Flashcards in Stalin's Emergence As Leader Deck (37):
How did Stalin have a strong powerbase?
He was General Secretary, Commissar for Nationalities and Commissar of the Workers and Peasants Inspectorate (Rabkrin).
Why did the General Secretary position benefit Stalin's powerbase?
He could appoint, promote or demote the top 5,500 officials in the Soviet Union so he filled them positions with his supporters.
He also controlled Lenin Enrolment.
How did Stalin being Commissar of Nationalities increase his powerbase?
He oversaw the affairs of non-Russian in USSR because of this position and this meant he gained great loyalty from senior officials in the USSR.
Who were originally against Trotsky alongside Stalin?
Zinoviev and Kamenev.
Trotsky published 'Lessons of October in 1924 but what was it about?
It was an attack on Kamenev and Zinoviev, they were furious. This was the beginning of the end of Trotsky as he stepped down as War Commissar.
What happened in May 1924 Thirteenth Party Congress?
Zinoviev attacked Trotsky as Zinoviev was apart of the Triumvirate.
What did Stalin do while Trotsky was causing ructions with everyone?
He took a backseat and watched the other contenders tear each other apart.
What issues divided the party?
Bureaucracy or Rule of the Proletariat.
Permanent revolution or socialism in one country.
The role of the peasants and the dive towards rapid industrialisation.
Why did Stalin favour bureaucracy?
Because it gave him the greatest influence as he was General Secretary.
Why did Trotsky hate bureaucracy?
Bureaucracy was centralised by officials at the top and he wanted to go back to the ideas of the revolution where the party followed the wishes of the proletariat.
What did Trotsky want to happen with socialism?
He wanted other countries to follow Russia after the October Revolution and become socialist.
What did Stalin want to happen with socialism?
He wanted socialism to be firmly established in the Soviet Union first and then other countries would follow their example.
What was Stalin's view on industrialisation?
He wanted rapid industrialisation and this was so Russia would be self sufficient. This was popular within Congress.
In July 1926 Trotsky formed the United Opposition but who was in in it?
Kamenev and Zinoviev but they realised too late that Stalin was the real enemy.
How did the United Opposition get their message across?
After they were withdrawn from the Politburo they could only communicate through public meetings.
What happened at October 1926 Party Congress?
Trotsky made his final speak and Kamenev and Zinoviev were booed. Trotsky produced the 'declaration of the 83' which attacked the policies of the leadership and because of this Stalin labelled him as a traitor.
What happened in 1927 Party Congress?
Stalin convinced Congress to expel Trotsky and Zinoviev and Kamenev lost his seat on the Central Committee.
When was Trotsky fully expelled from the Soviet Union?
What was the candidates biggest mistake?
Not reading out Lenin's Testament as this would have ruined Stalin.
What were Stalin's strengths?
Position as General Secretary helped build him a large power base.
Mastered theories of Marxism-Leninism.
Was excellent at hiding his intentions.
Deliberately placed himself close to Lenin during his illness 1922-1923.
What were Stalin's weaknesses?
Called Lenin's wife a whore.
Seen as rude by many.
Played a minor role in the 1917 revolution.
What were Trotsky's strengths?
Brilliant speech maker, intellectual and theorist.
Large role in October Revolution and Civil War.
Formidable political skills and ruthless.
What were Trotsky's weaknesses?
Feared by many as they thought he would use the Red Army to seize power.
He used to be a Menshevik.
Colleagues disliked his arrogance.
Didn't attempt to build a power base.
Inconsistent as he originally opposed Kamenev and Zinoviev but then sided with them later on.
What were the strengths of Kamenev?
One of the 'Old Bolsheviks' who helped form Party policy.
Close to Lenin and was trusted by him.
Ran the local Party in Moscow so had a strong power base in Moscow.
What were the weaknesses of Kamenev?
Inconsistent by switching alliances between Stalin and Trotsky.
Zinoviev was more popular than him.
Regarded as too soft.
Lacked dive to be sole leader.
What were Zinoviev's strengths?
Role as Leningrad boss so had a strong power base there.
Was an 'Old Bolshevik'.
Lenin called him his 'closet and most trusted assistant'.
What were Zinoviev's weaknesses?
His opposition to October Revolution was held against him.
Underestimated his rivals especially Stalin.
Left it too late to support Trotsky.
What were the strengths of Bukharin?
Rational voice in the Party.
Popular in the Party.
Close to Lenin.
Regarded as best theoretician in the Party.
Expert on economics and agriculture.
What were the weaknesses of Bukharin?
Had no power base.
Left it too late to make an alliance with Kamenev and Zinoviev.
What were the strengths of Rykov?
Showed administrative ability in the implementation of War Communism.
Experience as Chairman of Sovnarkom.
What were the weaknesses of Rykov?
Overshadowed by Bukharin.
Taxed vodka which made him unpopular.
What were the strengths of Tomsky?
Was an 'Old Bolshevik'.
Chief spokesman for trade unions so had a voice in the Party.
General Secretary of Red International Trade Unions.
What were the weaknesses of Tomsky?
Blinded by hatred for Trotsky so sided with Stalin.
His alliance with Stalin almost handed Stalin power.
Support for NEP was used against him after grain procurement crisis of 1927.
What was the Lenin Enrolment?
New policy to increase the number on true proletarians.
The new members were predominantly young and lacking education.
These new members were loyal to Stalin as he gave them their position.
In 1924-25 Lenin Enrolment recruited between 500,000 and 1 million members.
How did being Commissar of the Workers and Peasants Inspectorate increase Stalin's power base?
Known as Rabkrin.
Stalin was given the power to expel those from the government who he believed were corrupt so people were loyal to him to keep their jobs.
What was the Triumvirate?
Between Kamenev, Zinoviev and Stalin against Trotsky.