Diabetes Flashcards Preview

2MB Endocrinology > Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (61)
Loading flashcards...
1

In Scotland, incidence of diabetes has overtaken CVD and cancer. True/False?

True

2

Define "diabetes mellitus"

Group of metabolic diseases characterised by hyperglycaemia, due to inadequate insulin production/availability/action

3

Why is type 1 diabetes an example of absolute insulin deficiency?

Insulin is not produced because beta-cells in pancreas are destroyed

4

Why is type 2 diabetes an example of relative insulin deficiency?

Insulin is produced, but there is not enough to maintain normal glucose levels

5

What is the normal range of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)?

41 m/m and below

6

What is the normal range for fasting glucose?

6 mmol/l and below

7

What value of HbA1c is diabetes diagnosed at?

48 mmol/mol and above

8

What value of fasting glucose is diabetes diagnosed at?

7 mmol/l and above

9

What value of random blood glucose is diabetes diagnosed at?

11.1 mmol/l

10

Which antibodies are associated with type 1 diabetes?

Anti-GAD
Anti-islet cell

11

Autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes actually appear years before the onset of diabetes. True/False?

True

12

List clinical features of type 1 diabetes

Polyuria
Polydipsia
Weight loss
Fatigue
Ketonuria

13

What is the typical age onset for type 1 diabetes?

Pre-school/pre-puberty
Also peak in late 30's

14

Is obesity more associated with type 1 or type 2 diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes

15

List clinical features of type 2 diabetes

Thirst
Polyuria
Weakness
Thrush/abscess
Blurred vision
Neuropathy

16

What is LADA?

Late-onset autoimmune diabetes of adulthood

17

Is ketosis more associated with type 1 or type 2 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes

18

What does HbA1c provide a measure of?

Glycated Hb
Provides a measure of blood glucose over 2-3 months

19

List macro-vascular complications of diabetes

MI
Stroke

20

List micro-vascular complications of diabetes

Retinopathy
Nephropathy
Neuropathy

21

HLA genes represent how much of familial risk of type 1 diabetes?

30-50%

22

What is the highest risk genotype for type 1 diabetes?

DR3-DQ2
DR4-DQ8

23

People with weight distribution in shape of a pear have higher risk of CVD than those with apple-shaped weight distribution. True/False?

False
Apples have increased risk

24

What are the main aims behind diabetes therapy?

Alleviate hyperglycaemic symptoms
Weight loss
Reduce risk of complications

25

What is the 1st line pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes?

Biguanides (metformin)

26

Give examples of sulphonylureas

Glicazide
Glibenclamide
Glimeparide

27

Give an example of a thiazolidinedione (TZD)

Pioglitazone

28

What are the main effects of metformin?

Reduces insulin resistance (causing reduced HbA1c)
Prevents vascular complications
Reduces tryglycerides + LDL

29

List some adverse effects of metformin

GI upset
Lactic acidosis
Liver failure
Rash

30

Sulphonylureas have more rapid reduction of hyperglycaemia compared to metformin. True/False?

True