Section 12: Animal Reproduction and Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 12: Animal Reproduction and Development Deck (118):
1

In non-animals, a sexual reproduction benefits from a stable environment since offspring are ____

Sexual reproduction's strength is

Clones

Variation

2

This is separation of an organism into two new cells (amoeba)

Fission

3

This type of reproduction is when a new individual splits of from existing one (hydra)

Budding

4

This type of reproduction is when a single parent breaks into parts that regenerate into new individuals (sponge/planaria/starfish)

Fragmentation and regeneration

5

This is the development of an egg without fertilization; resulting adult is haploid (honey bees, some lizards

Parthenogenesis

6

Human reproductive anatomy is a ____ month gestation

9 month gestation

7

This is the reproductive structure responsible for production of gametes (male=testis, female = ovaries)

They are primary or secondary sex characteristics?

Gonads

Primary

8

The indications of sexual maturity that are not specifically involved in reproduction are called PRIMARY/SECONDARY sex characteristics

Secondary sex characteristics

9

In the female reproductive system, this is where the ova, or eggs, are produced.

How many does each female have?

Ovary

Two.

10

During reproduction the eggs move from ovary to uterus through the _________ also known as the fallopian/uterine tube, one for each ovary

The eggs are swept by

Oviduct

Fimbrae

11

This is where the fertilized ovum implants in the human female, on the inside wall. The development of the embryo occurs here until birth

What is the name of the inside wall?

Uterus

endometrium

12

At birth, the fetus passes through the _____ (opening in the uterus) through and out of the body

This part of the body is called the

Cervix

Vagina

13

In the male reproductive system, the testis consist of ______ for production of sperm

These produce male sex hormones (testosterone=androgen) secreted in the presence of LH

Seminiferous tubules

Interstitial cells (Leydig cells)

14

These cells in the testis are stimulated by FSH, they surround and nurture sperm

They also secrete this peptide which acts on PitG1 to inhibit FSH release

Sertoli Cells

Inhibin

15

Testis contained in scrotum are about ____ degrees celsius lower than the body temp for sperm production

2 degrees celsius

16

In the male reproductive system, this is a coiled tube, one is attached to each testi, site for final maturation and storage of sperm

Epididymis

17

In the male reproductive system, this transfers sperms from one epididymis to the urethra

Vas Deferens

18

In the male reproductive system, these are two glands, which during ejaculation secrete into vas deferens, provide mucous (liquid for sperm), fructose as ATP and prostaglandins (stimulate uterine contraction that help sperm move into uterus)

Seminal Vesicles

19

In the male reproductive system, this secretes milky alkaline fluid into the urethra, it neutralizes the acidity of urine that may still be in the urethra. It also neutralizes seminal fluid (too acidic from metabolic waste for sperm)

Prostate Gland

20

These glands of the male reproductive system secrete a small amount of fluid of unknown function to urethra

Bulbourethral glands (aka Cowper's)

21

This part of the male reproductive system transports semen into the vagina

Penis

22

In the male reproductive system, these are compact packages of DNA specialized for effective male genome delivery

Sperm

23

This part of the sperm is haploid (23 chromosomes)

At the tip is a lysosome containing enzymes (hyaluronidase) which are used to penetrate the egg

The tip park mentioned above originates from _____ that fused together

Sperm Head

Acrosome

Golgi body vesicles

24

Only the _____ portion of the sperm enters the egg?

Nuclear

25

This part of the sperm is flagellum (9+2 microtubule array), lots of mitochondria

Midpiece

26

This part of the sperm is the remainder of the flagellum, sperm is propelled by whiplike motion of tail and midpiece

Tail

27

What does the acronym SEVEnUP stand for?

seminiferous tubules --> epidydmis --> vas deferens ---> ejaculatory duct --> urethra ----> penis

28

What type of cell divisions produce eggs (oogenesis) and sperm (spermatogenesis)?

Meiotic Cell Division

29

What contains most of the cytosplasm, RNA, organelles, and nutrients needed by a developing embyro?

The egg

30

This is cell division that produces eggs

During embryonic development, these are the fetal cells

They undergo mitosis to become

Here they remain at _______ until puberty

Oogenesis

Oocytes

primary oocytes

Prophase I

31

Once puberty hits in a female, how many primary oocytes are released every 28 days?

What is the primary oocyte stimulated by?

The primary oocytes that are stimulated and released continue the rest of their development for the remainder of meiosis I where? It protects and nourishes the primary oocyte.

