Flashcards in Social and Cultural Developments in the Late Nineteenth Century Deck (43)
What occurred with regards to religion in the late nineteenth century?
Religious beliefs and institutions made a recovery in the period after 1815. Secular rulers saw religion as a bulwark for the existing social order, and the revolutions of 1848 spurred the trend toward state support of religion.
How did Catholicism reemerge in Europe?
Spain in 1851 declared Catholicism as the only religion of the Spanish people. In Austria, Joseph II's reforms on the Catholic Church were repealed.
What did Pope Pius IX issue in response to the revolutions of 1848? What doctrine did he put forward?
He wrote the Syllabus of Errors, which listed liberalism as one of the errors of modern life. He put forward the doctrine of "papal infallibility," where the pope could not be in error in matters of faith, alarming moderate Catholics.
What backlashes occurred against religious institutions?
In Germany, Bismarck saw Catholicism as a force that could rip apart Germany because of their ultimate loyalty. He attacked Catholic institutions in what was known as the Kulturkampf. Liberals and some conservatives were hostile to the inetervention of the Church.
What was Rerum Novarum?
It was a document issued by Pope Leo XIII. It reaffirmed the right of private property and bashed socialism, but said that Christianity had a responsibility to the poor. This led to the establishment of the Catholic Social Movement while in Protestant lands churches expanded their efforts on the behalf of the poor.
How was the Bible attacked as historical?
David Friedrich Strauss said that the Bible consisted of a series of myths formulate by the early Christians, containing a "Christ of faith, rather than the Jesus of history." George Eliot, Taylor Coleridge, and Ludwig Feuerbach argued that God was a man-made device that reflected our own inner sense of the divine.
What were examples of religious weakening in the 19th century?
A religious census in 1851 of Great Britain found that church attendance was much lower than expected and the working had little in connection with organized religion.
What were new opportunities for Jews in the 19th century?
The legal status of Jews improved. In 1858 Jews were allowed to enter the House of Commons in England, and over the following decade Jews received full political rights in Austria-Hungary and Germany.
What were new challenges for Jews in the 19th century?
There was still endemic social discrimination, with Jews often blocked from certain professions and government roles. Jews were seen as responsible for troubling trends in modern economic life like the department store, which put shopkeepers out of business. The depression of 1873 also led to prejudice.
What was the new form of anti-Semitism?
It was economic resentment combined with Social Darwinist notions of Jews as being part of a distinct and foreign race instead of a religious denomination.
How was Hitler's anti-Semitism influenced by the Austrian state?
Hitler's years in Vienna were spent in a city under Karl Lueger, who was elected mayor on an anti-Semitic platform.
What occurred in France that was emblematic of anti-Semitism?
The Dreyfus Affair in France, where a military officer Dreyfus was falsely accused of being a spy and passing information to the Germans, helped give rise to Action Francaise, a monarchist group that was also virulently anti-Semitic.
How were Jews put under Pressure in Russia?
The monarchy used attacks on Jews, called pogroms, as a tool for redirecting popular anger that would otherwise have been directed toward the throne.
What was Zionism?
It was the idea that the only way for Jews to live in peace would be through the establishment of a Jewish homeland.
Who was the leading advocate for Zionism?
Theodore Herzl who was horrified by the Dreyfus Affair. He wrote The Jewish State, in which he argued that Jews must have a state of their own. He formed a worldwide organization to achieve this goal called the First Zionist Congress.
How did the role of the family change in the nineteenth century?
The family no longer operated as an economic unit. There were increasingly separate spheres for both male and female work, with the male earning the money that provided for the family's support.
How did the concept of the family change with the new middle class?
The wealthy middle class created new gender standards. Among the families who had the money, the new standard was for a man's place to be in the workforce and a woman's to be in the home.
What was the "cult of domesticity?"
It was the idealization of the household and the female's place within it in the Victorian period.
What was expected of well-off women?
They were expected to be submissive, sexually pure, and religiously pious. Book were written to give tips to women on the running of their households and raising of their children.
