Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (61)
In Scotland, incidence of diabetes has overtaken CVD and cancer. True/False?
Define "diabetes mellitus"
Group of metabolic diseases characterised by hyperglycaemia, due to inadequate insulin production/availability/action
Why is type 1 diabetes an example of absolute insulin deficiency?
Insulin is not produced because beta-cells in pancreas are destroyed
Why is type 2 diabetes an example of relative insulin deficiency?
Insulin is produced, but there is not enough to maintain normal glucose levels
What is the normal range of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)?
41 m/m and below
What is the normal range for fasting glucose?
6 mmol/l and below
What value of HbA1c is diabetes diagnosed at?
48 mmol/mol and above
What value of fasting glucose is diabetes diagnosed at?
7 mmol/l and above
What value of random blood glucose is diabetes diagnosed at?
Which antibodies are associated with type 1 diabetes?
Autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes actually appear years before the onset of diabetes. True/False?
List clinical features of type 1 diabetes
What is the typical age onset for type 1 diabetes?
Also peak in late 30's
Is obesity more associated with type 1 or type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes
List clinical features of type 2 diabetes
What is LADA?
Late-onset autoimmune diabetes of adulthood
Is ketosis more associated with type 1 or type 2 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes
What does HbA1c provide a measure of?
Provides a measure of blood glucose over 2-3 months
List macro-vascular complications of diabetes
List micro-vascular complications of diabetes
HLA genes represent how much of familial risk of type 1 diabetes?
What is the highest risk genotype for type 1 diabetes?
People with weight distribution in shape of a pear have higher risk of CVD than those with apple-shaped weight distribution. True/False?
Apples have increased risk
What are the main aims behind diabetes therapy?
Alleviate hyperglycaemic symptoms
Reduce risk of complications
What is the 1st line pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes?
Give examples of sulphonylureas
Give an example of a thiazolidinedione (TZD)
What are the main effects of metformin?
Reduces insulin resistance (causing reduced HbA1c)
Prevents vascular complications
Reduces tryglycerides + LDL
List some adverse effects of metformin