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Flashcards in TASTING THEORY Deck (40):
1

What are the Typical Descriptors and Structure for Rías Baixas Albariño
(without barrique) ?

• Visual: Pale Straw with Hints of Green, Moderate Minus Concentration, Slight Residual Gas (in youth)

• Aromas/Flavors: Moderate Plus Intensity

• Fruit: Ripe Citrus (Orange, Meyer Lemon, Ruby Red Grapefruit), Stone Fruit (White Peach, Peach Pit, Apricot, Nectarine), Green Apple, Melon
• Floral: White and Yellow Flowers, Citrus and Apple Blossoms
• Other: Bubblegum, Agave, Slight Beer Yeast, Leesy, Saline, Possible ML fermentation

• Earth: Moderate Plus Minerality
• Oak: None
• Structure: Dry, Moderate Body, Elevated Acidity, Moderate Alcohol

2

What are some common confusions for Rias Baixas Albarino?

OW Riesling: tends to have residual sugar, higher acid; more mineral and petrol OW Sauvignon Blanc: tends to be more herbal and vegetal
Alsace Pinot Gris: is richer in texture with less acid
Italian Pinto Grigio: Color is different and the wine is less aromatic
Grüner Veltliner: tends to be much more herbal and vegetal and less floral


Albarino is a semi-aromatic to fully aromatic grape; can show citrus & herb of Sauvignon Blanc and/or peach and floral notes of Riesling and Viognier, but the texture and mineral does not match either variety. It is typically fermented and aged in stainless steel.

3

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Chablis?

Visual: Pale Straw/Straw with Hints of Green, Moderate Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: Moderate Intensity
Fruit: Tart to Just Ripe Tree Fruit (Green Apple, Yellow Apple, Green Pear), Citrus (Lemon)
Sulphuric Note (especially in youth): Flint, Burnt Match, Slight Cabbage
Oxidative Notes (if neutral barrels are employed): Hazelnut, Almond, Cheese Rind
Floral: Faint White Flowers, Apple Blossoms, Hawthorne, Acacia
Earth: High Minerality, Stony, Chalk, Saline/Seaspray, Oyster Shell, Button Mushroom
Oak: None or Neutral Barrel
Structure: Bone Dry to Dry, Moderate to Moderate Plus Body, Elevated to High Acidity, Moderate Alcohol

4

What are some common confusions for Old World Chardonnay?

Chenin Blanc will usually have an oatmeal, wax and wool component. There may be RS in the wine.
Pinot Grigio fruit has more of a citrus peel or pith element, the wines tend to be more floral and lack the depth of flavor

5

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Côte de Beaune Chardonnay?

Visual: Straw to Yellow/Pale Gold, Moderate to Moderate Plus Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: Moderate to Moderate Plus Intensity
Fruit: Tree Fruits (Green/Yellow Apple, Pear, Quince), Citrus (Lemon), Melon, Stone Fruit (White Peach, Yellow Cherry)
Sulphuric Note (especially in youth): Flint, Burnt Match, Slight Cabbage
Oxidative Notes: Almond, Hazelnut, Cheese Rind
Malolactic Notes: Slight Butter, Crème Fraiche/Sour Cream
Floral: White Flowers, Acacia, Hawthorne, Honeysuckle, Apple Blossoms
Other: Slight Spice, Slight Savory Herbs
Earth: Moderate to High Minerality, Limestone, Button Mushroom
Oak: Low to High Use of New French Oak, Toffee, Salted Caramel, Butterscotch, Sweet Baking Spices, Cinnamon, Toast, Smoke
Bottle Age Aromas: Truffle, Honey, Nut
Structure: Dry, Moderate to Full Body, Elevated Acidity, Moderate to Elevated Alcohol

6

What are the typical descriptors and structure for-Driven California Chardonnay?

