Topic 12 - Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 12 - Cardiovascular System Deck (74):
1

Cardiovascular System Overview

  • heart, blood vessels, blood
  • transport: gases, nutrients, hormones, wastes, heat
  • protection: disease, fluid loss (clotting)

2

Heart

in a cavity called the mediastinum 

( = space between lungs within thoracic cavity)

3

Heart

Coverings = Pericardium

  • what is surrounding heart?
  • how many layers?
  • what is in between ______ layers?

  • double-walled sac surrounding heart
  • 3 layers
  • between pericardial layers = pericardial cavity with serous fluid (lubricates)

4

double walled sac surrounding heart

pericardium

5

what are the 3 layers of the pericardium?

  1. fibrous pericardium
  2. serous pericardium
    • parietal pericardium
    • visceral pericardium also called epicardium

6

fibrous pericardium

  • outermost pericardium = dense irregular CT
  • anchors to surrounding structures  
    • e.g. diaphragm, great vessels (aorta, vena cava, etc)

7

what kind of tissue is the outermost layer of the fibrous pericardium?

dense irregular CT

8

function of fibrous pericardium?

anchors to surrounding structures

e.g. diaphragm, great vessels (aorta, vena cava, etc).

9

what anchors to surrounding structures?

fibrous pericardium

10

serous pericardium

2 parts

  1. parietal pericardium
  2. visceral pericaridum

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serous pericardium ► parietal pericardium

  • fused to?

  • fused to fibrous pericardium 
    • fibrous pericardium + parietal pericardium = pericardial sac

 

12

serous pericardium ► visceral pericardium

  • also called?
  • fused to?

  • also called epicardium
  • fused to heart surface, so is part of heart wall

13

between pericardial layers = ?

pericardial cavity with serous fluid (lubricates)

14

heart wall

name the 3 parts

  1. epicardium
  2. myocardium
  3. endocardium

15

heart wall ► epicardium

name the tissue

stratified squamous epithelium and CT

16

myocardium

  • also called?
  • name the tissue
    • arranged in name shape/pattern here, reinforced with name tissue here

  • also called cardiac muscle
  • arranged in spiral/circular pattern, reinforced with CT

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heart wall ► endocardium

  • name the tissue(s)

  • simple squamous epithelium and CT
    • epithelium named endothelium - lines inner surface of heart and ALL blood vessels

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stratified squamous epithelium and CT

a) epicardium

b) myocardium

c) endocardium

epicardium

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arranged in spiral/circular pattern, reinforced with CT

a) epicardium

b) myocardium

c) endocardium

myocardium

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also called cardiac muscle

a) epicardium

b) myocardium

c) endocardium

myocardium

21

simple squamous epithelium and CT

a) epicardium

b) myocardium

c) endocardium

endocardium

22

name the chambers and associated blood vessels of the heart (4)

  1. right atrium
  2. left atrium
  3. right ventricle
  4. left ventricle

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Right atrium

  • inferior and superior vena cava
  • coronary sinus (posterior)

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Left atrium

  • 4 pulmonary veins

25

right ventricle

pulmonary trunk - divides to form 2 pulmonary arteries

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left ventricle 

aorta

27

inferior and superior vena cava is part of the

a) right atrium

b) left atrium

c) right ventricle

d) left ventricle

right atrium

28

the coronary sinus is part of the

a) right atrium

b) left atrium

c) right ventricle

d) left ventricle

right atrium

29

4 pulmonary veins are of part the

a) right atrium

b) left atrium

c) right ventricle

d) left ventricle

left atrium

30

pulmonary trunk is part of the 

a) right atrium

b) left atrium

c) right ventricle

d) left ventricle

right ventricle

31

pulmonary trunk divides to do what?

to form 2 pulmonary arteries

32

aorta is part of the

a) right atrium

b) left atrium

c) right ventricle

d) left ventricle

left ventricle

33

Septa (separate chambers) of the heart

Name the two

 

  1. interatrial septum
  2. interventricular septum

34

interatrial septum separates what?

atria

35

interventricular septum separates what?

ventricles

36

deep to interventricular sulcus (external)

a) interatrial septum

b) interventricular septum

interventricular septum

37

fibrous skeleton

  • allows what?
  • provides what? which prevents?

  • allows openings to remain open at all times (valves open/close)
  • provides electrical insulation
    • ​ prevents simultaneous contraction of chambers

38

How does the CT fibers relate to the Fibrous skeleton?

