Swine Pregnancy, Parturition and Infertility Flashcards Preview

Theriogenology > Swine Pregnancy, Parturition and Infertility > Flashcards

Flashcards in Swine Pregnancy, Parturition and Infertility Deck (196):
1

What is the gestation length of pigs?

114 +/- 2 days

2

What type of placenta do pigs have?

Epitheliochorial Diffuse

3

When does the embryo enter the uterus?

48-60 hours

4

When does maternal recognition of pregnancy usually occur?

11-12 days

5

There is intrauterine migration until what days?

13-14 days

6

When does embryo attachment usually occur?

14-18 days

7

Implantation of the embryo usually is completed by what day?

Day 40

8

A minimum of how many embryos is needed by what day in order to maintain the pregnancy?

- 4 embryos
- Day 11

9

Embryonic loss before what day is high?
What is the percentage?

- Prior to day 25
- 40%

10

If a sow is not bred, she will return to estrus in what time frame?

17-24 days after breeding

11

Many false positives can occur with what method of pregnancy diagnosis?

Detection of estrus (return to service)

12

How are PGF2a concentrations used to diagnose pregnancy?
What time frame is this evaluated?

- Less than 200 pg/mL
- Between 13 and 15 days after mating

13

A progesterone level greater than what might indicate pregnancy?
During what time frame is this evaluated?

- Greater than 5 ng/mL
- Between 17-24 days

14

Progesterone levels can give false positives due to what?

Due to delayed estrus or cystic ovarian disease.

15

Estrone sulphate greater than what level can indicate pregnancy?
During what time frame is this evaluated?

- Greater than 0.5 ng/mL
- Days 25-30 gestation

16

When do early pregnancy Factor B levels peak?

24-48 hours after fertilization

17

What test is used to detect early pregnancy Factor B levels?

Rosette Inhibition Test

18

What are 5 methods of physical pregnancy detection in pigs?

- Radiography
- Rectal palpation
- Laparoscopy
- Vaginal biopsy
- US

19

What are 3 options for US use in pigs?

- Doppler US
- Amplitude Depth US (A-mode or Pulse echo)
- Real Time US

20

When can skeletal mineralization be detected via US?

By Day 35

21

When are fetuses immunocompetent by?

Day 70-75

22

A fetal crown-rump length of 1.8-2.8 cm is indicative of what fetal age?

30 days

23

A fetal crown-rump length of 12-14 cm is indicative of what fetal age?

60 days

24

A fetal crown-rump length of 20-23 cm is indicative of what fetal age?

90 days

25

A fetal crown-rump length of 26-29 cm indicative of what fetal age?

114 days

26

What are 3 clinical signs that sows can show as they are nearing parturition?

- Become restless
- Nest building
- Frequent urination/defecation

27

What is the normal total duration for farrowing?

1 to 5 hours

28

Duration of more that how many minutes between piglets means trouble?

More than 15 minutes

29

T/F: Piglets can only be successfully delivered in cranial presentation.

False: Piglets can be delivered in either cranial or caudal presentation.

30

What are 5 benefits to induced parturition in pigs?

- Farrowing during working hours
- Induction of entire room to ensure all-in/all-out management
- Cross-fostering piglets between litters
- Piglet size will be more uniform for nursery
- Overall improved labor efficiency, piglet survival and facility utilization

31

When are prostaglandins given to induce parturition in pigs?
Which 2 are used?

- Administer day 112-113 of gestation
- Lutalyse and Estimate (closprostanol)

32

How soon after prostaglandins are administered will farrowing occur?

Farrowing will happen in 18-36 hours

33

Are corticosteroids recommended for use with induction of parturition in pigs?
Why?

- No
- Too much lag and poor piglet survival if given too early

34

What is the most common cause of dystocia in pigs?

Uterine inertia

35

What are 3 steps to diagnosing a dystocia in a pig?

- Obtain good history and examine female
- Clean vulva and perform vaginal exam (use lubrication)
- Determine cause of dystocia

36

What are 3 possible medical therapies that can be utilized for dystocia in pigs?