Visual: Yellow/Pale Gold, Moderate Plus Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: Moderate to Moderate Plus Intensity
Fruit: Ripe Tree Fruits (Yellow Apple, Baked Pear), Ripe Citrus (Meyer Lemon), Ripe Apricot, Tropical Fruits (Ripe Pineapple, Mango), Melon
Floral: White Flowers, Apple Blossoms, Honeysuckle
Oxidative Notes: Hazelnut, Almond
Malolactic Notes: Butter, Yogurt, Crème Fraiche/Sour Cream
Other: Sweet/Canned Corn
Earth: Low Minerality, Slight Limestone
Oak: Moderate to High Use of New French Oak, Toffee, Salted Caramel, Butterscotch, Sweet Baking Spices, Vanilla, Pie Crust, Toast
Structure: Dry (may have slight residual sugar), Moderate Plus to Full Body, Moderate Acidity, Elevated Alcohol

7

What are some common confusions for New World Chardonnay?

Pinot Gris: will be dominated by more sweet citrus fruit and may have a more brassy copper color
Albariño: tends to have stone fruit and more citrus fruit with higher acidity. It also has distinct minerality
and fruit spice as opposed to spice derived from wood.

8

Compare North Coast, Central Coast, and Aussie Chardonnay:

North Coast: Look for a combination of ripe forward fruit, elevated levels of alcohol, strong fermentation/oak aromas.

Central Coast: tends to exhibit a combination of ultra-ripe tropical fruit and elevated levels of acid giving a sweet tart character.

Aussie style: tends to be more of a fruit basket and contains both ripe and tart versions of the same fruit and more of an herbal / floral element.
Notes

9

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Vouvray Sec/Demi-Sec?

Visual: Pale Straw/Straw with Hints of Green, Moderate Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: Moderate to Moderate Plus Intensity of Aromas
Fruit: Tree Fruit (Green/Golden/Oxidized Apple, Quince, Yellow Pear), Citrus (Tangerine, Orange, Lemon), Demi-Sec examples may also reveal Melon and Tropical Fruit Notes
Sulphuric Note (in youth)
Oxidative Notes: Slight Bruised Apple, Bitter Nut, Almond, Cheese Rind/Soft Cheese
Floral: Orange Blossoms, Jasmine, Honeysuckle, Fragrant White Flowers
Herbal: Chamomile/Herbal Tea, Medicinal Notes, Dandelion Greens, Wasabi, Savory Herbs, Tree Bark
Botrytis (possible): Honey (particularly with Bottle Age), Ginger, Marmalade
Other: Wet Wool, Lanolin
Earth: Moderate Plus to High Minerality, Damp Straw, Limestone/Tuffeau, Wet Stones, White Mushroom
Oak: None or Neutral Cask
Structure: Dry to Off-Dry (dry examples typically have slight RS), Moderate Body, High Acidity, Diminished to Moderate Alcohol

10

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Savennières?

Visual: Pale Yellow/Gold, Moderate Plus Concentration
Aromas/Flavors:
Fruit: Tree Fruit (Green/Golden/Oxidized Apple, Quince, Yellow Pear), Citrus (Tangerine, Bergamot, Lemon), Dried Apricot
Oxidative Notes: Bruised/Rotten Apple, Cider, Bitter Nut, Almond/Marzipan, Pistachio, Cheese Rind/Soft Cheese (overall the character of classic Savennières tends to be more oxidative than Vouvray)
Floral: Honeysuckle, Jasmine, White Flowers
Herbal: Chamomile/Herbal Tea, Medicinal Notes, Dandelion Greens, Wasabi, Savory Herbs, Tree Bark
Botrytis (possible): Honey (particularly with bottle age), Saffron, Ginger, Marmalade
Other: Wet Wool, Lanolin
Earth: Moderate Plus to High Minerality, Damp Straw, Schist, Wet Stones, White Mushroom
Oak: None or Neutral Cask
Structure: Dry, Moderate Plus to Full Body, High Levels of Extract, High Acidity, Moderate to Elevated Alcohol

11

Compare Savennières to Vouvray:

Savennières: Dry, austere; concentrated mid-palate; less floral than Vouvray
Vouvray: Dry to off-dry; softer, rounder than Savennières

12

What are some common confusions for Old World Chenin Blanc?

