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Flashcards in Autoimmune diseases Deck (16):
1

Define autoimmunity.

Immune response against the host due to the loss of immunological tolerance of self antigen(s). (In healthy individuals, there is some degree of autoimmunity)

2

Define autoimmune disease.

Disease caused by tissue damage or disturbed physiological responses due to an auto-immune response.

3

What are the different clinical patterns of autoimmune disease?

* Organ specific – one or multiple self antigens within once single organ or tissue 

* Non-organ specific – wide distributed self antigens throughout the bod

4

Why are non-organ specific autoimmune diseases more difficult to manage than organ specific autoimmune diseases?

Non-organ specific autoimmune diseases are more difficult to manage because they require non-specific drugs which could have an impact on the morbidity and mortality of the patient.

5

Give some examples of common autoimmune diseases and their target autoantigens.

(in terms of organ specific and non-organ specific)

6

Give some examples of common autoimmune diseases and their clinical features 

7

Depending on the type of hypersensitivity reaction that occurs, there are different immune mechanisms of damage for each autoimmune disease.

What are the different immune mechanisms of tissue damage

* Autoantibodies 

  • o Complement activation 
  • o Antibody-mediated cell cytotoxicity 
  • o Neutrophil activation 

 

* Autoreactive T cells 

  • o Cytotoxic T cells 
  • o Macrophages

8

What are the criteria that need to be fulfilled to confirm that a disease is autoimmune?

* Presence of autoantibodies/autoreactive T cells (indicates loss of tolerance) 

* Levels of autoantibodies correlate with disease severity 

* Autoantibodies/autoreactive T cells found at the site of tissue damage 

* Transfer of autoantibody or autoreactive T cells to a healthy host induces the autoimmune disease 

* Clinical benefit provided by immunomodulatory therapy 

* Family history

9

name diseases indiced by these

10

What are the triggers for autoimmunity?

Genetic factors

Environmental factors 

o Hormones – more common in women 

o Infections 

o Drugs

 

11

name some infection induced autoimmune disorders

(name pathogen and disease in causes)

12

name some drug- induced autoimmune disorders

13

Management of autoimmune diseases

14

What are monoclonal antibodies?

 Monoclonal just means all one type. So each MAB is a lot of copies of one type of antibody.

 

MABs are made in a laboratory.

15

What are the uses of monoclonal antibodies/magic bullet?

  • Diagnostics 
  • Therapeutic
  • Cancer 
  1. Blood/haematological cancers 
  2. Solid tumours 
  • Auto-immune conditions

16