- Manual extraction fo piglets after manipulation
- Oxytocin 20-30 IU IM every 30 minutes
- Calcium

37

When should Oxytocin NOT be used as a medical therapy for dystocia in pigs?

DO NOT use if there is an OBSTRUCTION!

38

What type of an incision pattern is used for a cesarean section in pigs?

- Vertical incision in left flank.
- Horizontal incision parallel to underline.

39

T/F: With a cesarean section in pigs, it will likely be necessary to incise both uterine horns.

True

40

When performing a cesarean section in pigs, be sure you reach what structures in order to ensure that you have all piglets?

Both ovaries

41

What type of suture pattern should be used to close the uterus after a cesarean section in pigs?

Inverting pattern

42

What are 5 possible complications that can be seen during parturition in pigs?

- Prepartum vaginal prolapse
- Uterine prolapse
- Bladder prolapse
- Vulvar hematomas/tears
- Vaginal discharge/metritis

43

How can a prepartum vaginal prolapse be repaired in pigs?
What is the likelihood of reoccurrence?

- Repair with a suture after placing back in
- Most likely will recur

44

What type of a prognosis does a uterine prolapse have?

Grave

45

When can uterine prolapse occur in pigs?

Postpartum or intrapartum

46

What needs to happen if the uterus is necrotic or torn with a uterine prolapse?

Amputation

47

What should be done for a vulvar hematoma/tear?

Monitor and treat for infections.

48

Don't confuse what for vaginal discharge/metritis?

Normal loch 1-5 days postpartum

49

Vaginal discharge/metritis can be seen with what complex?

Mastitis-Metritis-Agalactia complex

50

Supervised farrowing can decrease mortality by what rate?

5-10%

51

Cross-fostering needs to take place within what time frame?

24-48 hours postpartum

52

When should females be vaccinated?

Vaccinate females pre-farrowing

53

How should pregnant females be fed?

According to BCS

54

What should be done to gilts that savage their piglets?

Cull the gilts

55

Generally how many embryos suffer early embryonic death (EED) prior to implantation?

2-2.5 embryos

56

Resorption of the embryo can happen during what time frame?

Day 0-35

57

Mummification can happen during what time frame?

35-114 days

58

If the entire litter is mummified, what can happen?

Pregnancy can progress to pseudopregnancy greater than 114 days.

59

Full-term piglets that are born dead but are grossly normal are called what?

Stillbirths

60

Stillbirths can die when?

May die shortly before, during or immediately after birth.

61

What is extremely important when diagnosing infertility?

Complete history and physical exam

62

What are 3 factors to be considered when trying to determine the cause of infertility?

- Determine time frame of infertility
- Non-infectious causes
- Infectious causes

63

Can fever cause abortion in pigs?

Yes

64

What are 2 of the most common examples of non-infectious causes of infertility in pigs?

- Hydrosalpinx
- Cystic ovarian disease

65

What is the most common cause of infertility in pigs?

Hydrosalpinx

66

Hydrosalpinx can be seen secondary to what conditions?

Bursitis or peritonitis that result in adhesions.

67

What is the second most common cause of infertility in pigs?

Cystic ovarian disease

68

Is it more common to see one or multiple cysts with cystic ovarian disease?

Multiple cysts

69

What percentage of infertile sows have cystic ovarian disease?

20-50%

70

Do sows with cystic ovarian disease respond to hormone therapy?

No

71

What is a possible etiology of cystic ovarian disease?

Can be caused by estrus induction agents.

72

What are 3 other possible causes of non-infectious causes of infertility in pigs?

- Anatomical or congenital abnormalities
- Environmental causes
- Nutritional causes

73

What are 4 examples of anatomical or congenital abnormalities can can lead to infertility?

- Segmental aplasia
- Uterus unicornum
- Missing cervix
- Hermaphrodites

74

What is an example of an environmental cause of non-infectious infertility?

High ambient temperature

75

What are 3 possible causes of infertility through direct disruption of spermatogenesis via localization within the parenchyma in the boar?

- Brucella
- Chlamydia
- Rubulavirus

76

What can cause indirect disrupt of spermatogenesis leading to infertility?

Fever

77

What are 5 infectious agents that can be shed in semen and cause disease in females?

