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1

Define persuasion

Any message that is intended to shape, reinforce, or change the responses of another, or others
-shape
-reinforce
-change

2

Define shape

no established pattern of response

3

Define reinforce

reinforcing currently held beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors

4

Define change

involves affecting another person's cognitions, attitudes, or behavior

5

goals and targets of persuasion

what is being changed, shaped, or reinforced?
1)cognitions: beliefs about the world
2)attitudes
3)behavior

6

definition of attitude

a learned predisposition

7

characteristics of attitudes

-are learned
-relatively enduring, may evolve
-guide behavior

8

what are the sources of attitudes

3 sources:
1)cognitions
2)affective/emotion
3)past behavior

9

what are the two characteristics of attitudes

1)attitudes accessibility: attitudes vary in how quickly they may be retrieved from memory and applied
2)attitude strength: we hold some attitudes more/less strongly than others

10

What is the LaPierre study and the attitude-behavior controversy

(1934) Chinese couple traveling, visited hotels and restaurants and was refused by one. 6months later, surveys were sent out to the same establishments, most replied saying they would NOT house a person from China. **raised considerable questions about the attitude-behavior relationship

11

What are some problems measuring attitudes

-carelessness: not paying attention to detail
-extremity: tendency to select extreme, most responses on the scale
-acquiescence: agreeing with an item, regardless of its content
-social desirability: the tendency to give socially appropriate responses to avoid looking "bad" or "uninformed"

12

What is measurement correspondence (TACT)

the degree of match between attitude measure and the behavior measure
-Target: what is the attitude object
-Action: what is being done to the object
-Context: in what setting does the action occur
-Time: when does the action take place

TACT=target, action, context, time

13

What are some instances when attitudes are most likely to predict behavior?

-social norms are unimportant
-time is limited
-attitudes are based on direct experience
-attitudes are accessible

14

What are some differences between conditioning and learning

-attitudes are learned in multiple ways
-learning: a relatively stable change in behavior that results from prior experiences
-conditioning: to cause to respond in a specific manner to a specific stimulus.

15

What are some general types of learning/condition theories

1)behavioristic
2)cognitive

16

define behavioristic

people are regarded as reactive victims of external rewards and punishments with no freedom of choice or capacity for self-direction, attitude and behavior change occur automatically, without conscious human awareness

17

define cognitive

shape external reality and determine responses to the environment, free will is critical

18

what are some types of conditioning/learning

-classical conditioning (high-order classical conditioning)
-operant conditioning
-observational learning

19

what is classical conditioning

occurs when a connection is drawn between two events in the environment

20

what are the steps in classical conditioning

1)Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
2)Unconditioned response(UCR)
3)Conditioned stimulus(CS)
4)conditioned response (CR)

21

what is the main idea in classical conditioning

is that UCS-CS pairing is created and eventually the CS alone elicits the UCR (which then becomes the CR)

22

what is higher-order classical conditioning

works the same way as classical conditioning, however, a conditioned response is transferred to a different conditioned stimulus

23

what are the steps in higher-order classical conditioning

1)conditioned stimulus (CS)
2)conditioned response(CR)
3)conditioned stimulus(CS)
4)conditioned response(CR)
*think of value meals...

24

what is operant conditioning

based on the idea that people act to maximize positive and minimize negative consequences
-reinforcement is key
-positive=reward
-negative=punishment

25

social cognitive theory

explains how patterns of behavior are acquired and how their expression is continuously regulated by both self-and other-generated sources of influence

26

what are some assumptions on social cognitive theory

there are limits to what can be learned via trial-and-error
-through observing others, individuals gain info on how to enact a behavior

27

what are the three important functions that observations serves

1)information function
2)motivational function
3)reinforcement funtion

28

what is informational function

allows hypothesis testing about the outcomes associated with a behavior

29

what is motivational function

establishes a value for a behavior and incentive to enact (or not enact) a behavior

30

what is reinforcement function

strengthens the connections between previously learned behaviors and their consequences