One

FSH

Follicle

32

After developing through the follicle, the primary oocyte completes meiosis I and become a ______, which is most of the cytoplasm

It also becomes a _____, which has a small cytoplasm, it may or may not divide but its products disintegrate)

What phase of meiosis is the egg arrested in?

Until what occurs?

Secondary Oocyte

Polar Body

Meiosis II

Ovulation

33

During ovulation, the secondary oocyte is released from the __________

This is caused by a surge in what?

If it is fertilized by sperm, it completes what phase?

The ovum/egg is diploid or haploid?

What degenerates?

Vesicular follice

LH

Meiosis II

diploid once completely fertilized

The polar body

34

This is cell division that produces sperm

It begins at puberty within the _______ of testes

These cells undergo mitosis initially

They become

Spermatogenesis

Seminiferous tubules

Spermatogonia

Primary Spermatocytes

35

The primary spermatocytes undergo ________ and become 2 secondary spermatocytes

The 2 secondary spermatocytes undergo _______

They then become....

How many?

Meiosis

Meiosis II

Spermatids

4

36

These cells are in seminiferous tubules and provide nourishment to spermitids as they differentiate into mature sperm

Another term for sperm is..

The sperm complete maturation (gain motility and are stored) where?

Sertoli Cells

Spermatozoa

Epidymis

37

What are the two cycles of the female reproductive cycle?

Ovarian cycle (ovary) and mestrual cycle (uterus)

38

What two things initiate the menstrual cycle?

What do they monitor?

Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland

Estrogen and progesterone in the blood

39

If there is a low level of estrogen and progesterone in blood, what releases GnRH which causes the release of FSH and LH?

This happens via the anterior pituitary gland with what type of feedback?

What then develops?

FSH stimulates it to release

Hypothalamus

Negative Feedback

The follicle

Estrogen

40

When the follicle releases estrogen, a lot of it, what type of feedback occurs on the anterior pituitary gland?

What does this cause?

Which leads to....

The follice is now ______, maintained by LH

Positive Feedback

LH surge

Ovulation

Corpus Luteum

41

When the follicle becomes the corpus luteum, it secretes...

This causes the development of the

Progesterone and Estrogen

Endometrium

42

If there is no implantation on the endometrium during the female reproductive cycle, what type of feedback occurs on the anterior pituitary gland?

This terminates the production of....

Caused by the decrease of what from the hypothalamus?

Negative Feedback

FSH and LH

GnRH

43

If there is no implantation during the female reproductive cycle, the loss of GnRH from the hypothalamus causes _____ to no longer be maintained by LH so it disintegrates

What does it become, with no more estrogen and progesterone

This leads to shedding of the ______ during menstruation's flow phase

Corpus Luteum

Corpus Albicans

Endometrium

44

If implantation occurs during the female reproductive cycle, what does the embryo secrete?

What does it maintain?

So the production of what remains high?

So is the endometrium shed?

HCG is later replaced by ________ from the placenta

chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

Corpus luteum

Estrogen and progesterone

Nope.

Progesterone

45

In the ovarian cycle, this phase is the development of the egg

Secretion of _____ also occurs in the follicle

Follicular Phase

Estrogen

46

During the ovarian cycle, this phase is the midcycle release of an egg

Ovulation

47

During the ovarian cycle, this phase is the secretion of estrogen and progesterone from the corpus luteum after ovulation

Luteal Phase

48

This hormone released during the female reproductive cycle thickens the endometrium

Estrogen

49

This hormone released during the female reproductive cycle is important for the development and maintenance of the endometrial wall

Progesterone

50

During the male reproductive cycle, GnRH stimulates the release of...

LH is also called

The release of these molecules triggers the release of.....

FSH + LH

ICSH (interstitial cell stimulating hormone)

Testosterone and androgens from the tesis

51

FSH and testosterone, during the male reproductive cycle, influence _____ cells to promote development of sperm. They nourish sperm during spermatogenesis

Sertoli

52

Hormone and gamete production for males is CONSTANT unlike in females!

Win! No blood!

53

What are the four stages of growth and development of an animal

Gametogenesis
Embryonic Development
Reproductive Maturity
Aging and Death

54

This stage of growth in humans is the sperm/egg formation

This stage is fertilization of egg until birth

This is the process of reaching puberty

The last one is the aging process to death...can't really ask yourself about it

Gametogenesis

Embryonic Development

Reproductive Maturity

55

In mammals, embryonic development has two stages. Embryonic is followed by...

