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Flashcards in Section 11: Animal Forms and Functions Deck (146):
1

What are the 4 tissue types in animals?

Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, and Muscle

2

What are the connective tissue types?

Epithelial?

Bone, cartilage, blood

Skin, internal covering

3

This is feedback where the original condition is canceled so that conditions are returned to normal

Negative Feedback

4

This feedback causes an action to intensify a condition so that it is driven beyond normal limits (labor contraction, lactation, sexual orgasm)

Positive Feedback

5

This is the movement of gases in and out of the body, also means cellular respiration producing ATP within _______

Respiration

Mitochondria

6

This type of organism obtains body heat from the environment

Warm or cold blooded?

Ectotherms

Cold blooded (aka poiklotherms)

7

This type of organism generates its own body heat

Warm or cold blooded?

Endotherms

Warm blooded (aka homeotherms)

8

This regulatory mechanism of heat removes body heat as liquid evaporates

Endergonic or exergonic?

Evaporation

Endergonic

9

This regulatory mechanism has muscle contraction and other metabolic activities generating heat

Metabolism

10

This regulatory method can have vasodilation or vasoconstruction of extremity vessels resulting in heat retention or removal

Surface area (blood flow to ears reduces body temp, countercurrent exchange keeps central parts of body warm)

11

This system of the body comprises gas exchange mechanisms

The Respiratory System

12

In invertebrate respiration, the cnidaria (protozoa and hydra) how do they interact with the environment

Gases enter from outside environment by _____. For animals, it only happens in small ones

Directly With environment. Large surfaces areas and every cell is exposed to the environment or close to it.

Simple diffusion

13

This group of organisms secretes mucous which provides a moist surface for gaseous exchange by diffusion

The circulatory system brings _____ to cells and waste products, like ____, back to skin for extinction

Annelids (earthworms)

O2

CO2

14

This group comprises 80% of all living species, includes insects, spiders, crustaceans, etc

Arthropods

15

This arthropod has a series of chitin lined respiratory tubules that are open to surface in openings through which O2 enters and CO2 exits

The tubules are called

The openings are called

Is an oxygen carrier needed?

Grasshopper

Trachae

Spiracles

No, due to direct distribution and removal of respiratory gases between air and body cells, diffusion happens across moistened tracheal endings

16

This organism has stacks of flattened membranes enclosed in an internal chamber for respiration

What is this called?

Spider

Book lungs

17

In this organism, water enters the mouth and passes over gills

Gills are _____ structures which create a large surface area, they take O2 and deposit CO. They can be external/unprotected or internal/protected

The water exits through the gill cover. called the

This type of interaction between movements of water and underlying blood maximizes the diffusion of O2 into blood and CO2 into water

Fish

Invaginated

Operculum

Countercurrent Exchange

18

These are invaginated structures in humans for the respiratory system

In humans CO2 is transported as ____ in the plasma

The converson of CO2 to this product is catalyzed by...

Some CO2 mixes directly with the plasma as gas, or it binds with ________ in RBCs

Lungs

HCO3- (bicarbonate)

carbonic anhydrase

Hb

19

What is the net equation for the conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate

CO2 + H2O --> H2CO3 --> H(+) + HCO3(-)

20

In the lungs, this is where gas exchange with the circulatory system occurs

What reduces the surface tension?

Alveoli

Surfactant

21

This part of the body filters, moistens, and warms incoming air

This is the passageway in the throat for both food and air, dus/mucus swept here for disposal via spitting or swallowing

This is the voice box, if a non gas enters the cough reflex activates

Nose

Pharynx

Larynx

22

This is ringed cartilage in the respiratory system

Wahat covers it during swallowing?

Trachea

Epiglottis

23

There are two of these structure which enter the lungs and branch into narrower structures called _____

Bronchi, Bronchioles

24

Each bronciole branch ends in these smalls sacs which are surrounded by blood carrying capillaries

Diffusion happens between alveolar chambers and ______

Alveoli

Blood

25

In the diffusion between alveoli and blood, gas exchange happens across the moist sac membranes of the alveoli. O2 diffuses through alveolar wall, through pulmonary capillary wall, into blood, and into red blood cells. CO2 is opposite

!

