Flashcards in Section 12: Animal Reproduction and Development Deck (118):
In non-animals, a sexual reproduction benefits from a stable environment since offspring are ____
Sexual reproduction's strength is
This is separation of an organism into two new cells (amoeba)
This type of reproduction is when a new individual splits of from existing one (hydra)
This type of reproduction is when a single parent breaks into parts that regenerate into new individuals (sponge/planaria/starfish)
Fragmentation and regeneration
This is the development of an egg without fertilization; resulting adult is haploid (honey bees, some lizards
Human reproductive anatomy is a ____ month gestation
9 month gestation
This is the reproductive structure responsible for production of gametes (male=testis, female = ovaries)
They are primary or secondary sex characteristics?
The indications of sexual maturity that are not specifically involved in reproduction are called PRIMARY/SECONDARY sex characteristics
Secondary sex characteristics
In the female reproductive system, this is where the ova, or eggs, are produced.
How many does each female have?
During reproduction the eggs move from ovary to uterus through the _________ also known as the fallopian/uterine tube, one for each ovary
The eggs are swept by
This is where the fertilized ovum implants in the human female, on the inside wall. The development of the embryo occurs here until birth
What is the name of the inside wall?
At birth, the fetus passes through the _____ (opening in the uterus) through and out of the body
This part of the body is called the
In the male reproductive system, the testis consist of ______ for production of sperm
These produce male sex hormones (testosterone=androgen) secreted in the presence of LH
Interstitial cells (Leydig cells)
These cells in the testis are stimulated by FSH, they surround and nurture sperm
They also secrete this peptide which acts on PitG1 to inhibit FSH release
Testis contained in scrotum are about ____ degrees celsius lower than the body temp for sperm production
2 degrees celsius
In the male reproductive system, this is a coiled tube, one is attached to each testi, site for final maturation and storage of sperm
In the male reproductive system, this transfers sperms from one epididymis to the urethra
In the male reproductive system, these are two glands, which during ejaculation secrete into vas deferens, provide mucous (liquid for sperm), fructose as ATP and prostaglandins (stimulate uterine contraction that help sperm move into uterus)
In the male reproductive system, this secretes milky alkaline fluid into the urethra, it neutralizes the acidity of urine that may still be in the urethra. It also neutralizes seminal fluid (too acidic from metabolic waste for sperm)
These glands of the male reproductive system secrete a small amount of fluid of unknown function to urethra
Bulbourethral glands (aka Cowper's)
This part of the male reproductive system transports semen into the vagina
In the male reproductive system, these are compact packages of DNA specialized for effective male genome delivery
This part of the sperm is haploid (23 chromosomes)
At the tip is a lysosome containing enzymes (hyaluronidase) which are used to penetrate the egg
The tip park mentioned above originates from _____ that fused together
Golgi body vesicles
Only the _____ portion of the sperm enters the egg?
This part of the sperm is flagellum (9+2 microtubule array), lots of mitochondria
This part of the sperm is the remainder of the flagellum, sperm is propelled by whiplike motion of tail and midpiece
What does the acronym SEVEnUP stand for?
seminiferous tubules --> epidydmis --> vas deferens ---> ejaculatory duct --> urethra ----> penis
What type of cell divisions produce eggs (oogenesis) and sperm (spermatogenesis)?
Meiotic Cell Division
What contains most of the cytosplasm, RNA, organelles, and nutrients needed by a developing embyro?
This is cell division that produces eggs
During embryonic development, these are the fetal cells
They undergo mitosis to become
Here they remain at _______ until puberty
Once puberty hits in a female, how many primary oocytes are released every 28 days?
What is the primary oocyte stimulated by?
The primary oocytes that are stimulated and released continue the rest of their development for the remainder of meiosis I where? It protects and nourishes the primary oocyte.
After developing through the follicle, the primary oocyte completes meiosis I and become a ______, which is most of the cytoplasm
It also becomes a _____, which has a small cytoplasm, it may or may not divide but its products disintegrate)
What phase of meiosis is the egg arrested in?
Until what occurs?
During ovulation, the secondary oocyte is released from the __________
This is caused by a surge in what?
If it is fertilized by sperm, it completes what phase?
The ovum/egg is diploid or haploid?
diploid once completely fertilized
The polar body
This is cell division that produces sperm
It begins at puberty within the _______ of testes
These cells undergo mitosis initially
The primary spermatocytes undergo ________ and become 2 secondary spermatocytes
The 2 secondary spermatocytes undergo _______
They then become....
These cells are in seminiferous tubules and provide nourishment to spermitids as they differentiate into mature sperm
Another term for sperm is..
