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Flashcards in Stalin And International Relations 1929-1941 Deck (24):

What was Stalin’s foreign foreign policy like in the 1930s?

It is confusing and contradictory.
Frequently changed direction due to circumstances.


When was cooperation between the USSR and Germany established?

1922 in the Treaty of Rappallo and then it was consolidated in 1926 Treaty of Berlin.


What happened between Germany and USSR in the period 1929 and 1932?

Military collaboration.
Soviet Union benefitted from German technical expertise for modernising industry and armaments production.
Also acquired modern weapons.
In 1931 negotiated the continuation of Treaty of Berlin.


When and why was the "Rappallo period" ended?

Stalin showed an interest in collective security.
Improved relations with Western countries.
Stalin still left the door open for a possible return to cooperation with Germany.


When was diplomatic relations with the USA?

1933 and an American embassy was opened in Moscow.


Why did USSR joining the League of Nations appeal to the Western powers?

Strengthened collective security against German and Japanese aggression.


When did Germany and Japan withdraw from the League of Nations?



How did Stalin's position in 1935 differ from 1928?

Stalin's hard line stance of 1928 was scrapped and by 1935 Stalin was supportive of collective security.


What was the Comitern's new policy from 1935?

Supporting broad-based popular fronts in other countries.


Which popular fronts did the USSR get involved in?

France in 1935.
Spanish Civil War in 1936.


Which countries did Stalin sign non-aggression pacts with in 1932?



What did the pact between USSR and Czechoslovakia do?

If Czechoslovakia were attacked by a third party the USSR would intervene but only if France did too.


How did Stalin feel when Germany remilitarised the Rhineland?

He felt threatened and it set out the context of Stalin's intervention in the Spanish Civil War.


Who supported the right-winged rebels led by Franco in the Spanish Civil War?

Both fascist Germany and Italy.


Which side did Stalin take in the Spanish Civil War?

Spanish government but France agreed not to intervene and this worried Stalin.


How did Soviet intervention affect the Spanish Civil War?

It was large scale and rapidly implemented.
Hundreds of Soviet "advisors" were sent to Spain.
Backed by tanks, troops and aircraft.
Soviet propaganda went into overdrive with the anti-fascist crusade.
Soviet intervention stopped Madrid falling to the rebels.


What happened in 1937 with the Spanish Civil War?

Intervention settled down and it was no longer about protecting the Republic as it was now about prolonging the war.


How did the Spanish Civil War affect USSR relations with the West?

West were suspicious of Stalin's actions throughout the Civil War.


Where did Germany invade in March 1938?

Austria and this imposed the Anschluss.


How did the League of Nations react to Germany breaking the Anschluss?

The League of Nations proved toothless and didn't do anything as they adopted a policy of appeasement against Hitler.


Why did USSR station a substantial military force on the Manchuria frontier?

In response to Japanese aggression - Manchuria occupation (1931), invasion of the rest of China (1937) and anti-Comintern pact with Germany.


When was the Nazi-Soviet pact signed?

August 1939


Why did Stalin sign the Nazi-Soviet pact?

So that USSR wouldn't have to fight Japan and Germany at the same time and also to give USSR more time to prepare for war. As well as gaining territory in Poland and Baltic states.


What did Germany get out the Nazi-Soviet pact?

So they had a free hand in Poland as well as getting raw materials from Russia.