26

After diffusion into red blood cells, O2 is transported through the body within ______ containing RBCs

What is the type of movement of O2 in this instance?

Hb

Bulk Flow

27

Once binded to hemoglobin and in the tissues, O2 diffuses out of RBCs across ______ walls

It then proceeds to interstitial fluids and across cell membranes

What does the opposite?

Capillary

CO2

28

CO2 is mainly transported as ______ ions in plasma, the liquid portion of blood.

It is produced by _________ in RBCs

Can CO2 mix directly with plasma or bind Hb inside RBCs?

HCO3- (bicarbonate)

Carbonic Anhydrase

Yes! both.

29

Air enters lungs via ________

This occurs when the diaphragm (under lungs) and intercostal mustcles (between ribs) contract/flattens, it increases in volume and decreases pressure in lungs

This is a passive process, it decreases lung volume and increases air pressure, air rushes out and the diaphragm relaxes and expands

Bulk Flow

Inhalation

Exhalation

30

Does the hemogloboin O2 binding affinity increases or decreases under conditions of low pH?

Decreases under conditions of low pH (from biochem test, remember?)

31

A decrease in CO2 increases or decreases hemoglobin binding to O2?

An increase in pH will increase or decrease oxygen binding

This is known as the

Increase

Increase (results of equation----> CO2 + H2O -->H2CO3 ---->H+ + HCO3-

Bohr Effect

32

Oxygen diffuses from alveorlar air into blood, CO2 diffuses from where into the lungs?

Human respiration is controlled by what?

When the ppCo2 INCREASES/DECREASES, medulla stimulates increase in rate of ventilation

Blood into the lungs

Medulla Oblongata

Increases

33

Central _______ in the medulla and peripheral _______ (same words) in the carotid arteries and aorta monitor CO2 cxn of blood

In an active body, there is increased ____ production

It enters plasma and is converted to HCO3- and H+, dropping blood pH. What happens to the respiratory rate?

Chemoreceptors

CO2

It increases

34

Oxygen and pH mainly are monitered in the medulla, carotid arteries, and aorta are monitored by

Chemoreceptors

35

98% of blood oxygen binds rapidly and reversibly with protein hemoglobin inside RBCs, forming...

How many polypeptide units Hb?

Each has a ____ cofactor that has a _____ atom in the center

How many O2 molecules can each iron bind?

Oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb)

4 polypeptide subunits

Heme, iron

1

36

How does O2 bind in Hb? If one binds, the rest bind easier. Likewise, if one O2 is released the rest release easier

Cooperatively (from class!)

37

As O2 pressure increases, does the O2 saturation of hemoglobin increases or decrease?

This is ideal because in the lungs we are O2 rich and want to keep it binded, but in the tissues we are O2 poor and so the Hb will release the O2 into the tissues

Increase

38

O2 saturation depends upon ___ pressure, ____ and _____

CO2 pressure, temperature, and pH

39

The oxygen dissocation curve shows what?

With increased CO2 pressure, it the curve shifted to the right or left? Increased H+ cxn? increased temp?

the percentage of hemoglobin bound w/ O2 at various partial pressures of O2

Right for all (higher O2 pressure needed)

40

This is the phenomena where hemoglobin O2 binding affinity decreases under conditions of low pH (high CO2 & [H+]) ---> oxygen loads released by
hemoglobin because both O2 and H+ compete for binding at hemoglobin molecule

Bohr Effect

41

Increased 2,3 BPG cxn shifts the oxygen binding curve to the right or left?

Right (decreases O2 binding, higher pO2 needed)

42

Metabolic vs respiratory acidosis/alkalosis is distinguishible by the....

