Thorax 7 - Superior & Anterior Mediastinum Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Thorax 7 - Superior & Anterior Mediastinum Deck (53)
1

Where are the vagus and phrenic nerves positioned in relation to each other?

Phrenic nerves lie lateral to the vagus nerves

2

Which section of the aorta lies in the superior mediastinum?

Aortic arch

3

In relation to where the common carotid artery arises from the aorta, where does the subclavian arise?

Posterior

4

Which directions does the aortic arch travel?

Superiorly
Posteriorly
To the left

5

What landmark marks the superior point of the thymus?

Jugular notch

6

What landmark marks the inferior point of the thymus?

4th cc

7

In which mediastinum is the thymus found?

Anterior

8

Which structures does the thymus lie between?

Posterior to manubrium & body of sternum
Anterior to pericardium

9

What is the function of the thymus?

To programme T-lymphocytes

10

Where do the internal jugular and subclavian veins join and become the brachiocephalic vein?

Posterior to the sternoclavicular joint

11

Which aspect of the arch of the aorta does the LBCV pass closest to?

Anterior

12

Does the LBCV pass anterior to the manubrium?

No

13

Where do the RBCV & LBCV meet to become the SVC

Posterior to 1st right cc

14

Where does the azygos vein join the SVC?

Posterior to 2nd right cc

15

At what level does the SVC enter the right atrium?

Posterior to 3rd right cc

16

Is the pulmonary trunk in the superior mediastinum?

No

17

Is the ligamentum arteriosum in the superior mediastinum?

Yes

18

What are the boundaries of the anterior mediastinum?

Sternum, pericardium, lungs & pleura

19

What are the boundaries of the superior mediastinum?

Thoracic inlet, sternal angle (T4/5), posterior to manubrium, anterior to T1-4, oblique from manubrium up to T1, lungs & pleura

20

Where does the aortic arch lie?

At the level of T4/5

21

At the level of T3, where do the vagus nerves lie in relation to the phrenic nerves?

Medially & Posteriorly

22

At what spinal level does the bifurcation of the trachea into bronchi occur?

T5/6

23

Between what two landmarks does the thymus lie?

Jugular notch
4th CC

24

From which two arteries does the thymus get its blood supply?

Internal thoracic
Inferior thyroid

25

Which vein carries blood away from the thymus?

Left brachiocephalic

26

Where are the right and left BCV's formed and which veins form them?

Posterior to the sternoclavicular joints.
Internal jugulars and subclavians

27

Venous drainage:
1. Azygos
2. Subclavian
3. Internal jugular
4. LBCV

1. posterior chest wall
2. UL
3. head & neck
4. anterior chest wall (via internal thoracic veins)

28

Which vein do the azygos, subclavian, internal jugular and LBC veins drain to?

SVC

29

Which veins may be at risk during tracheostomy in children?

Thyroid veins, since in children they may protrude above the manubrium

30

A key note to remember...

The nerves lie BETWEEN the arteries and veins

31

Which arteries are contained in the superior mediastinum?

Arch of aorta (NOT descending aorta)
BCT
Right subclavian
Right common carotid
Left subclavian
Left common carotid

32

With regard to landmarks, where does the arch of aorta lie?

Sternal angle - T4/5 plane

33

At which spinal level does the PT bifurcate?

T5

34

Where does the PT lie in relation to the aorta?

To the left

35

In which mediastinum does the ligamentum arteriosum lie?

Superior

36

What are the C shaped rings in the trachea made of?

Hyaline cartilage

37

What is the carina?

Tracheal bifurcation

38

Between which spinal levels does the trachea run?

C6 - T4/5

39

What structure lies between the trachea (anterior) and the oesophagus (posterior)?

Left recurrent laryngeal nerve

40

When does trachealis muscle contract and when does it relax?

Contracts at rest
Relaxes upon exertion (greater capacity)

41

At which spinal level does the oesophagus start?

C6

42

Between which two structures does the thoracic duct lie?

Azygous vein
Thoracic aorta

43

In which mediastinum does the thoracic duct lie?

Extends from posterior mediastinum up to the superior mediastinum

44

What assists lymph movement?

Aortic pulsations

45

At which vertebral level does the thoracic duct cross behind the oesophagus to ascend on its left side?

T4/5

46

Where does the thoracic duct enter the venous system?

At the junction between the left internal jugular and the left subclavian veins, i.e. the LBCV

47

What pathology can affect the left recurrent laryngeal nerve and what would the result of this be?

Left lung tumours
Causes hoarse voice

48

To which lymph nodes does the lung and lung hilum lymph drain to?

Mediastinal

49

Where can mediastinal lymph nodes be found?

Clustered around the trachea and oesophagus in the superior mediastinum

50

Where do superior tracheobronchial lymph nodes lie?

Above the carina (tracheal bifurcation)

51

Where do inferior tracheobronchial lymph nodes lie?

Below the carina

52

Where might palpable lymph nodes be found in lung tumour cases and why?

Neck - due to communication with deep cervical lymph nodes

53

Around which structure can anterior lymph nodes be found?

Brachiocephalic veins

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