Pinot Grigio/Gris: Lacks wax/wet wool/fresh herb; more pithy; brass color
Chardonnay: Lacks wet wool; less aromatic; higher alcohol; less acid; malolactic fermentation; new oak

13

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Alsatian Gewürztraminer?

Visual: Yellow/Gold, Moderate Plus to High Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: High (Heady) Intensity
Fruit: Tropical Fruit (Lychee, Pineapple, Tropical Fruit Punch), Ripe Stone Fruit (Peach Jam, Dried Apricot), Citrus (Orange Marmalade, Grapefruit Pith)
Floral: Roses, Floral Perfume
Spice: Cinnamon, Clove, Gingerbread, Musk, Potpourri, Exotic Spices
Other: Honey, Bergamot Oil, Face Lotion/Perfumed Hand Soap
Earth: Moderate to Moderate Plus Minerality
Oak: None or Neutral Cask
Structure: Dry to Off Dry, Moderate Plus to Full-Body, Diminished to Moderate Acidity, Moderate to Elevated Alcohol, Phenolic Bitterness

14

What are some common confusions for Gewürztraminer?

Muscat will be more floral, have less spice and show more acid and citrus notes
Viognier will show more acid, more peach and less spice in the absence of oak; with oak, drier with more spice and weight

15

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Wachau Federspiel and Kremstal/Kamptal Classic Grüner Veltliner?

Visual: Pale Straw with Hints of Green, Moderate Minus Concentration, Slight Residual Gas (in youth)
Aromas/Flavors: Moderate to Moderate Plus Intensity
Fruit: Citrus (Grapefruit, Lime, Lemon), Under-ripe to Ripe Stone Fruit (White Peach, Nectarine, Yellow Cherry, Green Plum), Green Apple
Floral: White Flowers
Spice: White Pepper, Wasabi, Peppery Greens (Arugula, Watercress), Radish, Lentils
Green/Herbal: Sugar Snap Pea/Crisp Green Vegetable, Celery, Tarragon, Chive/Chive Blossom
Botrytis: None
Earth: High Minerality, Stony, Granitic
Other: Leesy, Smoke
Oak: None
Structure: Dry, Moderate Body, Elevated Acidity, Moderate Alcohol

16

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Wachau Smaragd and Kremstal/Kamptal Reserve Grüner Veltliner?

Visual: Straw with Hints of Green, Moderate to Moderate Plus Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: Moderate Plus Intensity of Aromas
Fruit: Citrus (Grapefruit, Lemon, Lime, Orange), Ripe Stone Fruit (Peach, Apricot, Yellow Cherry, White Plum), Red/Yellow Apple, Slight Dried and/or Tropical Fruit Character
Floral: White Flowers
Spice: White Pepper, Wasabi, Radish, Lentils
Green/Herbal: Slight Chive, Tarragon, Sage
Slight Oxidation: Blanched Almond, Nut
Botrytis: Slight Ginger, Honey, Saffron
Earth: Moderate to High Minerality, Stony, Granitic
Other: Leesy, Smoke
Oak: None or Neutral Large Cask
Structure: Dry, Moderate Plus Body, Elevated Acidity, Moderate to Elevated Alcohol

17

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Alsatian Pinot Gris?

