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Flashcards in Travel related infections Deck (49):
1

Malaria is an infection caused by_______species.

Name (4) types of these species

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2

what is Malaria? what causes it?

where is it most commonly seen?

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3

which is the most dangerous plasmodial species ? why?

P. falciparum

It can cause a rapidly fulminating disease, characterized by persistent high fever and orthostatic hypotension.

Infection can lead to capillary obstruction and death 

4

plasmodium gets into our blood stream by________, ok, what does it infect then?

female Anopheles mosquitos!

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5

Symptoms of Malaria,

Incubation period? does it differ btw the different types?

Minimum 6 days

P. falciparum: up to 6/12
P. vivax/ovale: up to 1 year+ 

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6

Malaria Main Diagnostic symptoms

SAC

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7

how does the mosqito first infect the human?

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8

Malaria Investigations (like what tests would u ask for)

Full blood count

Biochemistry:

Urea, Creatinine, Bilirubin, CRP

head CT

chest Xray

9

Malaria Life cycle

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10

 Malaria Treatment 

Depends on the Species!

For benign species P. vivax, ovale, malariae 

use Chloroquine + primaquine

If resistent

use Mefloquine or Atovaquone

 

if life threatenting!  

 

P. falciparum (‘malignant’) 

Use IV quinidine + doxycycline or artensunate

11

Prevention of malaria

Assess risk – knowledge of at risk areas

– Regular/returning travellers

Bite prevention
– Repellant, adequate clothing, nets
– Chemoprophylaxis before travel
– Must include regular/returning travellers

Chemoprophylaxis

– Specific to region

– Start before & Continue after return (generally 4 weeks) 

12

which of the 4 types of plasmodium speicies causes the worst infections?

how does it do so?

Plasmodium Falciparum!

>>those infected RBC cant go to the spleen to be destroyed!

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13

Diagnosis of Malaria

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14

P. malariae, P. vivax, & P. ovale cause milder forms of the disease, probably because they invade either young or old red cells, but not both.

 

This is in contrast to P. falciparum, which invades cells of all ages 

15

which antibiotic is P. Falcipiprum resistence against?

Chloroquine!

it hates the clorophyll queen!

16

what is an example of a Helminth (worm) and has a life cycle that involves water?

Schistosomiasis !

17

what type of worm is Schistosomiasis? where is it most commonly found?

flatworm , trpoical areas!

18

Helminths that cause deep tissue infections include members of all 3 helminth groups: name em

roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes 

19

how do u get helmiths in you? (4)

some by ingestion or penetration of the skin, either by direct entry of the parasites or by insect bites 

20

how do people aquire schistosomiasis ?

treatment?

exposure of unprotected skin to water containing infectious cercariae.

Snails r the host

 

Praziquantal!

good  quality prize!

21

life cycle of shistomiasis 

 

pretty cool but u dont need to know for the exam tho ;P

shistisoma's eggs r released by the poop of infected ppl

they hatch when the get into water

they then find a snail and get into their foot trandforing into LARVAE

Larvae gets out of snail and go for a nice swim

u get in the water and its attracted by the FFA in ur skin

it gets in ur blood and goes to liver where it matures into an ADULT worm

goes has sex 

lays eggs in your freaking intestinal blood plexus 

AAAAND ur fucked ;D

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22

what organism is usually found in man-made water systems such as cooling systems or spa pools. 

Legionella 

23

what is Legionella? how is it spread ? what does it do? what can it cause?

(Leigonella Pneaumphilia) is a bacteria that gets into ur upper respiratory tract into your lungs via aerosols or drinking contaminated water,

it gets into ur alveoli & although macrophages engulf it, it CANNOT FUSE with a lysozome, the bacteria multiplies until the phagosome ruptures! releaseing a new family!

 

 

It is a less-common cause of pneumonia 

 

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24

what does icterus mean?

jaundice visible in the naked eye

25

when do u see high eosoniphillia levels?

they r needed to fight parasitic worms!

high levels can indicate them fighting infection!

