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Flashcards in Thyroid Disease Deck (43)
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1

What are the 2 most common types of thyroid cancer?

Papillary
Follicular

2

Thyroid cancer is more common in males. True/False?

False
Females

3

What aetiology has a strong association with thyroid cancer?

Radiation exposure

4

What is the main presenting complaint of thyroid cancer?

Palpable nodule in the neck

5

Follicular thyroid cancer is more common than papillary variant. True/False?

False
Papillary is most common

6

How does papillary thyroid cancer tend to spread?

Lymphatics
Also haematogenous

7

The incidence of follicular thyroid cancer are higher in people deficient of which chemical?

Iodine

8

Lymphatic spread of follicular thyroid cancer is rare. True/False?

True

9

What is the main investigation for thyroid cancer?

Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration
Can do lymph node biopsy if spread

10

If the thyroid cancer lesion is greater than _cm, there is clinical prediction of malignancy

4cm

11

What are the main surgical techniques for thyroid cancer?

Lobectomy (uncommon)
Sub-total thyroidectomy
Total thyroidectomy

12

A 36 yr old man with thyroid cancer with no metastases is AMES high risk. True/False?

False
Low risk

13

All patients with metastases of thyroid cancer are AMES high risk. True/False?

True

14

What type of thyroid tumours may be treated by lobectomy?

Papillary micro-carcinoma
Minimally invasive follicular carcinoma
AMES low risk

15

Calcium is checked post-op for thyroid cancer. At what level of calcium is replacement initiated?

Less than 2 mmol/L

16

Why is iodine body scanning done for post-op thyroid cancer?

To detect residual cancer cells

17

How long before an iodine scan must T3 and T4 be stopped?

Stop T4 4 weeks prior
Stop T3 2 weeks prior

18

TSH must be elevated for an iodine scan. True/False?

True

19

What non-surgical technique can be used for thyroid cancer destruction following surgery?

Thyroid remnant ablation

20

Thyroid swellings move on swallowing. True/False?

True

21

Thyroglossal swellings move with the tongue. True/False?

True

22

Autoimmune thyroid disease is the commonest cause of hypo/hyper -thyroidism. True/False?

True

23

In hyperthyroidism, TSH levels are high. True/False?

False
TSH is low in hyperthyroidism, and high in hypothyroidism

24

Why is TSH low in hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism causes excess T4, so pituitary produces less TSH in order to try and compensate

25

In the context of pituitary gland failure, would TSH levels be high or low in hypothyroidism?

Low
(pituitary can't compensate)

26

What is myxoedema?

Severe hypothyroidism
N.B. pretibial myxoedema is seen in Grave's disease due to thyrotoxicosis

27

Incidence of hypothyroidism is higher in people with high/low iodine

Low iodine is assoc. with hypothyroidism

28

What is the main goitrous cause of hypothyroidism?

Hashimoto's thyroiditis (chronic/autoimmune thyroiditis)

29

List some drug-induced causes of hypothyroidism

Amiodarone
Aminosalicyclic acid
Lithium
Iodides

30

What are the 2 main origins of secondary hypo/hyper -thyroidism?

Hypothalamus disease
Pituitary disease