What is a monoclonal antibody?
Monoclonal antibodies are monovalent antibodies which bind to the same epitope and are produced from a single B-lymphocyte clone
How do monoclonal antibodies work in autoimmune diseases? Give 3 examples
- Bind to cell surface receptor to activate signalling within the cell
- Bind to cell surface receptor to inhibit signalling within the cell
- Bind and internalised (into cell) for antibodies delivering toxins into cancer cells
- Block inhibitory effects on T cells
Name 3 examples of a monoclonal antibody and the disease in which it is used?
Rituximab (a monoclonal antibody against CD20). Used for B cell lymphoma (cancer) as CD 20 is expressed on the surface of all B cells
Trastuzumab– breast cancer – inhibition of HER-2 signalling
(trust her breasts)
Infliximab – many auto-immune conditions e.g. Rheumatoid Arthritis, Crohns, Psoriasis – inhibition of TNF (one of the inflammatory cytokines)