Flashcards in Reproduction Disorders Deck (47)
Reduced frequency of periods (less than 9/year)
Define primary amenorrhoea
Failure of having a period before the age of 16
Define secondary amenorrhoea
Cessation of periods for greater than 6mths in someone who has previously had a period
What is the main cause of primary amenorrhoea?
List ovarian causes of secondary amenorrhoea
Polycystic ovarian syndrome
High prolactin and hypopituitarism can cause amenorrhoea. True/False?
What triad of symptoms are classic of amenorrhoea/oestrogen deficiency?
Lack of libido
Dyspareunia (painful sex)
List investigations that all patients with oligo-/amen- orrhoea get
LH, FSH, oestradiol levels
Thyroid function tests
List additional investigations for oligo-/amen- orrhoea
Ovarian USS, endometrial thickness
Testosterone levels if hirsutism
In primary hypogonadism in females, the problem is arising from where - ovaries or pituitary/hypothalamus?
In secondary hypogonadism in females, the problem is arising from where - ovaries or pituitary/hypothalamus?
Describe LH and FSH levels in primary hypogonadism
i.e. hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism
Describe LH and FSH levels in secondary hypogonadism
i.e. hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism
Give an example of a condition where primary hypogonadism occurs
Premature ovarian failure
What happens in premature ovarian failure?
Loss of ovarian function causes amenorrhoea, low oestrogen and elevated gonadotrophins
What is idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism?
Absent/delayed sexual development assoc. with low levels of gonadotrophins in the absence of anatomical/functional defect in the H-P-gonadal axis
Which syndrome is like idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism but includes anosmia (inability to smell)?
What is the major defect/identified cause of idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism?
Mutated GnRH receptor (thus inability to sense GnRH from hypothalamus)
What is the function of kisspeptin?
Regulates GnRH secretion and thus puberty
What is Kallman's syndrome?
Genetic disorder of loss of GnRH secretion characterised by anosmia and hyposmia
Males are more affected by Kallman's syndrome. True/False?
What causes hirsutism?
Excess androgen at the hair follicle
What is the most common cause of hirsutism?
Polycystic ovarian syndrome
Which chromosome is missing in Turner syndrome?
(so women only have one X)
List clinical features of Turner syndrome
Coarctation of aorta
Poor breast formation
Define primary hypogonadism in males in terms of testosterone and LH/FSH levels
Define secondary hypogonadism in males in terms of testosterone and LH/FSH levels
What is the most common congenital form of primary hypogonadism?
Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY)
List clinical features of Klinefelter's syndrome
Reduced testicular volume