What was expected of poorer families with regard to the role of women?
Working-class women worked just as hard as working-class men in the factories or in the form of domestic labor or servants. Many had multiple jobs and also had to raise children. They viewed the advice of middle-class women as patronizing.
What were limits on female education?
Women were increasingly confined to the home by outside institutions that limited the opportunities available to women.
What were additional barriers in the workforce?
The development of professional societies in areas like medicine and law provided women with an additional barrier.
What jobs did women traditionally occupy?
Women traditionally occupied the professions of primary school teachers, nurses, secretaries, and librarians, which also ensured they were poorly paid.
Who were women who countered this trend?
Frances Power Cobbe became one of the first female journalists, while Josephine Butler talked about sex publicly.
What did Josephine Butler found?
She helped found the Ladies National Association in 1869, which fought against the Contagious Diseases Act, which allowed for women who were deemed to be infected by STDs to be imprisoned.
Who were feminists?
They were a growing number of women who began to criticize the civil disabilities under which they lived, such as the lack of right to divorce or to possess property rights. These feminists began to organize organizations to help bring about change.
What was the main split between first-generation feminists?
They tended to be split over the issue of primary struggle for the vote or the improvement of social conditions.
What were the manifestations of this split in Great Britain?
Suffragists, women who worked peacefully for the vote, were often overshadowed by individuals who joined Emmeline Pankhurst's Women's Social and Political Union.
What actions did Emmiline Pankhurst and her followers take?
Pankhurst and her followers pursued a militant campaign of heckling speakers, breaking church windows, and committing arson.
What socioeconomic class of women were feminists?
They were generally middle class women, as working women usually did not have the opportunity to engage in politics.
When did women achieve the right to vote in Great Britain?
In 1918 English women finally achieved the right to vote.
What factor allowed women across Europe to achieve the right to vote?
The significant contribution that women made to the war effort during WWI also contributed to their eventual gain of the right to vote.
What were new opportunities to women? What were these women called?
Women had the possibility to be educators and physicians. Increased availability of birth control and greater educational and professional opportunities offered new possibilities for women. They were called "new women."
How did men react to the "new woman?"
Women were increasingly unsettled, seeing women as dangerous and destroying the social and moral fabric that had remained as the basis for society.
What conditions improved for women as a result of the new feminist movement?
The feminist movement improved and secured married women’s property rights, access to divorce, and child custody.
What were ideas of feminism like on the European mainland?
In France, a low birth rate fostered conservative family values among liberal Protestants and socialists as well as the Catholic majority, and therefore feminism found it harder to take hold. Men were seen as the heads of the household. In Germany, similar opinions were held, though to a lesser extent.
How did the revolutions of 1848 provide an opportunity for women to express their views?
In expanding suffrage to men, women also argued for the extension of the franchise to women.
Who were famous non-British feminists?
Jeanne Deroin petitioned and found clubs to try and gain support for the extension of the franchise, using her Saint-Simonian socialism as part of a justification. Louise Otto was a famous German feminist who argued that women should be properly educated and argued that emancipation for women did did not imply sexual licentiousness.
How did the the study of the social sciences change during the Second Industrial Revolution?
There was a new impetus to take the methodology established in the sciences and apply it to the workings of society.
How did the study of history change over the course of the Second Industrial Revolution?
Barthold Niebuhr closely examined primary source documents in the writing of classical history. His Roman History influenced Leopold von Ranke, who challenged the traditional way of looking at history as revealing some grand design. Historians now tried to use original sources to synthesize their works.
How did anthropology develop during the Second Industrial Revolution?
Anthropology was born out of the sudden expansion of European dominance over large parts of the globe as a result of new imperialism. Anthropological societies explored the inferiority of non-Europeans as a result of endemic "scientific" racism.
How did sociology develop during the Second Industrial Revolution?
The study of human social behavior was inspired by the growing tendency of governments to keep statistics on the conditions of their citizenry. Emile Durkheim was the first major sociologist.