus nerve
This is located in the lower wall of the right atrium/interatrial septa;
It sends an impulse through a bundle of ____
This passes between both ventricles then branches into ventricles via the _______ which results in contraction
When the ventricles contract, blood is forced through where?
What phase is this?
Pulmonary arteries and aorta
When the ventricles relax, backflow into ventricles causes what to close?
What phase is this?
What is the equation for Stroke volume?
What from the heart causes blood to move the arteries?
Blood pressure INCREASES/DROPS as is reaches the capillaries
It reaches near zero in the
Blood continues to move through vein because of the pumping of the heart assisted by movement of adjacent....
Each time the heart beats, what expands?
When a person breath, what happens to the pressure in the chest?
What prevents backflow in the veins?
These comprise arteries, veins and capillaries
These blood vessels are thick walled, muscular elastic, pump oxygenated pathway.
They are wrapped in ______ typically innervated by the sympathetic nervous system
What is the exception to the pump oxygenated pathway?
Pulmonary arteries, they transport deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
These blood vessels are very small, wrapped in smooth muscle, and constrict/dialate to regulate BP and reroute blood. They are a major determinant of blood pressure
These blood vessels have the smallest diameter
They are a single layer of ______ cells across which gases, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, and waste diffuse
What are the 4 methods that materials can cross the capillary wall?
Pinocytosis, Diffusion, Pores (fenestrations), Moving between cells
These are small blood vessels that lead back to the veins, very thin and porous
They drain blood from the _______
(capillary bed--->venules----> veins)
These are larger blood vessels that often have valves to aid in transport of deoxygenated blood back to the heart due to fighting gravity
What are the exceptions which carry oxygenated blood?
Pulmonary and umbilical veins
Cross sectional area of veins is 4x HIGHER/LOWER than that of arteries?
Total cross sectional area of capillaries is greater/lesser than that of arteries or veins
4x higher for veins
Greater (they are narrow but there are far more capillaries)
Since blood flow is approximately constant, blood velocity is PROPORTIONAL/INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL to total cross section area
What principle tells us this?
If velocity of blood is inversely proportional to cross sectional area, why is pressure highest from aorta and then continues downward?
Blood is not ideal flow, pumping force of heart is major contributor of (p=F/A)
Which blood vessels have the greatest resistance to flow (high ability to constrict?
The lymphatic system is a CLOSED/OPEN secondary circulatory system
What does it transport throught the adjact muscles and some walls of of larger lymph vessels which have smooth muscle?
Open secondary circulatory system
Interstitial fluids (lymph)
Where are proteins and large particles that can't be taken up by capillaries moved to?
It also monitors blood for
In the lymph system, valves prevent backflow, fluid returns to blood circulatory system through two ducts located in what region?
This part of the lymph vessels contain phagocytic cells (leukocytes) that filter the lymph and serve as immune response centers
How many liters of blood in the human body?
What type of tissue is it?
This is an aqueous mixture of salts, gases, wastes, hormones and blood proteins (immunoglobulins, albumin, fibrinogen, clotting factors) in the blood
What percent of the blood does it make up?
55%, the other 45% is cellular components
This cellular component of blood transports O2 (up to 4) on hemoglobin,
It also catalyzes the conversion of _____ and ____ to ______
Do they have a nucleus with organelles?
CO2 and H2O to H2CO3
No, in order to maximize Hb content
These cellular components of blood are larger than erythrocytes and phagocytize foreign matter and organisms
This is the process by which WBCs (leukocytes) become a part of the interstitial fluid by slipping through the endothelial lining
These cell components are cell fragments involved in blood clotting; they lack a nuclei and stick to damaged epithelium to attract more
They convert fibribogen (inactive) to
What cells are they derived from?
In the process of blood clotting, first platelets contact exposed ________ of a damaged vessel and cause neighboring platelets to form a
After forming a platelet plug, both the platelets and damaged tissue release a clotting factor, called
In clotting, thromboplastin converts inactive plasma protein prothombrin to
It also converts fibrinogen to
When this is activated by thrombin, its threads coat a damaged area and trap blood cells to form a clot
Hemoglobin binds with CO with much greater/lesser affinity than myoglobin
This is a single chain protein subunit that stores O2 in muscle
The myoglobin curve is ____ shaped
The hemoglobin curve is ______ shaped
Which has higher affinity for O2?
Which has no change in O2 binding over a pH range?
