Social Transformation And Statebuliding in 18th Century Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Social Transformation And Statebuliding in 18th Century Deck (35):

What are 3 characteristics of the triangle of trade?

Manufactured goods
Raw materials


What was the triangle of trade?

A system of interconnected trade routes
-quadrupled foreign trade in Britain and France


What did the enormous wealth generated by the British and the French create?

It created pressure for social change


What was the traditional manorial system like?

Landowning elite held estates divided into small plots of arable land farmed by peasants for local consumption
Also had commons where peasants grazed their livestock


What was the traditional cycle of population and productivity?

Increase in # of ppl working in agri. Econ ---> increase agri yield ---> agri yield reaching max amount given land available
Then population would continue rising but then # of ppl > than agri yield ---> food become scarce n expensive ---> population decrease
When population below possible productivity process starts again


What did they replace the manorial system with?

Market oriented approach
Cash crops grown for sale and export


What developments combined to break the traditional cycle of population and productivity?

Agriculture became market oriented
Rural manufacturing spread capital ~ population
^ demand led to technical innovation


Who are some agricultural improvers?

Jethro Toll
Charles Townsend
Robert Baker
Arthur Young


What did Arthur Young do?

He helped spread information of the agricultural revolution


What was the enclosure movement?

Landowners enclosed the commons so that peasants couldn't use it


What did Jethro Toll do?

Invents seed drills and iron plow
Which helps to grow more food


What did Charles Townsend do?

Starts nitrogen enriching crops called fodder
Helps soil and food supply and livestock


What did Robert Baker do?

Created animal husbandry (breeding and caring for farm animals)


Why did the enclosure movement happen?

Bc cash crops created a demand for larger fields


The cottage industry was also known as the ...

Putting out system


In the feudal system textile production had been under the control of ____________



How was membership in a guild achieved?

Through an apprenticeship (usually lengthy)


What happened in the 18th century that caused merchants to find a way around the guild system?

An expanding demand for textiles


What system was created as a result of an expanding demand for textiles?

The putting out system (cottage industry)


What was a benefit of the cottage industry on rural families?

It provided the cash that could be used to buy food instead of growing it


How does the putting out system work?

Merchant provides raw materials each month to peasants in the countryside
At end of the month merchant comes back and pays peasant for whatever thread or cloth they produced


What are some technical innovations that increased the pace and output of the textile industry?

The flying shuttle
Spinning Jenny
Cotton gin
Water frame
Steam engine


The Flying Shuttle (1733)

John Kay
It 2X speed at which cloth could be woven on a loom


The Spinning Jenny (1760s)

James Hargreaves
Increased the amount of thread a single spinner could produce from cotton


The Cotton Gin (1793)

Eli Whitney
Efficiently removed seed from raw cotton


What happened as a result of Britain and France's prosperity and power during this time?

Prussia and Russia try to strengthen and modernize their kingdoms


Water Frame (1769)

Richard Arkwright
could produce stronger threads for yarns


Steam Engine

Perfected by James Watt
No longer do factories have to be near water


What were some impacts of the first industrial revolution?

An increase in the standard of living (esp lower classes)
Getting things will be much easier and cheaper
Negative aspect: pollution; upset the political structure


When and where does the first industrial revolution start?

18th century


Why does the first industrial revolution start in Great Britain?

1) center of fashion
2) had the best economy at the time
3) stable politics
4) social mobility
5) agricultural revolution


What were some reasons why Great Britain had the best economy?

England had lots of coal
Largest free trade area in Europe
Good infrastructure


What was the Diplomatic Revolution?

The mid 18th century shift in European alliances whereby the expansionist aims of Fredrick II of Prussia caused old enemies to become allies
Prussia forged alliance with Britain (1756)
Austria and France forged an alliance of their own too


What was the Seven Years War? (1756-1763)

France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden &'Spain


Prussia, Great Britain, and German state of Hanover


What happened as a result of the seven years war?

Great Britain emerged as the dominant European power outside of the European continent