Visual: Yellow/Pale Gold (possibly with slight copper and pink tones), Moderate to Moderate Plus Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: Moderate to Moderate Plus Intensity
Fruit: Stone Fruit (Apricot, Yellow Peach), Candied Citrus (Meyer Lemon, Orange), Ripe Tree Fruit (Baked Apple, Quince), Tropical Notes (Pineapple), Banana/Banana Peel
Floral: Faint White Flowers, Apple Blossoms, Honeysuckle
Spice: Exotic Spices, Musk, Cinnamon
Botrytis: Honey, Ginger
Other: Beeswax, Damp Cellar, Nutty, Bitter Almond
Earth: Moderate to High Minerality, Mushroom/Forest Floor
Oak: Large Neutral Oak Casks
Structure: Dry to Medium Dry, Moderate Plus Body, Moderate Acidity, Moderate to Elevated Alcohol, Phenolic Bitterness

18

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Italian Pinot Grigio?

Visual: Pale Straw with Hints of Green (possibly with slight copper and pink tones), Moderate Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: Moderate Intensity
Fruit: Citrus (Lemon), Tree Fruit (Red and Yellow Apple), Creamy Stone Fruit (White Peach, Nectarine), Melon
Floral: White and Yellow Flowers
Herbal: Watercress/Arugula
Other: Peanut Shell, Lager Yeast/Stale Beer
Earth: Moderate to Moderate Plus Minerality, Stone/Chalk, Ashen Notes, Saline
Oak: None
Structure: Dry, Moderate Body, Elevated Acidity, Moderate Alcohol, Slight Phenolic Bitterness

19

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Oregon Pinot Grigio?

Concentration / Color Straw to Yellow
Hue / Rim Variation Silver, Grey, Copper
Stain N/A
Tears / Viscosity Medium to High
Fruit / Condition
*Apple/Tree Fruit: Yellow, Red Apple, Pear (Fruit condition ripe to overripe, baked, peels) *Stone Fruit: Peach, Apricot
Citrus Fruit: Lemon, Orange (Fruit condition candied, pith/peel)
Other Fruit: Melon
Floral* Apple Blossom, Orange Blossom
Herbal Uncommon
Vegetal Uncommon
Spice Slight Ginger, Vanilla
Other* Honey, Fruit Cup
Vinification* Yeast: Lees, Beer; Skin Contact
Oak Uncommon
Organic Earth Uncommon
Inorganic Earth Slight Stony Minerality
RS Dry to Off Dry
Tannin / Phenolic* Slight Phenolic Bitterness
Acid Medium to Medium Plus
Alcohol Medium to Medium Plus
Finish Medium to Medium Plus

Complexity Moderate to Complex
Quality Parameters No Official Classification
Notes
This is a semi-aromatic grape with a phenolic bitterness.
Oregon styles have riper fruit than Italian styles, but lack the richness of Alsace.

20

What are some common confusions for New World Pinot Gris?

Albariño: More floral, higher minerality, lacks the bitterness and fruit peel character
Confusion
Vouvray: Higher acidity, a wet wool character, higher minerality

21

What are some common confusions for Old World Pinot Gris?

Albariño: has similar flavors, but is more floral. Richer than Italy PG and more tart than Alsace Pinot Gris Chablis: Less ripe, more green/yellow apple/pear, more pronounced minerality, less floral
Alsace Riesling: Higher acidity, greater delicacy, lacks phenolic bitterness
Gewürztraminer: More intense floral/spice aromatics, lychee fruit, oily texture, lower acid Chenin (Loire): Higher acidity, lighter body, greater minerality/chalk possibly off- dry

22

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Mosel Kabinett Riesling

Visual: Brilliant, Watery White with Hints of Green, Low Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: High Intensity
Fruit: Tart Tree Fruits (Green Apple, Bosc Pear, Quince), Citrus/Citrus Peel (Lemon, Lime, Grapefruit), Stone Fruit (White Peach, White Plum, Nectarine), Blackcurrant
Sulphuric Note (in youth)
Floral: White Flowers, Jasmine, Fruit Tree Blossoms
Other: Slight Smoke, Candlewax, Panna Cotta/Meringue, Slight Petrol
Earth: High Minerality, Slate, Crushed Rock
Oak: None or Large Neutral Cask
Bottle Age Aromas: Honey, Petrol, Paraffin
Structure: Off-Dry to Medium Dry, Light Body, High Acidity, Low Alcohol

23

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Mosel Kabinett Riesling?