In fetal circulation, oxygenated, nutrient rich blood from the placenta is carried to the fetus via the
Half enters the _______ which allows blood to bypass the liver
Then it is carried to the ___--> ______--> ______
Then to the ____, which conducts some blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta, bypassing the lungs/fetal pulmonary circulation
Inferior vena cava--->RA----RV
The other half of blood in fetal circulation enter the _______ vein ----> ______
Then it goes to this place which allows blood to bpass pulmonary circulation by entering the left atria directl from the right atria since there is no gas exchange in the fetal lung)
Then ----> ___---> _______--->_____
THERE IS AN ILLUSTRATION IN FERALIS YOU SHOULD LOOK AT!
What is the equation for cardiac output
SV (stroke volume) X HR (heart rate)
This is the volume of blood discharged from the ventricles with each contraction of the heart
This is th evolume discharged from the ventricle each minute
What is another equation for stroke volume involving systolic/diastolic volume?
SV=end systolic volume-end diastolic volume
Excretion is not the same as digestion
This is getting rid of
This is breaking down for absorption
In osmoregulation of marine fish, the body is HYPOTONIC/HYPERTONIC to the environment
So is water lost or does in move into the animal constantly?
Lost by osmosis. There is constant drinking, rarely urinate, and secrete accumulated salt through gills
In osmoregulation of fresh water fish, the body is HYPOTONIC/HYPERTONIC to the environment
So is water lost or does in move into the animal constantly?
Water moves in, they rarely drink, constantly urinate, and absorb salt through gills
(missed some terms oops)
This is another blood antigen, the mother might attack it in a 2nd fetus
When this happens, the 1st child is fine. It's called
Rh factor (Rh+)
This portal system occurs in the glomerulus, they surround the loop of Henle, small intestine, liver, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary.
Double Capillary Beds
Capillary bed pools into another capillary bed (capillary bed 1 --> drains into portal vein --> capillary bed 2 -> drains into vein that returns blood to heart)
w/out first going to heart (transport products in high cxn without spreading to rest of body)
This maintains the pH of internal fluids of all cells
Phosphate buffer system
H2PO4(-) and HPO4(2-)
Getting back to the excretory system....
In these type of organisms, all cells are in contact with the external, aqueous environment
Water soluble wastes exit by....
Protozoans and Cnidarians
Protists such as paramecium and amoebas possess ______ for XS H2O excretion by active transport
This organisms extrete CO2 directly through their moist skin
These occur in pairs within each segment of them.
In annelids, interstitial fluids enter a nephridium through a ciliated opening called a
The interstitial fluids concentrate through a _______ due to selective secretion surround coelomic fluid
Blood that surrounds the collecting tubule in annelids reabsorbs interstitial fluids?
Water salts, and urea are excreted through the
In excretion, there are flame cells that are distributed along branched tube system that permeates this organism
Body fluids filtered across these flame cells whose ____ move the fluids through the tube system, wastes exit through the pore of the tube
These organisms have CO2 released from tissues via trachae
The trachae are continuous with external air through
These occur in arthropods (terrestrial insects) in the excretory system. Tubes are attached mid digestive tract (midgut) and collect body fluids from hemolymph that bath cells
Fluids are deposited into the midgut. Fluids include nitrogen wastes, H2O, salt retained. As fluid passes through the hindgut, retained materials pass out of walls and wastes continue down the tract for excretion through the anus.
In humans, excretion invloves 4 organs
Lungs, Liver, Skin, Kidney
This organ in humans has CO2 and H2O (g) diffuse from the blood which are continuously exhaled
This organ in humans processes nitrogenous wastes, blood pigment wastes, other chemicals
It also produces
This organ in the human body possesses sweat glands which excrete water and dissolved salts to regulate body temp
Skin (sweat gland fxn decreases as we age)
This organ of the human body functions to exrete waste, maintain homeostasis of the body fluid volume and solute composition, and help control plasma pH
The kidney has 3 regions, what are they?
Each has many ____
Which drains to ureter?
Which drains to
Which drains to
Outer Cortex, Inner Medulla, Renal Pelvis
Most filtration occurs in the __________. Blood pressure forces water, salt, glucose, AAs, urea, into ________
Do proteins and blood cells enter the cross the membrane? Why or why not?