- Classic swine fever
- Leptospira
- Pseudorabies virus
- Parvovirus
- PRRS virus

78

What are 3 bacterial causes of infertility in sows?

- Leptospira
- Brucella
- Erysipelas

79

What are 4 viral causes of infertility in sows?

- PRRS virus
- Parvovirus
- Pseudorabies virus
- Classic swine fever

80

What are 2 means by which bacteria are pathogenic concerning pigs?

- Introduced into the reproductive tract during breeding or parturition
- Resulting septicemia can cause loss of a pregnancy and subsequent reproductive problems

81

What is the most common infectious cause of pregnancy loss in pigs?

Leptospirosis

82

Is Leptospirosis zoonotic?

Yes

83

What is the most common Leptospirosis serovar seen in pigs?

L. pomona

84

How does Leptospira get into the pig?
How is it introduced?

- Penetrate mucous membranes
- Brought in by carrier animals

85

Leptospirosis usually causes what in sows?

Mummified and macerated fetuses

86

How long does immunity last in pigs for leptospirosis?

1 year following abortion

87

When should pigs be vaccinated for leptospirosis?

At least every 6 months

88

The vaccine for leptospirosis is often combined with a vaccine for what virus?

Parvovirus

89

What can be added to the feed of pigs the try and reduce the shedding of leptospira?
Does this eliminate the carrier state?

- Antibiotics (tetracycline)
- No

90

What is a bacteria that can cause infertility in pigs that is reportable?

Brucella suis

91

Brucella suis can cause what 3 conditions in sows?

- Abortions
- Stillbirths
- Infertility

92

Brucella suis can cause what condition in boars?

Orchitis

93

Is Brucella suis primarily introduced by the boar or sow?
How long can it be carried for?

- Boar
- Greater than 4 years

94

What are 2 possible routes of infection for Brucella suis?

- At coitus
- Ingestion of infected material

95

Sows that are infected with Brucella suis between what days will abort between what days?

- Infected between days 30-40
- Abort between days 65-80

96

Who can shed large numbers of Brucella suis?

Sows

97

Brucella suis can cause granulomatous lesions in what 6 parts of the pig?

- Uterus
- Ovaries
- Testes
- ASG
- Liver
- Kidney

98

Can durable immunity be seen after an infection of Brucella suis?

No

99

What are 2 other species Brucella suis can be spread by?

- Rabbits
- Rodents

100

Where should cases of Brucella suis be reported to?

Federal government

101

T/F: Brucella suis is mostly eradicated from the US.

True

102

What is the method of choice for control of Brucella suis?

Test and slaughter

103

Many pigs carry Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae where in their body?
Are clinical signs common with this?

- Tonsils
- No

104

How can Erysipelothrix gain access to the pig?

Contaminated feed and water

105

In acute cases of Erysipelothrix, the organism can enter the circulation via what structure and infect blood vessels?

Pharynx

106

The clinical course of an Erysipelothrix infection depends on what?

Stress

107

What is a condition that can be seen in little pigs with an Erysipelothrix infection?

Arthritis

108

What are 2 clinical signs that can be seen in gilts with an Erysipelothrix infection?

- Fever
- Skin lesions

109

Abortion can be seen secondary to what 2 conditions with an Erysipelothrix infection?

- Fever
- Septicemia

110

Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome (PRRS) is caused by what type of virus?

Arterivirus

111

What percentage sow mortality can be seen with PRRS?

5-10%

112

How can PRRS be transmitted by boars?

Semen

113

What are 2 routes of contact that can be seen with PRRS in pigs?

- Direct pig-to-pig contact
- Aerosols

114

What are the 2 distinguishable forms of PRRS?

- Reproductive failure
- Post-Weaning respiratory disease

115

Which form of PRRS is seen in sows?

Reproductive failure

116

Which form of PRRS is seen in piglets?

Post-weaning respiratory disease

117

What are 4 types of reproductive failure that can be seen in sows with PRRS?

- Premature farrowings
- Stillbirths/mummies
- Weak neonates
- Increased abortion

118

What are 2 clinical signs that can be seen with post-weaning respiratory disease caused by PRRS?

