Flashcards in Social Transformation And Statebuliding in 18th Century Deck (35):
What are 3 characteristics of the triangle of trade?
What was the triangle of trade?
A system of interconnected trade routes
-quadrupled foreign trade in Britain and France
What did the enormous wealth generated by the British and the French create?
It created pressure for social change
What was the traditional manorial system like?
Landowning elite held estates divided into small plots of arable land farmed by peasants for local consumption
Also had commons where peasants grazed their livestock
What was the traditional cycle of population and productivity?
Increase in # of ppl working in agri. Econ ---> increase agri yield ---> agri yield reaching max amount given land available
Then population would continue rising but then # of ppl > than agri yield ---> food become scarce n expensive ---> population decrease
When population below possible productivity process starts again
What did they replace the manorial system with?
Market oriented approach
Cash crops grown for sale and export
What developments combined to break the traditional cycle of population and productivity?
Agriculture became market oriented
Rural manufacturing spread capital ~ population
^ demand led to technical innovation
Who are some agricultural improvers?
What did Arthur Young do?
He helped spread information of the agricultural revolution
What was the enclosure movement?
Landowners enclosed the commons so that peasants couldn't use it
What did Jethro Toll do?
Invents seed drills and iron plow
Which helps to grow more food
What did Charles Townsend do?
Starts nitrogen enriching crops called fodder
Helps soil and food supply and livestock
What did Robert Baker do?
Created animal husbandry (breeding and caring for farm animals)
Why did the enclosure movement happen?
Bc cash crops created a demand for larger fields
The cottage industry was also known as the ...
Putting out system
In the feudal system textile production had been under the control of ____________
How was membership in a guild achieved?
Through an apprenticeship (usually lengthy)
What happened in the 18th century that caused merchants to find a way around the guild system?
An expanding demand for textiles
What system was created as a result of an expanding demand for textiles?
The putting out system (cottage industry)
What was a benefit of the cottage industry on rural families?
It provided the cash that could be used to buy food instead of growing it
How does the putting out system work?
Merchant provides raw materials each month to peasants in the countryside
At end of the month merchant comes back and pays peasant for whatever thread or cloth they produced
What are some technical innovations that increased the pace and output of the textile industry?
The flying shuttle
The Flying Shuttle (1733)
It 2X speed at which cloth could be woven on a loom
The Spinning Jenny (1760s)
Increased the amount of thread a single spinner could produce from cotton
The Cotton Gin (1793)
Efficiently removed seed from raw cotton
What happened as a result of Britain and France's prosperity and power during this time?
Prussia and Russia try to strengthen and modernize their kingdoms
Water Frame (1769)
could produce stronger threads for yarns
Perfected by James Watt
No longer do factories have to be near water
What were some impacts of the first industrial revolution?
An increase in the standard of living (esp lower classes)
Getting things will be much easier and cheaper
Negative aspect: pollution; upset the political structure
When and where does the first industrial revolution start?
Why does the first industrial revolution start in Great Britain?
1) center of fashion
2) had the best economy at the time
3) stable politics
4) social mobility
5) agricultural revolution
What were some reasons why Great Britain had the best economy?
England had lots of coal
Largest free trade area in Europe
What was the Diplomatic Revolution?
The mid 18th century shift in European alliances whereby the expansionist aims of Fredrick II of Prussia caused old enemies to become allies
Prussia forged alliance with Britain (1756)
Austria and France forged an alliance of their own too
What was the Seven Years War? (1756-1763)
France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden &'Spain
Prussia, Great Britain, and German state of Hanover