Social Transformation And Statebuliding in 18th Century Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Social Transformation And Statebuliding in 18th Century Deck (35):
1

What are 3 characteristics of the triangle of trade?

Manufactured goods
Slaves
Raw materials

2

What was the triangle of trade?

A system of interconnected trade routes
-quadrupled foreign trade in Britain and France

3

What did the enormous wealth generated by the British and the French create?

It created pressure for social change

4

What was the traditional manorial system like?

Landowning elite held estates divided into small plots of arable land farmed by peasants for local consumption
Also had commons where peasants grazed their livestock

5

What was the traditional cycle of population and productivity?

Increase in # of ppl working in agri. Econ ---> increase agri yield ---> agri yield reaching max amount given land available
Then population would continue rising but then # of ppl > than agri yield ---> food become scarce n expensive ---> population decrease
When population below possible productivity process starts again

6

What did they replace the manorial system with?

Market oriented approach
Cash crops grown for sale and export

7

What developments combined to break the traditional cycle of population and productivity?

Agriculture became market oriented
Rural manufacturing spread capital ~ population
^ demand led to technical innovation

9

Who are some agricultural improvers?

Jethro Toll
Charles Townsend
Robert Baker
Arthur Young

11

What did Arthur Young do?

He helped spread information of the agricultural revolution

12

What was the enclosure movement?

Landowners enclosed the commons so that peasants couldn't use it

12

What did Jethro Toll do?

Invents seed drills and iron plow
Which helps to grow more food

12

What did Charles Townsend do?

Starts nitrogen enriching crops called fodder
Helps soil and food supply and livestock

12

What did Robert Baker do?

Created animal husbandry (breeding and caring for farm animals)

13

Why did the enclosure movement happen?

Bc cash crops created a demand for larger fields

14

The cottage industry was also known as the ...

Putting out system

15

In the feudal system textile production had been under the control of ____________

Guilds

16

How was membership in a guild achieved?

Through an apprenticeship (usually lengthy)

17

What happened in the 18th century that caused merchants to find a way around the guild system?

An expanding demand for textiles

18

What system was created as a result of an expanding demand for textiles?

The putting out system (cottage industry)

19

What was a benefit of the cottage industry on rural families?

It provided the cash that could be used to buy food instead of growing it

20

How does the putting out system work?

Merchant provides raw materials each month to peasants in the countryside
At end of the month merchant comes back and pays peasant for whatever thread or cloth they produced

21

What are some technical innovations that increased the pace and output of the textile industry?

The flying shuttle
Spinning Jenny
Cotton gin
Water frame
Steam engine

22

The Flying Shuttle (1733)

John Kay
It 2X speed at which cloth could be woven on a loom

23

The Spinning Jenny (1760s)

James Hargreaves
Increased the amount of thread a single spinner could produce from cotton

24

The Cotton Gin (1793)

Eli Whitney
Efficiently removed seed from raw cotton

25

What happened as a result of Britain and France's prosperity and power during this time?

Prussia and Russia try to strengthen and modernize their kingdoms

26

Water Frame (1769)

Richard Arkwright
could produce stronger threads for yarns

27

Steam Engine

Perfected by James Watt
No longer do factories have to be near water

28

What were some impacts of the first industrial revolution?

An increase in the standard of living (esp lower classes)
Getting things will be much easier and cheaper
Negative aspect: pollution; upset the political structure

29

When and where does the first industrial revolution start?

18th century
England

30

Why does the first industrial revolution start in Great Britain?

1) center of fashion
2) had the best economy at the time
3) stable politics
4) social mobility
5) agricultural revolution

31

What were some reasons why Great Britain had the best economy?

England had lots of coal
Largest free trade area in Europe
Good infrastructure

32

What was the Diplomatic Revolution?

The mid 18th century shift in European alliances whereby the expansionist aims of Fredrick II of Prussia caused old enemies to become allies
Prussia forged alliance with Britain (1756)
Austria and France forged an alliance of their own too

33

What was the Seven Years War? (1756-1763)

France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden &'Spain

VSSS

Prussia, Great Britain, and German state of Hanover

34

What happened as a result of the seven years war?

Great Britain emerged as the dominant European power outside of the European continent