Flashcards in Diabetes Pharmacology Deck (38)
List drug classes that increase secretion of insulin through insulin-independent action
List drug classes that decrease insulin resistance and reduced hepatic glucose output through insulin-dependent action
List a drug class that slows glucose absorption from the GI tract through insulin-independent action
List a drug class that blocks reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys through insulin-independent action
Through which transporter does glucose enter the beta-cell in the pancreas?
What effect does ATP in the beta-cell of the pancreas have on K channels?
Closes them, causing depolarisation of the membrane
How is insulin released following depolarisation of the membrane of the beta-cell?
Depolarisation causes opening of Ca channels, causing insulin-containing vesicles to exocytose
List the components of the Katp channel
4x Kir6.2 units
4x SUR1 units
Which part of the Katp channel does ATP bind to?
What binds to the SUR1 part of the Katp channel? What does this cause?
Repolarisation to inhibit insulin secretion
How do sulphonylurea drugs work?
Displace ADP-Mg from SUR1 on Katp channel to cause depolarisation to promote insulin release
The effect of sulphonylurea drugs is independent of glucose conc. True/False?
Give examples of sulphonylureas
What is the main difference between tolbutamide and glibenclamide?
Glibenclamide is more potent and longer acting
Only need to take glibenclamide 1x/day
Can sulphonylureas cause hypoglycaemia?
Greater risk with long-acting agents
How do glinides differ from sulphonylureas?
Bind to specific part of SUR1
Rapid action - less likely to cause hypoglycaemia
Incretin hormones stimulate production of insulin. What are the two main endogenous incretin hormones?
GLP-1 and GIP enhance insulin production. What effect does GLP-1 have on glucagon?
Decreases glucagon release from alpha-cells
Give an example of an incretin analogue
Which enzyme rapidly inhibits the action of incretin hormones?
How do DPP-4 antagonists (gliptins) work?
Inhibit DPP-4 to prolong actions of GLP-1 and GIP
Give an example of a DPP-4 inhibitor
What is the function of alpha-glucosidase in the intestine?
Breaks down carbohydrate into absorbable glucose
How do alpha-glucosidase inhibitors work?
Inhibit alpha-glucosidase to delay absorption of glucose, thus reducing post-prandial increase in blood glucose
Give an example of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor
Acarbose has great risk of hypoglycaemia. True/False?
No risk whatsoever
What is the 1st line therapy for type 2 diabetes?
What is the proposed action of metformin?
Reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis by stimulating AMPK
Enhances glucose uptake by muscle
Does metformin cause hypoglycaemia?