- Decreased average daily gain
- Increased mortality

119

What are 2 methods of diagnosis for PRRS?

- Virus isolation from aborted fetuses
- Herd serology

120

What are 3 ways to deal with PRRS?

- Symptomatic therapy
- Isolation and acclimatization
- Vaccination with MLV or Killed product

121

What virus has been less diagnosed as the identification of the PRRS virus has increased?

Encephalomyocarditis virus

122

What are 3 clinical signs seen with encephalomyocarditis virus?

- Reproductive failure
- Encephalitis
- Myocarditis

123

Mortality with encephalomyocarditis virus decreases with what?

Decreases as age at time of exposure increases.

124

How is encephalomyocarditis virus transmitted?
What can be carriers?

- Oral transmission
- Rodents can be carriers

125

What are 2 clinical signs that can be seen in sows with encephalomyocarditis?

- Anorexia
- Fever

126

Encephalomyocarditis virus can cause reproductive problems when?

Last 2-3 months in the herd.

127

What are 3 ways to diagnose encephalomyocarditis virus?

- Lesions (myocarditis)
- Virus isolation
- Paired serology

128

What are 2 ways to prevent or treat encephalomyocarditis virus?

- Rodent control
- Clean premises

129

Porcine parvovirus can cause what?

SMEDI

130

What does SMEDI stand for?

Stillbirths, mummies, embryonic death and infertility

131

Porcine parvovirus can cause embryonic and fetal death but no what?

No maternal signs

132

What might be seen with females that have porcine parvovirus?

Females may nest and get mammary development, but fails to farrow.

133

What are 2 routes of infection for porcine parvovirus?

- Oral
- Venereal

134

What can be seen with duration of gestation in pigs with porcine parvovirus?

Litters may be carried for more than 114 days.

135

What type of female is porcine parvovirus more common in?

Naive replacement gilts

136

What is the classical presentation of porcine parvovirus in sows?

Sows infected do not normally show signs until farrowing and then have small litter sizes and increased number of mummies

137

What are 4 aspects of diagnosing porcine parvovirus?

- Lesions on aborted fetus
- Look at vaccination program
- Clinical signs of increased irregular returns to estrus and increased mummies
- Serology

138

What are 3 aspects of prevention and treatment for porcine parvovirus?

- Proper acclimatization of replacement gilts
- Regular vaccination of breeding herd
- No treatment except for supportive care for the aborting sows or gilts

139

What are considered to be the "original" SMEDI viruses?

Porcine enteroviruses

140

Are porcine enteroviruses generally a major problem in swine herds?

No

141

Is there cross-protection between the 11 serovars of porcine enteroviruses?

No

142

How are porcine enteroviruses transmitted?

Fecal-oral route of transmission

143

Clinical signs seen with porcine enteroviruses depend on what?

Time of infection

144

How are porcine enteroviruses diagnosed?

Gross and histological lesions

145

What type of diagnosis has minimal value with porcine enteroviruses?

Serological profiling

146

What is the main form of prevention and treatment for porcine enteroviruses?

Expose naive replacement gilts to cull animals of the herd prior to introduction to the main herd.

147

What type of virus is Aujesky's?
What is another name for it?

- Herpes virus
- Pseudorabies

148

What are 3 things that can be caused by pseudorabies/Aujesky's?

- Encephalitis
- Reproductive failure
- Reduced litter size

149

How can pseudorabies/Aujesky's be transmitted by boars?

Semen

150

What are 3 ways pseudorabies/Aujesky's can be passed among pigs?

- Nose-to-nose contact
- Fecal oral
- Aerosol

151

What type of clinical signs are seen with piglets less than 7 days of age?

CNS signs

152

What type of clinical signs are seen with pigs weaning age and older for pseudorabies/Aujesky's?

Respiratory signs

153

What are 3 clinical signs that can be seen with pigs of all ages with pseudorabies/Aujesky's?

- Fever
- Anorexia
- Weight loss

154

What are 3 reproductive signs that can be seen with pseudorabies/Aujesky's?

- Resorption
- Abortion
- Increased mummies and stillbirths

155

What are 3 methods of diagnosis for pseudorabies/Aujesky's?

