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Flashcards in Diabetes Pharmacology Deck (38)
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1

List drug classes that increase secretion of insulin through insulin-independent action

Sulphonylureas
Incretin analogues
DPP-4 inhibitors

2

List drug classes that decrease insulin resistance and reduced hepatic glucose output through insulin-dependent action

Biguanides
Thiazolidinediones (TZD's)

3

List a drug class that slows glucose absorption from the GI tract through insulin-independent action

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

4

List a drug class that blocks reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys through insulin-independent action

SGLT2 inhibitors

5

Through which transporter does glucose enter the beta-cell in the pancreas?

GLUT2

6

What effect does ATP in the beta-cell of the pancreas have on K channels?

Closes them, causing depolarisation of the membrane

7

How is insulin released following depolarisation of the membrane of the beta-cell?

Depolarisation causes opening of Ca channels, causing insulin-containing vesicles to exocytose

8

List the components of the Katp channel

4x Kir6.2 units
4x SUR1 units

9

Which part of the Katp channel does ATP bind to?

Kir6.2 unit

10

What binds to the SUR1 part of the Katp channel? What does this cause?

ADP-Mg
Repolarisation to inhibit insulin secretion

11

How do sulphonylurea drugs work?

Displace ADP-Mg from SUR1 on Katp channel to cause depolarisation to promote insulin release

12

The effect of sulphonylurea drugs is independent of glucose conc. True/False?

True

13

Give examples of sulphonylureas

Tolbutamide
Glibenclamide
Glipizide

14

What is the main difference between tolbutamide and glibenclamide?

Glibenclamide is more potent and longer acting
Only need to take glibenclamide 1x/day

15

Can sulphonylureas cause hypoglycaemia?

Yes
Greater risk with long-acting agents

16

How do glinides differ from sulphonylureas?

Bind to specific part of SUR1
Rapid action - less likely to cause hypoglycaemia

17

Incretin hormones stimulate production of insulin. What are the two main endogenous incretin hormones?

GLP-1
GIP

18

GLP-1 and GIP enhance insulin production. What effect does GLP-1 have on glucagon?

Decreases glucagon release from alpha-cells

19

Give an example of an incretin analogue

Extenatide

20

Which enzyme rapidly inhibits the action of incretin hormones?

DPP-4

21

How do DPP-4 antagonists (gliptins) work?

Inhibit DPP-4 to prolong actions of GLP-1 and GIP

22

Give an example of a DPP-4 inhibitor

Sitagliptin

23

What is the function of alpha-glucosidase in the intestine?

Breaks down carbohydrate into absorbable glucose

24

How do alpha-glucosidase inhibitors work?

Inhibit alpha-glucosidase to delay absorption of glucose, thus reducing post-prandial increase in blood glucose

25

Give an example of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor

Acarbose

26

Acarbose has great risk of hypoglycaemia. True/False?

False
No risk whatsoever

27

What is the 1st line therapy for type 2 diabetes?

Biguanides (metformin)

28

What is the proposed action of metformin?

Reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis by stimulating AMPK
Enhances glucose uptake by muscle

29

Does metformin cause hypoglycaemia?

No

30

Metformin causes weight gain. True/False?

False
Weight loss