The fluid that enters the renal tubules is called the
No because they are too large
As filtrate flows through the renal tubule, most of the water and nutrients are reabsorbed into the
The concentrated fluid that remains is called
These are composed of renal corpsucle and renal tubule, they reabsorb nutrients, salts, and water
Nephrons (image summary in feralis)
This is the glomerulus (sieve) surrounded by Bowman's capsule
Which goes into the glomerulus, afferent arteriole or efferent arteriole?
Afferent, efferent goes out of glomerulus
After the EFFERENT arteriole passes back out of the glomerulus it webs around the entire nephron structure as the ________ (surround PCT and DCT; reabsorbs things) and the _________ (surrounds LOH in medulla, maintains cxn gradient) before dumping back into the renal branch of the _______ vein
Meanwhile, Bowman's capsule leads to the...
This is part of the renal tubule, it begins the ACTIVE reabsorbtion of glucose, ions, and AAs (cortex not salty)
Durgs, toxins, etc secreted into filtrate. These ions are filtered in as well via antiport with Na+
Proximal Convuluted Tube
This part of the renal tubule forms the majority of the nephron
In the ASCENDING/DESCENDING PART, it is only permeable to water (but water is picked up by vasa recta--> medulla stays salty)
The ASCENDING/DESCEDING part makes renal medulla salty by actively pumping out Na+ K+ and Cl-, it is impermeable to water!
Loop of Henle
This process allows reabsorption of 99% of filtrate ----> concentrated urine
This part of the renal tubule does more reabsorption of glucose, ions, water, etc (cortex not salty). Ca2+ gets reabsorbed into the body, K+, H+, HCO3- are secreted out via a tubule.
Distal Convuluted Tube
In the renal tubule, the renal tubule empties to the....
This part of the renal tubule collects the remaining filtrate from the distal convoluted tube, it is ordinarlily impermeable to water
Many nephrons use how many of these?
It is impermeable to water unless ____ acts on it
1 collecting duct for many nephrons
The collecting duct descends to the salty part of the renal tubule, aka the
Where these type of hormones can make more water leave from urine by increasing permeability of collecting duct, concentrating urine even more
Also, this acts on DCT and CD, increasing Na+ reabsorption, K+ secretion, so water passively follows Na+
Antidiuretic hormones (ADH, vasopressin)
The three stages of urine formation are....
During this stage of urine formation, fluid (filtrate) goes through the glomerulus to the rest of the nephron, particles that are too large to filter through (blood and albumin) remain in the circulatory system
Active or passive process?
Driven by ________ of blood
So glomerulus--->filtrate pushed into ____
During this stage of urine formation, substances such as acids, bases, and ions (K+) are secreted by both passive and active transport
They are secreted from the....
During this stage of urine formation, glucose, salts, AAs, and water are reabsorbed from filtrate and return to blood
It takes place namely in the _______
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (active)
During this (additional) stage of urine formation, when the dehydrated volume of fluid in bloodstream is low, you need to make small amounts of concentrated urine
_____ prevents water loss by making the distal tube permeable to water
When blood pressure is low, _______ increases the reabsorption of Na+ by the distal nephron which increases water retention
Recap: filtration occurs in the _____
Reabsorption/secretion occur mostly in the _______
Filtrate becomes more concentrated as it moves down the ______
More dilutes as it moves up the _____
The DCT then dumps it into the
Loop of Henle (water passive out of tube)
Loop of Henle (passive and active transport of salts, not water)
More recap (cont'd):
In the collecing duct, filtrate becomes more concentrated as it descends because the surrounding _____ is salty, causing water to leave
The collecting duct leads to the _____ and empties into the _________ and drains to the ___________
This monitors filtrate pressure in DT via granular cells
It secretes renin--->angiotensin cascade----> tells A.C. to make aldosterone
Selevtive permeability of the tubules establishes a _____ gradient in the surrounding interstitial fluid
Created by exiting/entering of solutes; increases from cortex to medulla
Urine is HYPTONIC/HYPERTONIC to the surrounding environment
Hypertonic, contains a high urea and solute cxn
The descending loop is permeable to ____ and the ascending is permeable to _____
This makes the ____ very salt and facilitates water reabsorption
This process is called the
Counter current multiplier
In nitrogen as a waste product:
aquatic animals excrete NH3/NH4 directly into water. Mammals convert NH3 to
birds/insects/reptiles convert urea to __________ (insolutble in water, water conservation, excreted as solid)
This is a special sac in bird eggs that keeps nitrogen waste away from the embryo