In this, carbonic anhydrase is in RBCs, at the tissues to balance bicarbonate ions diffuse out of cells, Cl- enters

cause of the imbalance

Chloride Shift

43

CO2 is carried in the blood in three forms:

The majority is carried as

In physical solution, as bicarbonate ion, and in carbamino compounds (combined with Hb and other proteins)

Bicarbonate

44

Myoglobin binding of O2 has what shape in the curve?

Why is it this shape?

Does it do allosteric cooperative binding?

Hyperbolic

It saturates quickly and releases very low oxygen, unless in emergency situations

No, it is a single subunit

45

Fetal hb is shifted in which direction?

To the left, must have a higher binding affinity to grab from maternal blood

46

This type of invertebrate's circulatory system is the movement of gas through simple diffusion within the cell

Protozoans (unicellular, animal like protists)

47

This type of invertebrate's circulatory system has body walls two cells thick, therefore all cells are in direct contact with either internal or external environment

Cnidarians (ex: hydra)

48

This type of organism has an open circulatory system, it pumps blood into an internal cavity, which bathes tissues in oxygen and nutrient containing fluid. This fluid returns to pumping mechanism through holes called.....

The internal cavity where blood is pumped is called

The nutrient containing fluid is called

The pumping mechanism is the..

Arthropods (most insects and molluscs)

Ostia

Hemocoel (sinuses)

Hemolymph

Heart

49

This invertebrate's circulatory system is closed, blood is confined to _____

This is also seen in certain _____

Away from the heart, the blood goes from

Back to the heart, the blood goes from

Annelids (earthworm)

Vessels

Molluscs (octopus and squid) and vertebrates

Aorta--->arteries---->arterioles---->capillaries

Capillaries---> venules--->veins

50

Human and bird hearts have how many chambers?

Reptiles and amphibians have how many?

Fish have how many?

4

3

2

51

In the human heart, where does deoxygenated blood enters via superior and inferior vena cava

Blood moves through right Av/tricuspid valve into ________ which contracts and pumps blood into ______ through the pulmonary semilunar valve

Right Atrium

Ventricle

Pulmonary Artery

52

When the right ventricle contracts, what closes to prevent backflow?

When the right ventricle relaxes, what prevents backflow from the pulmonary artery back to ventricles?

AV valve (atrioventricular)

Semilunar Valve

53

This is the blood pathway from the right side of the heart the lungs to the left side of the heart

This is the circulation pathway through the body between left and right sides of the heart

Pulmonary Circuit

Systemic Circuit

54

After entering the lungs, the newly oxygenated blood enters _____ via pulmonary veins

Left Atrium

55

After going through the left AV, valve, blood from _____ goes to aorta through aortic sumilunar valve into rest of the body

Another term for left AV valve is

Left ventricle

Mitral or bicuspid

56

What prevents backflow into atrium on the left side, and what prevents it into ventricle?

Left AV valve (as the other side) prevents backflow into atrium, aortic semilunar valve prevents it into ventricle

So right/left AV valves and pulmonary/aortic SL valves

57

In the cardiac cycle, it is regulated by autorhythmic cells that initiate contractions independently of ______ cells

What initiates it by contracting BOTH the atria and sending delayed impulses to stimulate the AV node?

Nerve

SA (sinoatrial node) or a pacemaker

58

What does the sinoatrial node, or pacemaker, stimulate by contracting both atria and sending a delayed impulse to that starts the catalytic cycle?

AV node (atrioventricular node)

59

The SA node spreads contraction to surrounding cardiac muscles via _____ made from gap junctions

Electrical Synapses

60

The pace of the SA node is SLOWER/FASTER than a normal heartbeat

But, the ______ innervates the SA node to slow contractions. It also increases the digestive activity of the intestines

Faster

Parasympathetic vagus nerve

61

This is located in the lower wall of the right atrium/interatrial septa;

It sends an impulse through a bundle of ____

This passes between both ventricles then branches into ventricles via the _______ which results in contraction

AV node

His

Purkinje Fibers

62

When the ventricles contract, blood is forced through where?

What phase is this?