The sperm complete maturation (gain motility and are stored) where?
What are the two cycles of the female reproductive cycle?
Ovarian cycle (ovary) and mestrual cycle (uterus)
What two things initiate the menstrual cycle?
What do they monitor?
Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland
Estrogen and progesterone in the blood
If there is a low level of estrogen and progesterone in blood, what releases GnRH which causes the release of FSH and LH?
This happens via the anterior pituitary gland with what type of feedback?
What then develops?
FSH stimulates it to release
When the follicle releases estrogen, a lot of it, what type of feedback occurs on the anterior pituitary gland?
What does this cause?
Which leads to....
The follice is now ______, maintained by LH
When the follicle becomes the corpus luteum, it secretes...
This causes the development of the
Progesterone and Estrogen
If there is no implantation on the endometrium during the female reproductive cycle, what type of feedback occurs on the anterior pituitary gland?
This terminates the production of....
Caused by the decrease of what from the hypothalamus?
FSH and LH
If there is no implantation during the female reproductive cycle, the loss of GnRH from the hypothalamus causes _____ to no longer be maintained by LH so it disintegrates
What does it become, with no more estrogen and progesterone
This leads to shedding of the ______ during menstruation's flow phase
If implantation occurs during the female reproductive cycle, what does the embryo secrete?
What does it maintain?
So the production of what remains high?
So is the endometrium shed?
HCG is later replaced by ________ from the placenta
chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Estrogen and progesterone
In the ovarian cycle, this phase is the development of the egg
Secretion of _____ also occurs in the follicle
During the ovarian cycle, this phase is the midcycle release of an egg
During the ovarian cycle, this phase is the secretion of estrogen and progesterone from the corpus luteum after ovulation
This hormone released during the female reproductive cycle thickens the endometrium
This hormone released during the female reproductive cycle is important for the development and maintenance of the endometrial wall
During the male reproductive cycle, GnRH stimulates the release of...
LH is also called
The release of these molecules triggers the release of.....
FSH + LH
ICSH (interstitial cell stimulating hormone)
Testosterone and androgens from the tesis
FSH and testosterone, during the male reproductive cycle, influence _____ cells to promote development of sperm. They nourish sperm during spermatogenesis
Hormone and gamete production for males is CONSTANT unlike in females!
Win! No blood!
What are the four stages of growth and development of an animal
Aging and Death
This stage of growth in humans is the sperm/egg formation
This stage is fertilization of egg until birth
This is the process of reaching puberty
The last one is the aging process to death...can't really ask yourself about it
In mammals, embryonic development has two stages. Embryonic is followed by...
This is the term for an embryo that resembles the infant forms
This stage of embryonic development is when the sperm penetrates the plasma membrane of the secondary oocyte
Before penetration, the sperm secretes proteins that bind with the receptor that reside on the glycoprotein layer surrounding of an oocyte to ensure same species fertilization. This is called
In humans, the glycoprotein layer is they
Vitelline layer - zone pellucida
This is the glycoprotein membrane surrounding the plasma membrane of an oocyte. It is external but essential to the oocyte.
It first appears in unilaminar oocytes; it is secreted by both the oocyte and follicular cells. At puberty, _____ stimulates the growth of granulosa cells around the primary oocyte that secretes the viscous zona pellucoda)
The zone of pellucida binds ________ (IMPORTANT!)
It is required to initiate the release of sperm contents of the acrosome as it approaches the egg, this process is called the
5 days after fertilization, the blastocyst performs _____, where the zona pellucida degenerates and is replaced by an underlying layer of trophoblastic cells so it can implant in the uterus
Fertilization can be external in what substance?
What animals can this occur in?
Does this mean more or less eggs?
More eggs, less parental care needed so they can lay more eggs
This is the phase of fertilization where the plasma membrane of the sperm and oocyte fuse, and the sperm nucleus enters the oocyte
After penetration during fertilization, the vitelline layer forms a __________ membrane which blocks additional sperm
The membrane forms due to the ____ reaction, the exocytosis of enzyes produced by cortical granules in the egg cytoplasm during fertilization.
Slow block or fast block in mammals?
After formation of the fertilization membrane, the sperm penetration triggers ______
What are produced?
Ovum + polar body
After the completion of meiosis II in the secondary oocyte, what is created by the sperm and ovum nuclei fusing?
Diploid or haploid in humans?
How many pairs in humans?