This is the term for an embryo that resembles the infant forms

Fetal development

Fetus

56

This stage of embryonic development is when the sperm penetrates the plasma membrane of the secondary oocyte

Before penetration, the sperm secretes proteins that bind with the receptor that reside on the glycoprotein layer surrounding of an oocyte to ensure same species fertilization. This is called

In humans, the glycoprotein layer is they

Fertilization

Recognition

Vitelline layer - zone pellucida

57

This is the glycoprotein membrane surrounding the plasma membrane of an oocyte. It is external but essential to the oocyte.

It first appears in unilaminar oocytes; it is secreted by both the oocyte and follicular cells. At puberty, _____ stimulates the growth of granulosa cells around the primary oocyte that secretes the viscous zona pellucoda)

Zone pellucida

FSH

58

The zone of pellucida binds ________ (IMPORTANT!)

It is required to initiate the release of sperm contents of the acrosome as it approaches the egg, this process is called the

Sperm

Acrosome Reaction

59

5 days after fertilization, the blastocyst performs _____, where the zona pellucida degenerates and is replaced by an underlying layer of trophoblastic cells so it can implant in the uterus

Zone Hatching

60

Fertilization can be external in what substance?

What animals can this occur in?

Does this mean more or less eggs?

Water.

Frogs/amphibians

More eggs, less parental care needed so they can lay more eggs

61

This is the phase of fertilization where the plasma membrane of the sperm and oocyte fuse, and the sperm nucleus enters the oocyte

Penetration

62

After penetration during fertilization, the vitelline layer forms a __________ membrane which blocks additional sperm

The membrane forms due to the ____ reaction, the exocytosis of enzyes produced by cortical granules in the egg cytoplasm during fertilization.

Slow block or fast block in mammals?

Fertilization membrane

Cortical Reaction

Slow Block

63

After formation of the fertilization membrane, the sperm penetration triggers ______

What are produced?

Meiosis 2

Ovum + polar body

64

After the completion of meiosis II in the secondary oocyte, what is created by the sperm and ovum nuclei fusing?

Diploid or haploid in humans?

How many pairs in humans?

Zygote

Diploid

23

65

This is the second stage of embryonic development, in which rapid cell divisions occur without cell growth

Each cell is called a

Cleavage

Blastomere

66

During the cleavage stage of fertilization, the egg has an upper ____ pole and a lower _____ pole

Which contains more yolk material which is denser than the cytoplasm, settles at the bottom, and differentiates into the extraembryonic membranes that protect/nourish the embryo

Upper animal pole

Lower vegetable pole

Vegetal pole

67

During the cleavage stage of fertilization, the early cleavages are ______, they divide the egg into segments that stretch from pole to pole (think segments of an orange). Others are parallel with the equator (equatorial)

Polar

68

In deuterostomes, cleavage is ____

In protostomes, it is

Radial

Spiral Determinate

69

This type of cleavage has cells at animal and vegetal poles aligned together

This type has cells on top shifted relative to those below

Radial

Spiral Determinate

70

This type of cleavage means blastomeres can individually complete normal
development if separated

Indeterminate Cleavages

71

This type of cleavage means the blastomeres cannot develop into complete embryo if separated; each is differentiated into part of
the embryo

Determinate

72

Note: fertilization takes place in the

Cleavage occurs while it is swept

Embryo is at the ___ stage by the time is reaches the uterus for implantation

Oviduct

Blastula

73

In this stage of embryonic development, successive cleavage results in a solid ball of cells (about 8 cells at this stage)

The first cells are able to differentiate into all cells, called

Morula

Totipotent

74

In this stage of embryonic development, cell division continues, liquid fills the morula and pushes cells out to form a circular cavity surrounded by a single layer of cells. About 128 cells are at this stage

This is the cavity

Blastula

Blastocoel

75

In humans, the blastula is called the _____ and implants into the ________

Blastocyst

Endometrium

76

In this stage of embryonic development, invagination into the blastula occurs, forming a two layered embryo with an opening from outside to the center of the cavity

Gastrulation

77

What are the three germ layers during gastrulation?

Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm

78

This germ layer during gastrulation is the epithelial lining of the digestive and respiratory tracked; parts of the liver, pancreas, thyroid, and urinary bladder lining

Endoderm

79

This germ layer in gastrulation is muscoskeletal, circulatory system, excretory system, gonads, connective tissue, portions of digestive and respiratory tract, and notochord

Mesoderm

80

This germ layer is the nervous system (brain and spinal cord), integuement (Epidermis, hair, epithelium of nose, mouth, anal canal), sense structures (eye, retina), teeth, neural tube

Ectoderm

81

Some primitive animals (sponges, cnidarian) will develop ____, a noncellular layer, instead of mesoderm

Mesoglea

82

This is the cavity formed by gastrulation

This is the opening into it, becomes the mouth or anus

Archenteron

Blastophore

83

In protostomes, the blastophore becomes the....

In deuterostomes, it becomes the

Mouth

Anus

84

This stage of embryonic develop occurs after gastrulation in birds, reptiles, and humans (called amniotes)

Extraembryonic membrane development

85

In the extraembryonic membrane formed during embryonic development, this is the outer membrane

For birds and mammals, it is a membrane for

In mammals, it implants into the ____ and later, it plus maternal tissue form the

Chorion

Gas exchange

Implants into the endometrium, form the placenta

86

The the development of the extraembryonic membrane during embryonic development, this is the sac that buds off from the archenteron, that eventually circles the embryo forming a layer below the chorion

In birds and reptiles; it initially stores waste products as ________. later it fuses with the ______ for gas exchange with the blood vessels below it

In mammals, it transports waste products to the ______, and eventually forms the ______ between the embryo and placenta

In adults, what does it become?

Allantois

Uric Acid\

Chorion

Placenta, umbilical cord

Urinary Bladder

87

In the extraembryonic membrane development, this is a fluid filled cavity that cushions the developing embryo, much like the coelom cushions internal organs in coelomates

it is enclosed by the

Amniotic Cavity

Amnion

88

In extraembryonic development in bird and reptiles, this membrane digests enclosed yolk. Nutrients are transferred to the embryo via

In placental animals, the yolk sac is __________ because the umbilical cord/placenta delivers nutrients

Yolk sac membrane

Blood vessels

Empty

89

Fish and amphibians have external fertilization in water. Reptiles, birds and some mammals have internal fertilization then lay eggs. Do these have a placenta?

No.

90

In certain animals (marsupials and tropical fish), there is no placenta (non placental internal development), so there is a limited exchange of food and _____ between mother and young

O2

91

In placental internal development, the major components are the umbilical cord and placenta system; _____ is received directly from mother, nutrients too.

Metabolic wastes and ____ are removed via the placenta system.

O2 (fetal lungs no fxnal until birth)

CO2

92

Placenta and umbilical form from outgrowths of the ____, ____, _____ and ____

This part contains fluid as a shock absorber

Placenta formation begins with with part?

The blood vessels of the ______ wall enlarge and become umbilical vessels, connecting fetus to the placenta

The vessels of the ________ becomes associated with umbilical vessels

Amnion, chorion, allantois, and yolk sac

Amnion (amniotic fluid)

Chorion

Allantois

Yolk sac

93

This is the term for embryo development in a mother leading to live birth

Vivaparous

94

This stage of embryonic develop has cells continuin to divide after gastrulation, they differentiate and develop into specific tissues and organs

Organogenesis

95

Chordates possess these two things

These two things are a part of what stage of embryonic development?

Notochord and Neural Tube

Organogenesis

96

This aspect of chordates is cells along a dorsal surface of the mesoderm layer. It is a stiff rod that provides support in lower chordates.

Vertebrae of higher chordates are formed from nearby cells in the mesoderm

Notochord

97

This aspect of chordates is in the ectoderm layer directly above the notochord, it is a layer of cells that forms the neural plate

The plate indents, forming the ______, then rolls into a cylinder forming the above mentioned thing.

What does this develop into?

Additional cells roll on top of it and forms this, which forms teeth, bones, muscles of the skull, pigments in skin, and nerve tissue

Neural Tube

Neural Groove

CNS

Neural Crest

98

These two animals are exceptions to the general embryonic development patterens

Frog (amphibian)

Bird

99

In frogs, the sperm penetrates the frog egg, causing reorganization of the cytoplasm. The pigmented cap of the animal pole rotates towards the point of penetration while a _____ region forms opposite the point of penetration

It was found that each individual cell here during early cleavage could develop into a _____ if it had a small portion of gray crescent

Gray Crescent

Frog

100

This also occurs in frogs, the blastophore forms at the border between the gray crescent and vegetal pole. During _____ cells migrate over the top edge of and into the blastophore in a process called _____

The cells that migrate over the top edge form this in the same region previously occupied by the gray crescent

The blastocoel appears and is replaced by a different cavite, the

The bottom edge of the blastophore becomes ____, the side becomes ________

Gastrulation

Involution

Dorsal Lip

Archenteron

Ventral lip

Lateral lip

THERE IS FURTHER EXPLANATION OF THIS IN FERALIS!