Pulmonary arteries and aorta

Systole Phase

63

When the ventricles relax, backflow into ventricles causes what to close?

What phase is this?

Semilunar Valves

Diastole phase

64

What is the equation for Stroke volume?

EDV-ESV

65

What from the heart causes blood to move the arteries?

Hydrostatic Pressure

66

Blood pressure INCREASES/DROPS as is reaches the capillaries

It reaches near zero in the

Blood continues to move through vein because of the pumping of the heart assisted by movement of adjacent....

Drops

Venules

Skeletal Muscles

67

Each time the heart beats, what expands?

When a person breath, what happens to the pressure in the chest?

What prevents backflow in the veins?

The atria

It falls.

Valves

68

These comprise arteries, veins and capillaries

Blood Vessels

69

These blood vessels are thick walled, muscular elastic, pump oxygenated pathway.

They are wrapped in ______ typically innervated by the sympathetic nervous system

What is the exception to the pump oxygenated pathway?

Arteries

Smooth Muscle

Pulmonary arteries, they transport deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs

70

These blood vessels are very small, wrapped in smooth muscle, and constrict/dialate to regulate BP and reroute blood. They are a major determinant of blood pressure

Arterioles

71

These blood vessels have the smallest diameter

They are a single layer of ______ cells across which gases, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, and waste diffuse

Capillaries

Endothelial Cells

72

What are the 4 methods that materials can cross the capillary wall?

Pinocytosis, Diffusion, Pores (fenestrations), Moving between cells

73

These are small blood vessels that lead back to the veins, very thin and porous

They drain blood from the _______

Venules

Capillary bed

(capillary bed--->venules----> veins)

74

These are larger blood vessels that often have valves to aid in transport of deoxygenated blood back to the heart due to fighting gravity

What are the exceptions which carry oxygenated blood?

Veins

Pulmonary and umbilical veins

75

Cross sectional area of veins is 4x HIGHER/LOWER than that of arteries?

Total cross sectional area of capillaries is greater/lesser than that of arteries or veins

4x higher for veins

Greater (they are narrow but there are far more capillaries)

76

Since blood flow is approximately constant, blood velocity is PROPORTIONAL/INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL to total cross section area

What principle tells us this?

Inversely proportional

Bernoulli's Principle

77

If velocity of blood is inversely proportional to cross sectional area, why is pressure highest from aorta and then continues downward?

Blood is not ideal flow, pumping force of heart is major contributor of (p=F/A)

78

Which blood vessels have the greatest resistance to flow (high ability to constrict?

Arterioles

79

The lymphatic system is a CLOSED/OPEN secondary circulatory system

What does it transport throught the adjact muscles and some walls of of larger lymph vessels which have smooth muscle?

Open secondary circulatory system

Interstitial fluids (lymph)

80

Where are proteins and large particles that can't be taken up by capillaries moved to?

It also monitors blood for

Lymph vessels

infection

81

In the lymph system, valves prevent backflow, fluid returns to blood circulatory system through two ducts located in what region?

Shoulder region

82

This part of the lymph vessels contain phagocytic cells (leukocytes) that filter the lymph and serve as immune response centers

Lymph Nodes

83

How many liters of blood in the human body?

What type of tissue is it?

4-6 liters

Connective

84

This is an aqueous mixture of salts, gases, wastes, hormones and blood proteins (immunoglobulins, albumin, fibrinogen, clotting factors) in the blood

What percent of the blood does it make up?

Plasma

55%, the other 45% is cellular components

85

This cellular component of blood transports O2 (up to 4) on hemoglobin,

It also catalyzes the conversion of _____ and ____ to ______

Do they have a nucleus with organelles?

Erythrocytes (RBCs)

CO2 and H2O to H2CO3

No, in order to maximize Hb content

86

These cellular components of blood are larger than erythrocytes and phagocytize foreign matter and organisms

Leukocytes (WBCs)

87

This is the process by which WBCs (leukocytes) become a part of the interstitial fluid by slipping through the endothelial lining

Diapedesis

88

These cell components are cell fragments involved in blood clotting; they lack a nuclei and stick to damaged epithelium to attract more

They convert fibribogen (inactive) to

What cells are they derived from?

