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2MB Endocrinology > Reproduction Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproduction Physiology Deck (26)
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1

What is the name for the earliest recognisable germ cell in females?

Primordial germ cell

2

Primary oocytes are formed after the 1st mitotic division. True/False?

False
1st MEIOTIC division!

3

What is a polar body in oogenesis?

Small haploid cell formed during meiotic divisions that is not able to be fertilised

4

What does the presence of 2 polar bodies imply?

Completion of 2nd meiotic division
Entry of sperm into egg

5

How long does the ovarian (menstrual) cycle normally last?

28 days

6

What are the 2 phases of the menstrual cycle?

Follicular phase
Luteal phase

7

What happens in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle?

Maturation of ovum/preparation for ovulation
Ovulation signals end of follicular phase

8

What happens in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle?

Post-ovulatory phase involving development of corpus luteum
Preparation of reproductive tract for pregnancy if fertilisation occurs

9

What is a primary follicle?

Layer of granulosa cells surrounding a primary oocyte that is capable of producing an ovum

10

What is a secondary follicle?

Differentiated follicle due to oocyte growth, resulting in some follicles undergoing ovulation (signalling end of follicular phase)

11

What happens to follicular cells left behind that are not part of ovulation?

Undergo luteinisation - transform into the corpus luteum

12

What hormone does the corpus luteum secrete?

Progesterone

13

Oestrogen is secreted in the follicular phase of menstruation; progesterone is secreted in the luteal phase. What is the importance of these hormones to the reproductive tract?

Prepare uterine lining for implantation

14

How long does the corpus luteum grow for following ovulation?

8-9 days

15

If fertilisation does not occur, how long will the corpus luteum survive?

Survives no longer than 14 days

16

The degeneration of the corpus luteum signals the start of the next follicular phase of menstruation. True/False?

True

17

Which hormone does the hypothalamus secrete to act on the anterior pituitary in hormonal control of the ovaries?

GnRH

18

Which two hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary in the female gonadal axis?

LH
FSH

19

What does FSH do?

Acts on ovary to stimulate production of follicles, and in turn stimulate oestradiol secretion

20

What does LH do?

Acts on ovary to stimulate follicle maturation, ovulation and development of corpus luteum

21

Describe levels of FSH, LH, oestrogen and progesterone during the follicular phase of menstruation

FSH rises (to recruit follicles)
Oestrogen rises (as follicles develop)
Oestrogen stimulates LH rise
LH peak just before ovulation
Progesterone rise after ovulation

22

What is the purpose of oestradiol?

Thickens endometrium
Thins cervical mucus

23

Oestrogen suppresses FSH production. True/False?

True

24

What are the 3 main clinical signs of detecting ovulation?

High progesterone at day 21
High LH spike
Increase in temp. by 1 degree

25

How does the corpus luteum "know" if fertilisation has taken place?

hCG production by the embryo at 12 days - if this doesn't occur, corpus luteum degenerates

26

What is the corpus albicans?

Remnant/degenerated corpus luteum