This is the second stage of embryonic development, in which rapid cell divisions occur without cell growth
Each cell is called a
During the cleavage stage of fertilization, the egg has an upper ____ pole and a lower _____ pole
Which contains more yolk material which is denser than the cytoplasm, settles at the bottom, and differentiates into the extraembryonic membranes that protect/nourish the embryo
Upper animal pole
Lower vegetable pole
During the cleavage stage of fertilization, the early cleavages are ______, they divide the egg into segments that stretch from pole to pole (think segments of an orange). Others are parallel with the equator (equatorial)
In deuterostomes, cleavage is ____
In protostomes, it is
This type of cleavage has cells at animal and vegetal poles aligned together
This type has cells on top shifted relative to those below
This type of cleavage means blastomeres can individually complete normal
development if separated
This type of cleavage means the blastomeres cannot develop into complete embryo if separated; each is differentiated into part of
Note: fertilization takes place in the
Cleavage occurs while it is swept
Embryo is at the ___ stage by the time is reaches the uterus for implantation
In this stage of embryonic development, successive cleavage results in a solid ball of cells (about 8 cells at this stage)
The first cells are able to differentiate into all cells, called
In this stage of embryonic development, cell division continues, liquid fills the morula and pushes cells out to form a circular cavity surrounded by a single layer of cells. About 128 cells are at this stage
This is the cavity
In humans, the blastula is called the _____ and implants into the ________
In this stage of embryonic development, invagination into the blastula occurs, forming a two layered embryo with an opening from outside to the center of the cavity
What are the three germ layers during gastrulation?
Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm
This germ layer during gastrulation is the epithelial lining of the digestive and respiratory tracked; parts of the liver, pancreas, thyroid, and urinary bladder lining
This germ layer in gastrulation is muscoskeletal, circulatory system, excretory system, gonads, connective tissue, portions of digestive and respiratory tract, and notochord
This germ layer is the nervous system (brain and spinal cord), integuement (Epidermis, hair, epithelium of nose, mouth, anal canal), sense structures (eye, retina), teeth, neural tube
Some primitive animals (sponges, cnidarian) will develop ____, a noncellular layer, instead of mesoderm
This is the cavity formed by gastrulation
This is the opening into it, becomes the mouth or anus
In protostomes, the blastophore becomes the....
In deuterostomes, it becomes the
This stage of embryonic develop occurs after gastrulation in birds, reptiles, and humans (called amniotes)
Extraembryonic membrane development
In the extraembryonic membrane formed during embryonic development, this is the outer membrane
For birds and mammals, it is a membrane for
In mammals, it implants into the ____ and later, it plus maternal tissue form the
Implants into the endometrium, form the placenta
The the development of the extraembryonic membrane during embryonic development, this is the sac that buds off from the archenteron, that eventually circles the embryo forming a layer below the chorion
In birds and reptiles; it initially stores waste products as ________. later it fuses with the ______ for gas exchange with the blood vessels below it
In mammals, it transports waste products to the ______, and eventually forms the ______ between the embryo and placenta
In adults, what does it become?
Placenta, umbilical cord
In the extraembryonic membrane development, this is a fluid filled cavity that cushions the developing embryo, much like the coelom cushions internal organs in coelomates
it is enclosed by the
In extraembryonic development in bird and reptiles, this membrane digests enclosed yolk. Nutrients are transferred to the embryo via
In placental animals, the yolk sac is __________ because the umbilical cord/placenta delivers nutrients
Yolk sac membrane
Fish and amphibians have external fertilization in water. Reptiles, birds and some mammals have internal fertilization then lay eggs. Do these have a placenta?
In certain animals (marsupials and tropical fish), there is no placenta (non placental internal development), so there is a limited exchange of food and _____ between mother and young
In placental internal development, the major components are the umbilical cord and placenta system; _____ is received directly from mother, nutrients too.
Metabolic wastes and ____ are removed via the placenta system.
O2 (fetal lungs no fxnal until birth)
Placenta and umbilical form from outgrowths of the ____, ____, _____ and ____
This part contains fluid as a shock absorber
Placenta formation begins with with part?
The blood vessels of the ______ wall enlarge and become umbilical vessels, connecting fetus to the placenta
The vessels of the ________ becomes associated with umbilical vessels
Amnion, chorion, allantois, and yolk sac
Amnion (amniotic fluid)
This is the term for embryo development in a mother leading to live birth
This stage of embryonic develop has cells continuin to divide after gastrulation, they differentiate and develop into specific tissues and organs
Chordates possess these two things
These two things are a part of what stage of embryonic development?
Notochord and Neural Tube
This aspect of chordates is cells along a dorsal surface of the mesoderm layer. It is a stiff rod that provides support in lower chordates.