Plateletes/Thrombocytes

Fibrin (active)

Megakaryotcytes

89

In the process of blood clotting, first platelets contact exposed ________ of a damaged vessel and cause neighboring platelets to form a

Collagen;platelet plug

90

After forming a platelet plug, both the platelets and damaged tissue release a clotting factor, called

Thromboplastin

91

In clotting, thromboplastin converts inactive plasma protein prothombrin to

It also converts fibrinogen to

Thombrin (active)

Fibrin (active)

92

When this is activated by thrombin, its threads coat a damaged area and trap blood cells to form a clot

Fibrin

93

Hemoglobin binds with CO with much greater/lesser affinity than myoglobin

Much greater

94

This is a single chain protein subunit that stores O2 in muscle

Myoglobin

95

The myoglobin curve is ____ shaped


The hemoglobin curve is ______ shaped

Which has higher affinity for O2?

Which has no change in O2 binding over a pH range?

Hyperbolic

Sigmoidal

Myoglobin

Myoglobin

96

In fetal circulation, oxygenated, nutrient rich blood from the placenta is carried to the fetus via the
_________

Half enters the _______ which allows blood to bypass the liver

Then it is carried to the ___--> ______--> ______

Then to the ____, which conducts some blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta, bypassing the lungs/fetal pulmonary circulation

Umbilical Vein

Ductus venosus


Inferior vena cava--->RA----RV

Ductus arteriosus

97

The other half of blood in fetal circulation enter the _______ vein ----> ______

Then it goes to this place which allows blood to bpass pulmonary circulation by entering the left atria directl from the right atria since there is no gas exchange in the fetal lung)

Then ----> ___---> _______--->_____

Liver/portal vein--->RA

Foramen Ovale

LA-->LV-->aorta

THERE IS AN ILLUSTRATION IN FERALIS YOU SHOULD LOOK AT!

98

What is the equation for cardiac output

SV (stroke volume) X HR (heart rate)

99

This is the volume of blood discharged from the ventricles with each contraction of the heart

This is th evolume discharged from the ventricle each minute

Stroke Volume

Cardiac Output

100

What is another equation for stroke volume involving systolic/diastolic volume?

SV=end systolic volume-end diastolic volume

101

Excretion is not the same as digestion

This is getting rid of

This is breaking down for absorption

Excretion

Digestion

102

In osmoregulation of marine fish, the body is HYPOTONIC/HYPERTONIC to the environment

So is water lost or does in move into the animal constantly?

Hypotonic

Lost by osmosis. There is constant drinking, rarely urinate, and secrete accumulated salt through gills

103

In osmoregulation of fresh water fish, the body is HYPOTONIC/HYPERTONIC to the environment

So is water lost or does in move into the animal constantly?

hypertonic

Water moves in, they rarely drink, constantly urinate, and absorb salt through gills

104

(missed some terms oops)

This is another blood antigen, the mother might attack it in a 2nd fetus

When this happens, the 1st child is fine. It's called

Rh factor (Rh+)

Erythroblastosis fetalis

105

This portal system occurs in the glomerulus, they surround the loop of Henle, small intestine, liver, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary.

Double Capillary Beds

106

Capillary bed pools into another capillary bed (capillary bed 1 --> drains into portal vein --> capillary bed 2 -> drains into vein that returns blood to heart)
w/out first going to heart (transport products in high cxn without spreading to rest of body)

! okay...

107

This maintains the pH of internal fluids of all cells

Phosphate buffer system

H2PO4(-) and HPO4(2-)

108

Getting back to the excretory system....

In these type of organisms, all cells are in contact with the external, aqueous environment

Water soluble wastes exit by....