101

This is also unique in frogs, it is more extensive than sea urchin, cells from the vegetal pole rich in yolk material form a ____ near the dorsal lip

Yolk Plug

102

In birds, the yolk of their egg is very large but not involved in cleavages. Cleavages only occur in blastula that consist of a flattened, disk shaped region that sits on top of the yolk called a

Blastodisc

103

In birds, when gastrulation begins, invagination occurs along a line called a ______

As cells migrate to here, it results in an elongated ______ rather than a circular one as in sea urchins and frogs

Primitive streak (rather than a circle)

Blastophore

104

In humans and other mammals, the blastula stage consists of two pars

This is an outer ring of cells

This is an inner mass of cells the _______. It goes on to form the _____ and ______

The name of the cell containing both of these is the

Trophoblast

Embryonic Disc; epiblast and hypoblast

blastocyst

105

This is the structure in the blastocyst in humans that goes on to form the endo/epi/mesoderm

Embryonic Disc (inner mass of cells)

106

This part of the blastocyst accomplishes implantation in humans by embedding in the endometrium

it produces ______ to maintain e+p production from the _________ (which in turn maintains the endometrium)

it later forms the ______ which later forms the _______

Trophoblast

HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin); Corpus luteum

chorion; placenta

107

This part of the blastocyst is within the cavity created by the trophoblast, the inner cell mass clusters at one poll and flattens into the...

Its analagous to the _________ of birds and reptiles

What then develops that leads to gastrulation?

Embryonic Disc

Blastodisc

Primitive Streak

108

There is unequal distribution of _____ in eggs, which results in embryonic axes such as animal and vegetal poles (gray crescent in frogs and yolk in bird eggs)

When cleavages divide the egg, daughter cells have different quality of cyoplasmic substances which influence the subsequent development of each duaghter cell. These differences are called

Cytoplasm

Cytoplasmic determinants

109

In sea urchin, the embryo is cut into two halves. If it is longitudinal, the embryo has cells from the animal and vegetal poles leading to ABNORMAL/NORMAL development

If it is a horizontal cut, the embryo has cells from one or the other, leading to ABNORMAL/NORMAL development

What does this confirm?

Normal Development

Abnormal development

Cytoplasmic Determinants affect development

110

In the embryo, one cell or group of cells can exert influence over neighboring cells. This is called ________

These are controller cells that diffuse among neighboring cells and influence their development (dorsal lip fxns as primary organizer of blastophore)

What does the dorsal lip induce the development of in nearby cells?

Embryonic Induction

Organizers

Notochord development

111

These control embryonic development, they code for substances that directly affect development of specific structures and can be turned on or off.

This is a unique DNA segment of 180 nts that identifies a particular class of genes that controls development. It encodes a homeodomain protein that can bind DNA

Homeotic Genes

Homeobox

112

Programmed cell death that is a part of normal cell development. Essential for development of nervous system, operation of immune system, and destroy tissue (webbing) between fingers/toes.

If damaged cells don't undergo programmed cell death, what might develop?

Cell death is regulated by ___ activity, in a normal cell they are inactive

Apoptosis is important for development!

Cancer

Protein

113

What organelle in mammals plays a vital role in apoptosis?

Characteristics of apoptosis: changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation. There
is no cellular rupturing, no inflammatory response. The dead cells are engulfed. Typically affects single cells.

Mitochondria

114

If a cell is in its final form and cannot be changed, it is said to be.

Determination is likely LATER/EARLIER rather than LATER/EARLIER

Determined

later rather than earlier; cytoplasmic influences narrowed by successive cell division

115

Cells can be traced during development to develop a

Lineage Map

116

Labor is a series of strong ______ contractions

In the first step, the _____ thins out and dilates, the _______ ruptures and releases fluids

Rapid contractions are followed by birth. Uterus contractions expel ___ and ____

Uterine

Cervix; amniotic Sac

Umbilical cord and placenta

117

Fraternal twins result from...

Identical twins result from...

More than one egg being fertilized

indeterminate cleavage

118

These are a group of tetrapods (four-limbed animals with backbones or spinal columns) that have a terrestrially adapted egg; supported by several extraembryonic membranes.

Amniotes