Visual: Brilliant, Watery White with Hints of Green, Low Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: High Intensity
Fruit: Tart Tree Fruits (Green Apple, Bosc Pear, Quince), Citrus/Citrus Peel (Lemon, Lime, Grapefruit), Stone Fruit (White Peach, White Plum, Nectarine), Blackcurrant
Sulphuric Note (in youth)
Floral: White Flowers, Jasmine, Fruit Tree Blossoms
Other: Slight Smoke, Candlewax, Panna Cotta/Meringue, Slight Petrol
Earth: High Minerality, Slate, Crushed Rock
Oak: None or Large Neutral Cask
Bottle Age Aromas: Honey, Petrol, Paraffin
Structure: Off-Dry to Medium Dry, Light Body, High Acidity, Low Alcohol

24

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Rheingau Spätlese Riesling?

Visual: Star-Bright, Straw with Hints of Pale Gold and Green, Moderate Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: High Intensity
Fruit: Ripe Tree Fruits (Yellow Apple, Pear, Quince), Fresh Citrus/Citrus Peel (Grapefruit, Orange, Meyer Lemon), Stone Fruits (Nectarine, White Peach, Apricot, Cherry), Melon
Sulphuric Note (in youth)
Floral: White Flowers, Wildflowers, Honeysuckle, Jasmine, Fruit Tree Blossoms
Botrytis: Ginger, Honey, Saffron
Slight Herbal/Spice: Lemongrass
Other: Slight Smoke, Candlewax, Panna Cotta/Meringue, Slight Petrol
Earth: High Minerality, Granite, Slate, Crushed Rock
Oak: None or Large Neutral Cask
Bottle Age Aromas: Honey, Petrol, Paraffin, Herbs (Marjoram, Spearmint)
Structure: Medium Dry to Medium Sweet, Moderate Minus Body, High Acidity, Low Alcohol

25

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Alsace Riesling?

Visual: Yellow/Gold with Hints of Green, Moderate Plus Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: High Intensity
Fruit: Ripe and Cooked Tree Fruits (Yellow Apple, Baked Pear, Quince), Citrus (Lemon, Citronella, Grapefruit), Stone Fruit (Yellow Peach, Stewed Apricot), Tropical Fruit (Pineapple), Banana/Banana Peel
Sulphuric Note (in youth)
Floral: White Flowers, Honeysuckle, Jasmine
Botrytis: Ginger, Honey, Saffron
Spice: Cardamom, Anise, Fennel
Other: Smoke, Candlewax, Slight Petrol
Earth: High Minerality, White Mushroom
Oak: None or Large Neutral Cask
Bottle Age Aromas: Honey, Petrol, Paraffin, Marzipan, Browned Toast
Structure: Dry, Moderate to Moderate Plus Body, High Acidity, Moderate to Elevated Alcohol

26

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Clare Valley/Eden Valley Riesling?

Visual: Pale Straw with Hints of Gold and Green, Moderate Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: High Intensity
Fruit: Ripe Citrus (Lime, Lime Candy, Lemon), Stone Fruit (White Peach, White Nectarine), Tart Tree Fruit (Green Apple), Slight Tropical Fruit (Passion Fruit, Guava)
Sulphuric Note (in youth)
Floral: White Flowers, Purple Flowers, Linden/Lime Blossoms, Roses
Other: Slight Spice, Kerosene/Petrol, Margarita Salt, "Fresh Tennis Ball"
Earth: Moderate to Moderate Plus Minerality, Slate, Steely
Oak: None
Structure: Dry, Moderate to Moderate Plus Body, High Acidity, Moderate Alcohol

27

Compare Eden Valley to Clare Valley Riesling:

Eden Valley wines are more floral with pungent white and yellow flowers
Clare Valley wines are more lime and herbal scented

28

What are some common confusions for Australian Riesling?