Protozoans and Cnidarians

Diffusion

109

Protists such as paramecium and amoebas possess ______ for XS H2O excretion by active transport

Contractile Vacuoles

110

This organisms extrete CO2 directly through their moist skin

These occur in pairs within each segment of them.

Annelids (earthworms)

Nephridia (metanephridia)

111

In annelids, interstitial fluids enter a nephridium through a ciliated opening called a

The interstitial fluids concentrate through a _______ due to selective secretion surround coelomic fluid

nephrostome

Collecting Tubule

112

Blood that surrounds the collecting tubule in annelids reabsorbs interstitial fluids?

Water salts, and urea are excreted through the

Excretory Pore

113

In excretion, there are flame cells that are distributed along branched tube system that permeates this organism

Body fluids filtered across these flame cells whose ____ move the fluids through the tube system, wastes exit through the pore of the tube

platyhelminthes (flatworms)

Cilia

114

These organisms have CO2 released from tissues via trachae

The trachae are continuous with external air through

Arthropods

Spiracles

115

These occur in arthropods (terrestrial insects) in the excretory system. Tubes are attached mid digestive tract (midgut) and collect body fluids from hemolymph that bath cells

Fluids are deposited into the midgut. Fluids include nitrogen wastes, H2O, salt retained. As fluid passes through the hindgut, retained materials pass out of walls and wastes continue down the tract for excretion through the anus.

Malphagian Tubules

116

In humans, excretion invloves 4 organs

Lungs, Liver, Skin, Kidney

117

This organ in humans has CO2 and H2O (g) diffuse from the blood which are continuously exhaled

Lungs

118

This organ in humans processes nitrogenous wastes, blood pigment wastes, other chemicals

It also produces

Liver

Urea

119

This organ in the human body possesses sweat glands which excrete water and dissolved salts to regulate body temp

Skin (sweat gland fxn decreases as we age)

120

This organ of the human body functions to exrete waste, maintain homeostasis of the body fluid volume and solute composition, and help control plasma pH

Kidney

121

The kidney has 3 regions, what are they?

Each has many ____

Which drains to ureter?

Which drains to

Which drains to

Outer Cortex, Inner Medulla, Renal Pelvis

Nephrons

Renal pelvis

Bladder

Urethra

122

Most filtration occurs in the __________. Blood pressure forces water, salt, glucose, AAs, urea, into ________

Do proteins and blood cells enter the cross the membrane? Why or why not?

The fluid that enters the renal tubules is called the

Glomerulus

Bowman's Capsule

No because they are too large

Filtrate

123

As filtrate flows through the renal tubule, most of the water and nutrients are reabsorbed into the

The concentrated fluid that remains is called

Blood

Urine

124

These are composed of renal corpsucle and renal tubule, they reabsorb nutrients, salts, and water

Nephrons (image summary in feralis)

125

This is the glomerulus (sieve) surrounded by Bowman's capsule

Which goes into the glomerulus, afferent arteriole or efferent arteriole?

Renal Corpuscle

Afferent, efferent goes out of glomerulus

126

After the EFFERENT arteriole passes back out of the glomerulus it webs around the entire nephron structure as the ________ (surround PCT and DCT; reabsorbs things) and the _________ (surrounds LOH in medulla, maintains cxn gradient) before dumping back into the renal branch of the _______ vein

Meanwhile, Bowman's capsule leads to the...

Peritubular Capillaries

Vena Cava

Renal Vein

Renal Tubule

127

This is part of the renal tubule, it begins the ACTIVE reabsorbtion of glucose, ions, and AAs (cortex not salty)

Durgs, toxins, etc secreted into filtrate. These ions are filtered in as well via antiport with Na+

Proximal Convuluted Tube

H+ ions

128

This part of the renal tubule forms the majority of the nephron

In the ASCENDING/DESCENDING PART, it is only permeable to water (but water is picked up by vasa recta--> medulla stays salty)

The ASCENDING/DESCEDING part makes renal medulla salty by actively pumping out Na+ K+ and Cl-, it is impermeable to water!

