Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (136)
What is Risk Perception Attitude (RPA) framework
perceptions/reactions to health-related risks
what does RPA assume?
(in some cases) risk can motivate self-protective health behavior
What can understanding attitudes about risk help?
-more accurately predict responses based on risk perceptions
-more effective health campaigns.
what are the two dimensions of perceived risk
what is susceptibility
degree to which a threat is likely to occur
"how likely it is to occur"
what is severity
noxiousness of a threat
"how bad will it be if it happens?"
what are the two perceptions of perceived efficacy
1) self efficacy
2) response efficacy
what is self efficacy
ability to cope with/prevent threat
"can I mitigate/prevent threat?"
what is response efficacy
effectiveness of strategies meant to cope with/prevent threat.
"will the strategies recommended to mitigate and prevent the treat work?"
what are the 4 possibilities of the RPA framework
what happens when you are responsive in the RPA framework
-high risk and high efficacy
-most motivated to enact self-protect
-confident taking action to prevent/reduce risk
what happens when you "avoid" in the RPA framework
-high risk and low efficacy
-concerned of risks but feel unable to cope with it
-don't feel they can prevent it from happening.
what is the proactive possibility in the RPA framework
-low risk and high efficacy
-not motivated by risk
-may take action because they believe that a behavior may be preventative (ex. airborne sunscreen in the moonlight)
what is the indifferent possibility in the RPA framework
-low risk and low efficacy
-least motivated to enact self-protect
-feel not at risk & unable to cope with threat.
what steps should be taken during the RPA framework and persuasion.
step 1) segment audience based on RPA
step 2) target msg best address each groups RPA
what is an optimistic bias
-focus on perceptions of relative risk
-people think self less susceptible to health risk
-a possible explanation as to why people don't take preventative steps
what is another explanation of why people do not take preventative actions
egocentrism. people believe their self protect more extensive/effective than others (eg. thinking you eat more healthily than you do)
what is the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
explain response to msg that contains an argument/peripheral cues.
argument: content of a message
peripheral cues: info external to message content
what does the ELM make predictions about
responses to a single message
what is a dual process model
-explains two routes individuals process persuasive msgs (develop +/- attitude)
what are some assumptions of the ELM
-people are motivated to hold "correct" attitudes. -what is 'correct' is subjective
-incorrect attitudes are maladaptive - neg. consequences due to attitude
what are the two routes of message processing
what is the central route in message processing
-attitude change is a function of message content and elaboration
(elaboration: the extent to which a person thinks about the issue-relevant arguments contained in a message)
careful scrutiny of message content
what is the peripheral route in message processing
shapes attitudes without need to engage in extensive issue-related thinking
EG. agreeing w/ message cuz source is credible, simple
what are some of the determinants of the processing route in ELM
in ELM, what are some factors that influence motivation
-involvement in the message topic
-need for cognition
-personal responsibility for your attitude
in ELM, what are some factors that influence ability
-able to process
-background knowledge of topic
in ELM, what causes central processing
high motivation + high ability = central processing
quality of the arguments contained in message shud determine influence of msg on attitudes
in ELM, what causes peripheral processing
low motivation + low ability = peripheral processing
peripheral cues determine msg evaluation and influence of the msg on attitudes