Alsace: is more minerally and less limey
Trocken German: has a broader expression of fruit, more earth character
Albariño: lacks the mineral and citrus intensity

29

What are some common confusions for Old World Riesling?

Clare/Eden Valley: is consistently dry, with pronounced citrus.
Albariño: Always dry, frequent use of lees, and less tart

30

Compare some different types of Old World Riesling:

Mosel: wines tend to be more delicate with elevated acid and tart fruits
Rheinhessen and Rheingau: wines are richer, denser wines with riper fruit
Pfalz: tends to be rounder with more tropical fruits
Alsace: similar to Pfalz wines, but denser with mineral and slightly elevated alcohol
Austrian: Fragrance of Germany with the alcohol and concentration of Alsace
Evidence of botrytis darkens color, increases fruit ripeness and intensifies honey, saffron, apricot flavors

31

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Sancerre?

Visual: Pale Straw with Hints of Green, Moderate Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: Moderate to Moderate Plus Intensity of Aromas
Fruit: Tart Citrus (Grapefruit, Lemon, Lime), Tart Tree Fruit (Green Apple, Green Pear), Gooseberry, Under-ripe Stone Fruit (White Peach), Slight Tropical Fruit (Kiwi, Passion Fruit)
Floral: Faint White Flowers, Citrus Blossoms
Herbal/Green/Pyrazine: Cut Grass, Green Bell Pepper, Blackcurrant Bud, Box Tree, Nettles, Tarragon
Earth: High Minerality, Wet Stones, Chalk, Crushed Rocks
Oak: None or Neutral Oak Casks
Structure: Dry, Moderate Body, High Acidity, Moderate to Moderate Plus Alcohol

32

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc?

Visual: Pale Straw with Hints of Green, Moderate Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: High Intensity of Aromas
Fruit: Citrus (Grapefruit, Lemon, Lime), Melon, Gooseberry, Tropical Fruit (Passion Fruit, Guava, Pineapple)
Floral: Faint White Flowers, Citrus Blossoms
Herbal/Green/Pyrazine: Cut Grass, Asparagus, Canned Pea, Green Bell Pepper, Jalapeño, Blackcurrant Bud, Rhubarb
Earth: Low to Moderate Minerality, Wet Sand, Chalk
Oak: None
Structure: Dry, Moderate Body, High Acidity, Moderate to Moderate Plus Alcohol

33

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Napa/Sonoma Sauvignon Blanc?

Visual: Straw with Hints of Green and Gold, Moderate Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: Moderate Plus Intensity, Less Pronounced Varietal Character
Fruit: Ripe Citrus Fruit (Ruby Red Grapefruit, Lemon, Mandarin Orange, Lime), Tropical Fruit (Passion Fruit, Guava, Kiwi), Ripe Tree and Stone Fruit (Red Apple, White Peach, Nectarine), Melon
Floral: White Flowers, Citrus Blossoms
Herbal/Green/Pyrazine: Cut Grass, Celery, Tarragon, Lemongrass
Earth: Low to Moderate Minerality
Oak: None or Low to Moderate Use of New French Oak (Napa examples with new barrique fermentation and aging may take on aromas and flavors similar to Graves Bordeaux Blanc)
Structure: Dry, Moderate Plus Body, Moderate Plus to High Acidity, Moderate Plus to High Alcohol

34

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Graves Bordeaux Blanc?

Visual: Yellow/Pale Gold Color with Hints of Green, Moderate Plus Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: Moderate Intensity of Aromas
Fruit: Citrus (Grapefruit, Lemon), Tropical Fruit (Pineapple, Passion Fruit), Tree Fruit (Green Fig, Green/Yellow Apple), Melon, Stone Fruit (Nectarine, Peach, Apricot)
Floral: Honeysuckle, Faint White Flowers
Herbal/Green/Pyrazine: Cut Grass, Celery Seed/Celery
Earth: Gravel, Wet Rocks
Other: Beeswax, Lanolin, Cream Soda, Sunflower Seed
Oak: Moderate to High (50%) Use of New French Oak, Vanilla, Toast
Structure: Dry, Moderate to Moderate Plus Body, Moderate Plus to High Acidity, Moderate to Moderate Plus Alcohol

35

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Salta Torrontés?