CT fibers around the muscle fibers +  CT rings between atria and ventricles at the coronary sulcus

39

what part of the heart allows openings to remain open at all times?

fibrous skeleton

40

what part of the heart provides electrical insulation - prevents simultaneous contraction of chambers

fibrous skeleton

41

valves of the heart

name the 2 types of valves

  1. atrioventricular valves
  2. semilunar valves

42

name the 2 subtypes of atrioventricular valves

  1. bicuspid (mitral) valve
  2. tricuspid valve

43

atrioventricular valve:

bicuspid (mitral) valve

  • left or right side?
  • how many cusps?

  • left side
  • 2 cusps

44

atrioventricular valve:

tricuspid valve

  • left or right side?
  • how many cusps?

  • right side
  • 3 cusps

45

how does the chordae tendineae relate to the atrioventricular (AV) valves?

chordae tendineae (CT) attach AV valve cusps to papillary muscles (projections of myocardium)

46

chordae tendineae 

  • attach what to where? 
    • which are projections of ?

attach AV valve cusps to papillary muscles which are projections of myocardium

47

chordae tendineae attach AV valve cusps to papillary muscles (projections of myocardium)

what does that prevent?

prevent eversion of cusps

48

chordae tendineae relates to which valve?

a) atrioventricular valve

b) semilunar valve

atrioventricular valve

49

semilunar valves

  • how many cusps?
  • what are the 2 types?

  • 3 cusps each
    • aortic
    • pulmonary

50

semilunar valves ► aortic

  • separates what?

left ventricle and aorta

51

semilunar valves ►  pulmonary

  • separates what?

right ventricle and pulmonary trunk

52

what separates the left ventricle and aorta?

aortic

53

separates right ventricle and pulmonary trunk

pulmonary

54

cardiac muscle cells

  • forms what?

forms BOTH contractile myocardium + conduction system

55

what forms BOTH contractile myocardium and conduction system?

cardiac muscle cells

56

list the similarities of the cardiac muscle cells and skeletal muscle

  • striated 
  • has sarcoplasmic reticulum and T tubules

57

list the differences between the cardiac muscle cells and skeletal muscle

  • branched
  • uninucleated
  • intercalated discs 

58

  • region where two fibers meet
  • contain anchoring and gap junctions

intercalated discs

59

conduction system

do not name the parts yet

  • cardiac muscle cells modified to produce and conduct electrical impulses 
  • DO NOT CONTRACT

60

electrical signals spreads from __________ to ________ then they ________

electrical signal spreads from conduction system

to contractile cardiac cells then they contract

61

name the 5 parts of the conduction system

  1. sinoatrial node
  2. atrioventricular node
  3. bundle of his 
  4. bundle of his branches
  5. purkinje fibers

62

sinoatrial node

  • where is it located?
  • what is the function?

  • in right atrium at base of superior vena cava
  • generates impulses the fastest - sets pace

63

what is located in right atrium at base of superior vena cava?

a) sinoatrial node

b) atrioventricular node

c) bundle of his

d) bundle of his branches

e) purkinje fibers

sinoatrial node

64

what generates impulses the fastest? - sets pace

a) sinoatrial node

b) atrioventricular node

c) bundle of his

d) bundle of his branches

e) purkinje fibers

sinoatrial node

65

what is located at base of right atrium?

a) sinoatrial node

b) atrioventricular node

c) bundle of his

d) bundle of his branches

e) purkinje fibers

atrioventricular node

66

bundle of his

  • where is it located?
  • what is the function?

  • superior part of interventricular septum
  • electrically connects atria to ventricles

67

atrioventricular node

  • where is it located?

  • base of right atrium

68

what is the superior part of interventricular septum

a) sinoatrial node

b) atrioventricular node

c) bundle of his

d) bundle of his branches

e) purkinje fibers

bundle of his

69

what electrically connects atria to ventricles?

a) sinoatrial node

b) atrioventricular node

c) bundle of his

d) bundle of his branches

e) purkinje fibers

bundle of his

70

bundle of his branches

  • go where?

go to each ventricle

71

purkinje fibers

  • _______ fibers located only in where?

terminal fibers in ventricles only

72

what goes to each ventricle?

a) sinoatrial node

b) atrioventricular node

c) bundle of his

d) bundle of his branches

e) purkinje fibers

bundle of his branches

73

"terminal fibers in ventricles only"

a) sinoatrial node

b) atrioventricular node

c) bundle of his

d) bundle of his branches

e) purkinje fibers

purkinje fibers

74