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Flashcards in Reproduction Disorders Deck (47)
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1

Define oligomenorrhoea

Reduced frequency of periods (less than 9/year)

2

Define primary amenorrhoea

Failure of having a period before the age of 16

3

Define secondary amenorrhoea

Cessation of periods for greater than 6mths in someone who has previously had a period

4

What is the main cause of primary amenorrhoea?

Congenital abnormality
(Turner's, Kallman's)

5

List ovarian causes of secondary amenorrhoea

Polycystic ovarian syndrome
Ovarian failure

6

High prolactin and hypopituitarism can cause amenorrhoea. True/False?

True

7

What triad of symptoms are classic of amenorrhoea/oestrogen deficiency?

Flushing
Lack of libido
Dyspareunia (painful sex)

8

List investigations that all patients with oligo-/amen- orrhoea get

LH, FSH, oestradiol levels
Thyroid function tests
Prolactin levels

9

List additional investigations for oligo-/amen- orrhoea

Ovarian USS, endometrial thickness
Testosterone levels if hirsutism
Pituitary function

10

In primary hypogonadism in females, the problem is arising from where - ovaries or pituitary/hypothalamus?

Ovaries

11

In secondary hypogonadism in females, the problem is arising from where - ovaries or pituitary/hypothalamus?

Pituitary/hypothalamus

12

Describe LH and FSH levels in primary hypogonadism

High LH
High FSH
i.e. hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism

13

Describe LH and FSH levels in secondary hypogonadism

Low LH
Low FSH
i.e. hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism

14

Give an example of a condition where primary hypogonadism occurs

Premature ovarian failure

15

What happens in premature ovarian failure?

Loss of ovarian function causes amenorrhoea, low oestrogen and elevated gonadotrophins

16

What is idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism?

Absent/delayed sexual development assoc. with low levels of gonadotrophins in the absence of anatomical/functional defect in the H-P-gonadal axis

17

Which syndrome is like idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism but includes anosmia (inability to smell)?

Kalmann's syndrome

18

What is the major defect/identified cause of idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism?

Mutated GnRH receptor (thus inability to sense GnRH from hypothalamus)

19

What is the function of kisspeptin?

Regulates GnRH secretion and thus puberty
Regulates fertility

20

What is Kallman's syndrome?

Genetic disorder of loss of GnRH secretion characterised by anosmia and hyposmia

21

Males are more affected by Kallman's syndrome. True/False?

True
4:1

22

What causes hirsutism?

Excess androgen at the hair follicle

23

What is the most common cause of hirsutism?

Polycystic ovarian syndrome

24

Which chromosome is missing in Turner syndrome?

X
(so women only have one X)

25

List clinical features of Turner syndrome

Short stature
Failure/delayed puberty
Coarctation of aorta
Poor breast formation
Infertility

26

Define primary hypogonadism in males in terms of testosterone and LH/FSH levels

Low testosterone
High FHS/LH

27

Define secondary hypogonadism in males in terms of testosterone and LH/FSH levels

Low testosterone
Low FSH/LH

28

What is the most common congenital form of primary hypogonadism?

Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY)

29

List clinical features of Klinefelter's syndrome

Reduced testicular volume
Gynaecomastia
Eunuchoidism

30

Infertility risk increases with chlamydia infections. True/False?

True