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Flashcards in Sessin2 Deck (49):
1

Gram stain procedure seperates bacteria according to their__________.

CELL WALL COMPOSITION

2

What type of microbacteria cannot be identified using gram stain & why?

Mycoplasma, no cell wall

3

Explain gram stain procedure

1) droplets with crystal violet drops
2)droplets with iodine

ALL CELLS WILL APPEAR PURPLE

add ethanol or alchohol,

IF STAINED

GRAM + >> remain purple
GRAM - >>colourless

4

What is gram stain

Seperates bacteria accordimg to their cell wall composition (gram - or gram +)

5

How do u name bacteria

Surname + firstname
Genus + species
Ex: Staohyloccua aureus

6

Difference btw gram negative & positive

Notes

7

2 types of fungi? R they prokaryotes or eukaryote, give examples

YEASTS & MOULD

eukaryote

Candida and Aperillgus

8

Describe structure of virus

Notes

9

Example of protazoa common in the uk?

Giardia lambila

10

How can u classify viruses?

RNA & DNA
Single/double stranded
Elveloped/non-enveloped

11

Classify Herpes Virus

Double stranded & enveloped✉️

Type>1>>infected via kissing, get them in ur lips
Type>2>> associated more in genital conditions

Once u have it, u have it forever

12

Classify the adenovirus, what 3 diseases can they cause?

Double stranded & non enveloped,

-respiratory tract infections
-gastroenteritis
-conjunctivitis👀

Adenoviruses all replicate well in epithelial cells. The observed symptoms are related primarily to the killing of these cells

13

Function of the envelope in the virus

Helps virus attach to host cells

14

Norovirus

common causes of viral GASTEROENTERITIS worldwide.

-members of Caliciviridae
-Common in hospital!
-One particle can cause infection in 50 % of ppl!!! rapid onset of vomitting & diharrea, lasts only for a couple of days
-fecal oral route 💩 is usal tramission &
Aerosol.💦
-highly stable in the environment and can be transmitted by contaminated food or water 💧🍎

**No specific treatments for norovirus-induced disease exist.

15

In gram staining, what has rhe peptidoglycan layer got to do with this?

It retains the colour

16

How do u name bacteria

Surname + firstname
Genus + species
Ex: Staohyloccua aureus

17

Difference btw gram negative & positive

Notes

18

2 types of fungi? R they prokaryotes or eukaryote, give examples

YEASTS & MOULD

19

Describe structure of virus

Notes

20

Example of protazoa common in the uk?

Giardia lambila

21

How can u classify viruses?

RNA & DNA
Single/double stranded
Elveloped/non-enveloped

22

Classify the adenovirus, what 3 diseases can they cause?

Double stranded & non enveloped,

-respiratory tract infections
-gastroenteritis
-conjunctivitis👀

Adenoviruses all replicate well in epithelial cells. The observed symptoms are related primarily to the killing of these cells

23

Function of the envelope in the virus

Helps virus attach to host cells

24

Norovirus

Common in hospital! One particle can cause infection in 50 % of ppl!!! rapid onset of vomitting & diharrea, lasts only for a couple of days

25

In gram staining, what has rhe peptidoglycan layer got to do with this?

It retains the colour

26

differentiate btw cocci and bacilli

bacillius (rod shaped)
coccus (round)

27

what r endotoxins, which gram stain bacteria r they found on?

endotoxin is a synonomous w/ LIPOPOLYSACCARIDE (LPS)
it is part of the LPS found on the outer membrane & triggers inflammation

28

neisseria meningitidis is what type of bacteria? how does it cause toxicity? what disease does it cause? how is it spread and how can u prevent it?

gram negative coccus
-meningococcal meningitis
-direct contact with respiratory secretion (spread by aerosols and nasopharyngeal secretions)

-vaccination
-antibiotic prophylaxis

29

human papilloma virus. what can it cause?

some types cause cervical cancer,
other cause warts

30

what does vertical transmission mean? give an example of a virus that transmitts this way

transfer of an infecting organism from mother to child before or at birth.

Rubella

31

ALL viruses have a ________

capsids or protien coat

32

what is helicobacter pylori?

gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium found usually in the stomach, causes stomach ulcer & stomach cancer, it can survive in the highly acidic environment

33

what is the main difference between endotoxin and exotoxin?

endotoxin means its part of the bacteria structure
"ENDO"=w/in
part of LPS, it is highly toxic and can trigger an inflammatory response.

Exotoxins r protein secreted by bacteria and go OUT into the surrounding blood and tissue.
"EXO"= OUT

34

what do u call an exotoxin that act on the bowel? neuron?

enterotoxin
neurotoxin

35

brief definition of sepsis and which class of bacteria effects it?

--systemic inflammation due to infection

--sepsis is usually associated with Gram
Negative bacteria (although Gram positive bacteria can also cause sepsis in some situations).

36

what is sepsis?

Sepsis happens when the body's immune system - the way the body responds to bugs and germs - goes into overdrive.

The initial problem can be quite mild and start anywhere - from a cut on the finger to a chest or urine infection, for example.

But when the immune system overreacts this can lead to an unintended but catastrophic attack on the body.

37

what goes wrong in peritonitis?

bacteria gets into perontineal cavity & cause infection

38

how is coagulation related to sepsis? how do cytokines have a role in this?

cytokines promote the formation of THROMBIN and promotes coagulation,
this coagulation will lead to thrombosis of the circulation> organ ischemia >dysfunction> failure.

39

which type of treatment is very important when consdidering sepsis? & why
-specific
-supportive

supportive, bc we need to restore the body back to its normal physiological state.

40

if a bacteria is encapsulated , is that useful for them or not? explain.
give an example

yes its useful, the capsule in "antiphagocytic" and the most important virulence factor.

-meningicoccal meningtis> capsule helps staid maintenance of infection.

41

explain the structure, type, location pathogenesis, age risk factors, transmission prevention of N. meningioccosus

-diplococci, gram negative
-kidney bean shaped
serogroups A,B,C
-sits in nasopharynx mucosa
-aerosols and respiratory droplets
-has endotoxins
25% young adults

Prevention
-Vaccination
-antibiotics "PROPHYLAXIS"

42

what is the clinical significance of N. meningitis?

can lead to

-meningitis
-septicaemia

43

what does the N.meningicoccus normally do?
what happens if this were to spread in systemic blood?

normally colonises the nasopharynx, if it gets into the blood it can cause:

-meningitis
-septicaemia

44

What are Virulence factors?

Molecules produced by bacteria that add to their effectivness.

45

What r spores?

First off, you might think of a bacterial spore roughly as a mummified bacterium. The spore has a hard protective coating that encases the key parts of the bacterium—think of this coating as the sarcophagus that protects a mummy. The spore also has layers of protective membranes, sort of like the wrappings around a mummy. Within these membranes and the hard coating, the dormant bacterium is able to survive for weeks, even years, through drought, heat and even radiation

46

Types of virulemce factors?

--Host entry (e.g. polysaccharide capsule
– Adherence to host cells (e.g. pili and fimbriae)
– Invasiveness (e.g. enzymes such as collagenase)
– Iron sequestration (siderophores)

47

Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Lecture

48

how do u treat herpes?

Aciclovoir

49

what causes chicken pox?

Varicella zoster