Malaria is an infection caused by_______species.
Name (4) types of these species
what is Malaria? what causes it?
where is it most commonly seen?
which is the most dangerous plasmodial species ? why?
It can cause a rapidly fulminating disease, characterized by persistent high fever and orthostatic hypotension.
Infection can lead to capillary obstruction and death
plasmodium gets into our blood stream by________, ok, what does it infect then?
female Anopheles mosquitos!
Symptoms of Malaria,
Incubation period? does it differ btw the different types?
Minimum 6 days
P. falciparum: up to 6/12
P. vivax/ovale: up to 1 year+
Malaria Main Diagnostic symptoms
how does the mosqito first infect the human?
Malaria Investigations (like what tests would u ask for)
Full blood count
Urea, Creatinine, Bilirubin, CRP
Malaria Life cycle
Depends on the Species!
For benign species P. vivax, ovale, malariae
use Chloroquine + primaquine
use Mefloquine or Atovaquone
if life threatenting!
P. falciparum (‘malignant’)
Use IV quinidine + doxycycline or artensunate
Prevention of malaria
• Assess risk – knowledge of at risk areas
– Regular/returning travellers
• Bite prevention
– Repellant, adequate clothing, nets
– Chemoprophylaxis before travel
– Must include regular/returning travellers
– Specific to region
– Start before & Continue after return (generally 4 weeks)
which of the 4 types of plasmodium speicies causes the worst infections?
how does it do so?
>>those infected RBC cant go to the spleen to be destroyed!
Diagnosis of Malaria
P. malariae, P. vivax, & P. ovale cause milder forms of the disease, probably because they invade either young or old red cells, but not both.
This is in contrast to P. falciparum, which invades cells of all ages
which antibiotic is P. Falcipiprum resistence against?
it hates the clorophyll queen!
what is an example of a Helminth (worm) and has a life cycle that involves water?
what type of worm is Schistosomiasis? where is it most commonly found?
flatworm , trpoical areas!
Helminths that cause deep tissue infections include members of all 3 helminth groups: name em
roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes
how do u get helmiths in you? (4)
some by ingestion or penetration of the skin, either by direct entry of the parasites or by insect bites
how do people aquire schistosomiasis ?
exposure of unprotected skin to water containing infectious cercariae.
Snails r the host
good quality prize!
life cycle of shistomiasis
pretty cool but u dont need to know for the exam tho ;P
shistisoma's eggs r released by the poop of infected ppl
they hatch when the get into water
they then find a snail and get into their foot trandforing into LARVAE
Larvae gets out of snail and go for a nice swim
u get in the water and its attracted by the FFA in ur skin
it gets in ur blood and goes to liver where it matures into an ADULT worm
goes has sex
lays eggs in your freaking intestinal blood plexus
AAAAND ur fucked ;D
what organism is usually found in man-made water systems such as cooling systems or spa pools.
what is Legionella? how is it spread ? what does it do? what can it cause?
(Leigonella Pneaumphilia) is a bacteria that gets into ur upper respiratory tract into your lungs via aerosols or drinking contaminated water,
it gets into ur alveoli & although macrophages engulf it, it CANNOT FUSE with a lysozome, the bacteria multiplies until the phagosome ruptures! releaseing a new family!
It is a less-common cause of pneumonia
what does icterus mean?
jaundice visible in the naked eye
when do u see high eosoniphillia levels?
they r needed to fight parasitic worms!
high levels can indicate them fighting infection!
name this investigation
The tiny dots reperesent parasites>>in this case malaria
how much of P. Faliciparum do u need to causes a severe infection? (%)
***u need 3 negative blood smears to EXCLUDE malaria from ur diagnosis
what is typhiod and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever) ? and what organism causes it? what type of ppl does it effect? where in the world is it most common? mechanism of infection?
This is a severe, life-threatening systemic illness, characterized by bacteremia fever and, frequently, by abdominal symptoms.
caused by Salmonella typhi, which is related to the bacteria that cause salmonella food poisoning.
Asia (mainly indian)
Fecal-oral route and contaminated water!
Describe Salmonella Typhi and its virulence factors! how does it invade?
Aerobic gram - rod
fimbrae>> adhere to epithelial surface
Invasins>> allows intracellular growth!
causes disease by attaching to and invading macrophages of the intestinal lymphoid tissue (Peyer’s patches). The bacteria replicate rapidly within these cells,and eventually spread to the reticuloendothelial system (including both liver and spleen, which become enlarged)
what r manifestations of typoid fever?
Rose spots on abdomen
Constipation (or diharrea)
maculopapular rash on the trunk (termed “rose spots”)
complication of typhoid fever
Intestinal hemmorhage and perforation
what r some non-salmonella typhoidal
S.typhimurium and S.enteritidis
"food poisoning salmonella's"
difference btw typhoid and pararyphoid fever
before starting treament for P vivax with primaquine, what do we test first and why?
check for G6PDH deficiency, cuz if there is deficeinycy and we giv ethem primaquine>> this leads to hemolysis
what causes Katayama fever?
il kat gal "shisssalfa"
if left untreated, what can shistomiasis lead to ? (3)
Fibrosis in the liver, bowel, bladder
What is Dengue? how is it transmitted?
an infection with arbovirus (3araboo)
(dengue chna rag9 ma9ry, shmul)
-Aedes mosqito (aegypti A) thubana ma9reeya
they hate damp places, which makes it more dangerous cuz u can simply see it chilling in ur living room ;)
consequences of Dengue?
• Dengue haemorrhagic fever >> low platelets
• Dengue shock syndrome >> due to low BP
what has happened here?
Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly.
Arbovirus (flavivirus) – Aedes mosquito
what type of virsu is Zika Virus? how is it transmitted? treatment?
Arbovirus (flavivirus) – Aedes mosquito
no treatment, no vaccine
what r ur findings froma aFBC of Malaria?
– Anaemia / haemolysis; ↓Plts; ↓lymphocytes; ↑eosinophils
what is EBOLA?
Filo virus >> first described in congo
(Filooooha yala 3ad, baboool)
Flu-like illness w/ vomitting, diarrhoea, headche, confusion, rash
internal and external bleeding!! at 5-7 days
By direct cotact w/ body fluids!
what type of fever does ebola cause?
which groups of ppl r more likely to develop sever malaria?
what is MERS-Cov?
a coronavirus known to ayse severe repiratory illnes!
what elements of the innate immune system r displayed to prevent respiratory infections from developing?
-ciliated epithelium (pushes it up)
-Goblet cells secrete mucous and contains IgA antibodies and lysozomes
-normal respiratory flora provide competition
- cough reflex
-Rich vasculature of respiratory system> means theres alot of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages
what type of microorganism is influenza A?
Virus- spherical, enveloped RNA