Visual: Yellow with Hints of Green, Moderate Plus Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: High Intensity
Fruit: Synthetic Grape, Tropical Fruit (Pineapple, Guava, Papaya), Ripe Citrus (Orange, Meyer Lemon), Ripe Stone Fruit (Peach), Melon
Floral: Highly Floral/Perfumed, Orange Blossoms, Roses, Jasmine, Geraniums
Other: Hand Lotion/Soapy, Potpourri, Slight Musk Spice
Earth: Low to Moderate Minerality
Oak: None
Structure: Dry, Moderate Plus Body, Moderate to Elevated Acidity, Elevated Alcohol, Possible Phenolic Bitterness

36

What are some common confusions for Torrontés?

Viognier: will be richer with broader expression of fruit, lower acid and often oak influenced
Gewürztraminer: will have more spice with lower acid and richer texture

37

What are the typical descriptors and structure for Condrieu?

Visual: Yellow/Pale Gold Color, Moderate Plus Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: High Intensity
Fruit: Ripe/Lush Stone Fruit (Apricot, Peach, Peach Pit), Ripe Citrus (Mandarin Orange, Ruby Red Grapefruit), Tropical Fruit (Mango, Persimmon), Fruit Cocktail
Floral: Honeysuckle, Jasmine, Orange Blossoms, Rose
Spice: Cinnamon, Musk, Potpourri, Candied Citrus Peel, Anise, Gingerbread
Malolactic Fermentation (not always present): Crème Fraiche, Yogurt, Butter
Earth: Moderate to Moderate Plus Minerality, Stone/Granite
Oak: None, Neutral Oak, or Low to Moderate (approx. 30%) Use of New French Oak
Structure: Dry (may have slight residual sugar), Moderate Plus to Full Body, Diminished to Moderate Acidity, Elevated Alcohol, Phenolic Bitterness

38

What are the typical descriptors and structure for California Viognier?

Visual: Yellow/Pale Gold Color, Moderate Plus to High Concentration
Aromas/Flavors: High Intensity
Fruit: Ripe Stone Fruit (Apricot, Peach), Ripe Citrus (Mandarin Orange, Ruby Red Grapefruit, Tangerine), Ripe Tropical Fruit (Pineapple, Mango), Fruit Cocktail
Floral: Honeysuckle, Rose
Spice: Potpourri, Sweet Spices, Vanilla, Cardamom, Gingerbread
Malolactic Fermentation (not always present): Crème Fraiche, Yogurt, Butter
Earth: Low to Moderate Minerality
Other: Oily, Sweetened Cereal Grains ("Fruit Loops")
Oak: None, Neutral Oak, or Low to Moderate (approx. 30%) Use of New French Oak
Structure: Dry to Off Dry, Full Body, Diminished Acidity, Elevated to High Alcohol, Phenolic Bitterness

39

What are some common confusions for Old World Viognier?

Gewürztraminer: tends to be off-dry with less acid, dominated by floral notes and lychee
Torrontés: tends to have slightly higher acidity, and lacks the texture of Viognier
New World Viognier: tends to be overripe, higher in alcohol and more overt use of new oak

40

What are some common confusions for New World Viognier?

Torrontés: tends to have slightly higher acidity and lacks the thick texture of Viognier Common
Condrieu: exhibits less ripeness and has distinct minerality
Confusion
Chardonnay: heavily oaked Viognier versions can be confused with Chardonnay, which is much less floral and has a more narrow spectrum of fruit flavors