- Gross histological lesions
- Virus isolation
- Serology

156

What is the main method of prevention and treatment for pseudorabies/Aujesky's?

Eradication

157

What are 3 methods of eradication that can be used with pseudorabies/Aujesky's?

- Whole herd depopulation
- Test and remove all breeding swine
- Segregate offspring to an off-site production unit

158

Is vaccination normal used with pseudorabies/Aujesky's?

G1 gene-deleted product is available but very expensive so not used much.

159

Classical swine fever is also known as what?

Hog cholera

160

Is hog cholera/classical swine fever reportable?

Yes

161

Can hog cholera be seen in the US?

Was eradicated in the 1970s

162

The pig is the only natural host for what disease?

Hog cholera/classical swine fever

163

What are 6 clinical signs seen with hog cholera/classical swine fever?

- Anorexia
- Cyanosis
- Fever
- Diarrhea
- Vomiting
- Abortions

164

Can hog cholera/classical swine fever be transmitted by semen?

Yes

165

How can hog cholera/classical swine fever be differentiated form other viral infections?

Fluorescent antibody test

166

1% of all abortions seen in pigs are caused by what virus?

Adenoviruses

167

What type of viruses can be seen with concurrent respiratory and enteric disease?

Adenoviruses

168

What is the control/treatment method for adenoviruses?

None

169

What is another type of virus that can be found in semen and for which there is no control or treatment method available?

Reoviruses

170

What can be seen with decreased calcium levels in sows?

Difficulty farrowing

171

If iodine levels are off, this can increase the incidence of what occurring?

Stillbirths

172

If selenium levels are off, this can lead to what 2 conditions?

- MMA
- Primary uterine inertia

173

Iron deficiency in pigs can lead to what 2 conditions?

- Piglet anemia
- Stillbirths

174

If protein levels are off in a pig, this can lead to what 2 conditions?

- Low in lactation diet
- Increase in weaning to estrus interval

175

If feed an feed that is too low in energy, this can lead to what 2 conditions?

- Low in lactation diet
- Increase in weaning to estrus interval

176

A diet too high in energy can lead to what in relation to the litter?

Decreased litter size

177

What is the toxin produced by Fusarium roseum?

Zearalenone

178

What can zearalenone cause?

Implantation failure

179

Zearalenone can cause females to exhibit what 3 types of signs?

- Signs of estrus
- Mammary development
- Vaginal discharge

180

An enlarged vulva with delayed maturity can be seen with what?

Zearalenone toxicity

181

What toxin can cause prepubertal males to have reduced testicular development and feminization?

Zearalenone

182

What is a moldy feed toxin that can be toxic to embryos and fetuses?

Trichotecene toxin

183

What is a moldy feed toxin that can be an indirect cause of abortion?

Fumonison

184

What is a moldy feed toxin that can cause severe reduction in cardiac output in sows?

Fumonison

185

What is a moldy feed toxin that can cause decreased O2 delivery through the placenta?

Fumonison

186

What is a moldy feed toxin that can cause poor piglet growth?

Aflatoxin

187

What level of carbon monoxide is considered toxic?

220 ppm

188

What can high levels of carbon monoxide cause in pigs?

Late-term abortions

189

What is a clinical sign seen with carbon monoxide toxicity?
What is the specific cause?

- Cherry red tissues
- Carboxyhemoglobin

190

What is an agent that can cause individual abortion and still births in pigs, but cats act as reservoirs?

Toxoplasma

191

What is an agent that can cause "silent" estrus or anestrus, abortion, weak/anemic piglets that can be transmitted by lice or mites?

Eperythrozoonosis

192

What can be used to treat the whole herd for eperythrozoonosis?
What does not remove the carriers?

- Arsenics
- Tetracyclines

193

What can tetracyclines cause in pigs?

Bone and tooth malformations

194

what are 4 drugs that can cause CNS depression in pigs?

- Acepromazine
- Ketamine
- Telazol
- Thiobarbituates

195

What can cause masculinization of female fetuses and congenital malformations?

Anabolic steroids

196

What can decrease birth weights and cause congenital malformations?

Glucocorticoids