Vertebrae of higher chordates are formed from nearby cells in the mesoderm
This aspect of chordates is in the ectoderm layer directly above the notochord, it is a layer of cells that forms the neural plate
The plate indents, forming the ______, then rolls into a cylinder forming the above mentioned thing.
What does this develop into?
Additional cells roll on top of it and forms this, which forms teeth, bones, muscles of the skull, pigments in skin, and nerve tissue
These two animals are exceptions to the general embryonic development patterens
In frogs, the sperm penetrates the frog egg, causing reorganization of the cytoplasm. The pigmented cap of the animal pole rotates towards the point of penetration while a _____ region forms opposite the point of penetration
It was found that each individual cell here during early cleavage could develop into a _____ if it had a small portion of gray crescent
This also occurs in frogs, the blastophore forms at the border between the gray crescent and vegetal pole. During _____ cells migrate over the top edge of and into the blastophore in a process called _____
The cells that migrate over the top edge form this in the same region previously occupied by the gray crescent
The blastocoel appears and is replaced by a different cavite, the
The bottom edge of the blastophore becomes ____, the side becomes ________
THERE IS FURTHER EXPLANATION OF THIS IN FERALIS!
This is also unique in frogs, it is more extensive than sea urchin, cells from the vegetal pole rich in yolk material form a ____ near the dorsal lip
In birds, the yolk of their egg is very large but not involved in cleavages. Cleavages only occur in blastula that consist of a flattened, disk shaped region that sits on top of the yolk called a
In birds, when gastrulation begins, invagination occurs along a line called a ______
As cells migrate to here, it results in an elongated ______ rather than a circular one as in sea urchins and frogs
Primitive streak (rather than a circle)
In humans and other mammals, the blastula stage consists of two pars
This is an outer ring of cells
This is an inner mass of cells the _______. It goes on to form the _____ and ______
The name of the cell containing both of these is the
Embryonic Disc; epiblast and hypoblast
This is the structure in the blastocyst in humans that goes on to form the endo/epi/mesoderm
Embryonic Disc (inner mass of cells)
This part of the blastocyst accomplishes implantation in humans by embedding in the endometrium
it produces ______ to maintain e+p production from the _________ (which in turn maintains the endometrium)
it later forms the ______ which later forms the _______
HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin); Corpus luteum
This part of the blastocyst is within the cavity created by the trophoblast, the inner cell mass clusters at one poll and flattens into the...
Its analagous to the _________ of birds and reptiles
What then develops that leads to gastrulation?
There is unequal distribution of _____ in eggs, which results in embryonic axes such as animal and vegetal poles (gray crescent in frogs and yolk in bird eggs)
When cleavages divide the egg, daughter cells have different quality of cyoplasmic substances which influence the subsequent development of each duaghter cell. These differences are called
In sea urchin, the embryo is cut into two halves. If it is longitudinal, the embryo has cells from the animal and vegetal poles leading to ABNORMAL/NORMAL development
If it is a horizontal cut, the embryo has cells from one or the other, leading to ABNORMAL/NORMAL development
What does this confirm?
Cytoplasmic Determinants affect development
In the embryo, one cell or group of cells can exert influence over neighboring cells. This is called ________
These are controller cells that diffuse among neighboring cells and influence their development (dorsal lip fxns as primary organizer of blastophore)
What does the dorsal lip induce the development of in nearby cells?
These control embryonic development, they code for substances that directly affect development of specific structures and can be turned on or off.
This is a unique DNA segment of 180 nts that identifies a particular class of genes that controls development. It encodes a homeodomain protein that can bind DNA
Programmed cell death that is a part of normal cell development. Essential for development of nervous system, operation of immune system, and destroy tissue (webbing) between fingers/toes.
If damaged cells don't undergo programmed cell death, what might develop?
Cell death is regulated by ___ activity, in a normal cell they are inactive
Apoptosis is important for development!
What organelle in mammals plays a vital role in apoptosis?
Characteristics of apoptosis: changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation. There
is no cellular rupturing, no inflammatory response. The dead cells are engulfed. Typically affects single cells.
If a cell is in its final form and cannot be changed, it is said to be.
Determination is likely LATER/EARLIER rather than LATER/EARLIER
later rather than earlier; cytoplasmic influences narrowed by successive cell division
Cells can be traced during development to develop a
Labor is a series of strong ______ contractions
In the first step, the _____ thins out and dilates, the _______ ruptures and releases fluids
Rapid contractions are followed by birth. Uterus contractions expel ___ and ____
Cervix; amniotic Sac
Umbilical cord and placenta
Fraternal twins result from...
Identical twins result from...
More than one egg being fertilized