26

name this investigation

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The tiny dots reperesent parasites>>in this case malaria

27

how much of P. Faliciparum do u need to causes a severe infection? (%)

2%

f u 

28

***u need 3 negative blood smears to EXCLUDE malaria from ur diagnosis

29

what is typhiod and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever) ? and what organism causes it? what type of ppl does it effect? where in the world is it most common? mechanism of infection?

This is a severe, life-threatening systemic illness, characterized by bacteremia fever and, frequently, by abdominal symptoms.

caused by Salmonella typhi, which is related to the bacteria that cause salmonella food poisoning.

 

Children mainly

 

Asia (mainly indian)

 

Fecal-oral route and contaminated water!

 

 

30

Describe Salmonella Typhi and its virulence factors! how does it invade?

Aerobic gram - rod

A,B,C

fimbrae>> adhere to epithelial surface

Invasins>> allows intracellular growth!

 

causes disease by attaching to and invading macrophages of the intestinal lymphoid tissue (Peyer’s patches). The bacteria replicate rapidly within these cells,and eventually spread to the reticuloendothelial system (including both liver and spleen, which become enlarged)

 

 

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31

what r manifestations of typoid fever?

Rose spots on abdomen

Constipation (or diharrea)

Abdominol pain

fever

low HR

dry cough

 

maculopapular rash on the trunk (termed “rose spots”)

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32

complication of typhoid fever

treatment

Intestinal hemmorhage and perforation

ciprofloxacin

33

what r some non-salmonella typhoidal 

S.typhimurium and S.enteritidis

"food poisoning salmonella's"

34

difference btw typhoid and pararyphoid fever

35

before starting treament for  P vivax with primaquine, what do we test first and why?

check for G6PDH deficiency, cuz if there is deficeinycy and we giv ethem primaquine>> this leads to hemolysis

36

what causes Katayama fever?

Shistosome worms

il kat gal "shisssalfa"

37

if left untreated, what can shistomiasis lead to ? (3)

Fibrosis in the liver, bowel, bladder

38

What is Dengue? how is it transmitted?

an infection with arbovirus (3araboo) 

(dengue chna rag9 ma9ry, shmul)

 

-Aedes mosqito (aegypti A) thubana ma9reeya

they hate damp places, which makes it more dangerous cuz u can simply see it chilling in ur living room ;)

39

consequences of Dengue?

If re-infected!

 

• Dengue haemorrhagic fever >> low platelets

• Dengue shock syndrome >> due to low BP

 

40

what has happened here?

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Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly.

 

Arbovirus (flavivirus) – Aedes mosquito 

 

41

what type of virsu is Zika Virus? how is it transmitted? treatment?

Arbovirus (flavivirus) – Aedes mosquito 

no treatment, no vaccine

42

what r ur findings froma aFBC of Malaria?

– Anaemia / haemolysis; ↓Plts; ↓lymphocytes; ↑eosinophils 

43

what is EBOLA?

symptoms?

spread?

 

Filo virus >> first described in congo

(Filooooha yala 3ad, baboool)

Flu-like illness w/ vomitting, diarrhoea, headche, confusion, rash

internal and external bleeding!! at 5-7 days

By direct cotact w/ body fluids!

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44

what type of fever does ebola cause?

hemmorahagic fever

45

which groups of ppl r more likely to develop sever malaria?

-preganat women

-Children

-Elderly

46

what is MERS-Cov?

a coronavirus known to ayse severe repiratory illnes!

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47

what elements of the innate immune system r displayed to prevent respiratory infections from developing?

-ciliated epithelium (pushes it up)

-Goblet cells secrete mucous and contains IgA antibodies and lysozomes

-normal respiratory flora provide competition

- cough reflex

-Rich vasculature of respiratory system> means theres alot of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages

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49

what type of microorganism is influenza A?

Virus- spherical, enveloped RNA