Loop of Henle

Descending

Ascending

This process allows reabsorption of 99% of filtrate ----> concentrated urine

129

This part of the renal tubule does more reabsorption of glucose, ions, water, etc (cortex not salty). Ca2+ gets reabsorbed into the body, K+, H+, HCO3- are secreted out via a tubule.

Distal Convuluted Tube

130

In the renal tubule, the renal tubule empties to the....

Collecting Duct

131

This part of the renal tubule collects the remaining filtrate from the distal convoluted tube, it is ordinarlily impermeable to water

Many nephrons use how many of these?

It is impermeable to water unless ____ acts on it

Collecting Duct

1 collecting duct for many nephrons

ADH

132

The collecting duct descends to the salty part of the renal tubule, aka the

Where these type of hormones can make more water leave from urine by increasing permeability of collecting duct, concentrating urine even more

Also, this acts on DCT and CD, increasing Na+ reabsorption, K+ secretion, so water passively follows Na+

Medulla

Antidiuretic hormones (ADH, vasopressin)

Aldosterone

133

The three stages of urine formation are....

Filtration
Secretion
Reabsorption

134

During this stage of urine formation, fluid (filtrate) goes through the glomerulus to the rest of the nephron, particles that are too large to filter through (blood and albumin) remain in the circulatory system

Active or passive process?

Driven by ________ of blood

So glomerulus--->filtrate pushed into ____

Filtration

Passive

Hydrostatic pressure

Bowman's capsule

135

During this stage of urine formation, substances such as acids, bases, and ions (K+) are secreted by both passive and active transport

They are secreted from the....

Secretion

Peritubular Capillaries

136

During this stage of urine formation, glucose, salts, AAs, and water are reabsorbed from filtrate and return to blood

It takes place namely in the _______

Reabsorption

Proximal Convoluted Tubule (active)

137

During this (additional) stage of urine formation, when the dehydrated volume of fluid in bloodstream is low, you need to make small amounts of concentrated urine

_____ prevents water loss by making the distal tube permeable to water

When blood pressure is low, _______ increases the reabsorption of Na+ by the distal nephron which increases water retention

Concentration

ADH

Aldosterone

138

Recap: filtration occurs in the _____

Reabsorption/secretion occur mostly in the _______

Filtrate becomes more concentrated as it moves down the ______

More dilutes as it moves up the _____

The DCT then dumps it into the

Renal corpuscle

Proximal Tubule

Loop of Henle (water passive out of tube)

Loop of Henle (passive and active transport of salts, not water)

collecting duct

139

More recap (cont'd):

In the collecing duct, filtrate becomes more concentrated as it descends because the surrounding _____ is salty, causing water to leave

The collecting duct leads to the _____ and empties into the _________ and drains to the ___________

Medulla

Renal Calyx

Renal pelvis

ureter

140

This monitors filtrate pressure in DT via granular cells

It secretes renin--->angiotensin cascade----> tells A.C. to make aldosterone

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

141

Selevtive permeability of the tubules establishes a _____ gradient in the surrounding interstitial fluid

Created by exiting/entering of solutes; increases from cortex to medulla

Osmolarity gradient

142

Urine is HYPTONIC/HYPERTONIC to the surrounding environment

Hypertonic, contains a high urea and solute cxn

143

The descending loop is permeable to ____ and the ascending is permeable to _____

This makes the ____ very salt and facilitates water reabsorption

This process is called the

water

salts/ions

medulla

Counter current multiplier

144

In nitrogen as a waste product:

aquatic animals excrete NH3/NH4 directly into water. Mammals convert NH3 to

birds/insects/reptiles convert urea to __________ (insolutble in water, water conservation, excreted as solid)

Urea

Uric acid

145

This is a special sac in bird eggs that keeps nitrogen waste away from the embryo

allantois

146

In plants, excretion of excess CO2, waste O2, and H2o (g) leaves by ______ through ____ and _______

This process is called

By diffusion through stomata and lenticels

Transpiration