Topic 3: Cellular Level of Organization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 3: Cellular Level of Organization Deck (76):
1

The Cell

  • Basic structural and functional unit of the body
    • can perform all basic life functions
    • atom loses election and becomes a positive ion (cation)

2

Principle Parts of the Cell

  1. Cell membrane/Plasma membrane/Plasmalemma
  2. Cytoplasm
  3. Non-membranous organelles
  4. Membranous organelles
  5. Nucleus

3

Principle Parts of the Cell

Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane/Plasmalemma

composed of?

  1. Phospholipid bilayer
  2. Cholesterol
  3. Membrane Proteins
  4. Membrane carbohydrates
  5. Microvilli

 

4

Principle Parts of the Cell

Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane/Plasmalemma

composed of?

Phospholipid bilayer

  • phosphate head group (hydrophilic)
  • FA tails (hydrophobic)
  • Divides ICD + ECF
    • →intracellular fluid (ICF) = inside cell
    • →extracellular fluid (ECF) = outside cell

5

Principle Parts of the Cell

Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane/Plasmalemma

composed of?

Cholesterol

  • scattered throughout membrane
  • adds stability to the cell membrane

6

Principle Parts of the Cell

Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane/Plasmalemma

composed of?

what are the types of membrane proteins

 

  • integral proteins 
  • peripheral proteins

7

Principle Parts of the Cell: Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane/Plasmalemma is composed of?

Membrane Proteins: integral proteins

  • what does it contain?
  • what do some do and what is that called?

 

  • within a membrane have a hydrophobic region
  • some extend across entire membrane = transmembrane (some do not extend throughout entire membrane)

8

Principle Parts of the Cell: Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane/Plasmalemma is composed of?

Membrane Proteins: peripheral proteins 

 

  • attached to either surface of integral proteins

9

Principle parts of the cell

Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane/ Plasmalemma composed of?

Membrane carbohydrates

 

  • only on outer surface
  • bound to proteins (glycoproteins) or lipids (glycolipids)
  • functions
    • cell recognition (e.g. egg and sperm)
    • anchor cells together

10

Principle parts of the cell

Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane/ Plasmalemma composed of?

Microvilli

  • definition:
  • function:
  • where is it best seen?

  • small projections of cell membrane
  • function
    • increase surface area
  • best seen on cells of the small intestine and kidney

11

function: microvilli

increase surface area

 

12

function: membrane proteins

  • enzymes
  • transporters
  • channels
  • receptors
  • anchors - hold cells to one another
  • identity markers (for immune system)

13

function: mebrane carbohydrates

  • cell recognition (e.g. egg and sperm)
  • anchors cell together

14

Fluid Mosaic Model of the cell membrane:

Fluid

Mosaic

fluid: membrane constituents can move around (phospholipids + some proteins)

mosaic: proteins dot durface like tiles in a mosaic

15

Principle parts of the cell

Cytoplasm

  • where is it located?
  • how many divisions?

  • AREA between the inside of the cell membrane and the outside of the nucleus
  • 2 divisions

16

Melanin

Skin color

17

Glycogen

stored glucose

Polysaccharide

18

Cytoplasm

Cytosol

 

  • one of the two divisions of cytoplasm
  • gel-like intracellular fluid
  • contains water and a suspension of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids
  • may contain inclusions 
    • example: melanin, glycogen

19

Cytoplasm

Organelles

  • one of the two divisions of cytoplasm
  • structures that perform a specific function and are essential for life 
    1. non membranous
      • in direct contact with cytosol
    2.  membranous
      • surrounded by membrane that isolates them from the cytosol

20

Cytoplasm → Organelles

 non membranous

in direct contact with cytosol

21

Cytoplasm → Organelles

membranous

surrounded by membrane that isolates them from the cytosol

22

Principle parts of the cell

Non-Membranous organelles

  • ribosomes
  • centrosomes
  • cytoskeleton

23

Principle parts of the cell → Non-Membranous Organelles

Ribosomes

  • what happens here?
  • site for what?
  • what does it contain?
  • may be located where?
    • ​what is the difference between where they are located?

  • where we take amino acids to join covalent bonds
  • sites for protein synthesis
  • contain ribosomal RNA (rRNA) + proteins
  • may be: 
    • free in cytosol - make proteins destined for cytosol, mitochondria, nucleus
      • attached to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - make proteins destined for all other sites

24

what does the ribosome contain?

proteins and have own RNA

25

Principle parts of the cell → Non-Membranous Organelles

Centrosomes

  • dense area of cytoplasm, usually contains 2 centrioles (function uncertain - some cells lack them)
  • organizes microtubules to form spindle apparatus (for cell division)
  • organizes cytoskeleton

26

Principle parts of the cell → Non-Membranous Organelles

Cytoskeleton

  • what does it determine?
  • it is formed by what?
  • what is its function?
  • what are the types of cytoskeletons?

  • determines cell shape (cell support)
  • Formed from proteins
  • functions:
    • important in cell movement, cell division, movement/anchoring of organelles + proteins (e.g. receptors, enzymes)
  • 3 types:
    • microfilaments
    • intermediate filaments
    • microtubules

27

Principle parts of the cell → Non-Membranous Organelles→ Cytoskeleton 

Microfilaments

  • made of actin → made of protein
  • function:
    • muscle contraction (with myosin)
    • cell locomotion
    • maintenance of cell shape and projections (e.g. microvilli)
    • cytokinesis

28

Principle parts of the cell → Non-Membranous Organelles→ Cytoskeleton

function: microfilaments

  • muscle contraction (With myosin)
  • cell locomotion
  • maintenance of cell shape and projections (e.g. microvilli)
  • cytokineses

29

Principle parts of the cell → Non-Membranous Organelles→ Cytoskeleton 

intermediate filaments

  • composition is tissue specific
    • e.g. keratin
  • function
    • support the cytoplasm (scaffolding for the cell)

30

Principle parts of the cell → Non-Membranous Organelles→ Cytoskeleton 

function: intermediate filaments

  • support the cytoplasm (scaffolding for the cell)

31

Principle parts of the cell → Non-Membranous Organelles→ Cytoskeleton 

Microtubules

  • hollow tubes made of tubulin
  • function
    • form:
      1. centrioles
      2. spindle apparatus
      3. cilia (short)
      4. flagella (long)
    • structural → make up structure of cells skeleton
    • move or secure organelles in place

32

what functions do the membrane proteins have?

  • enzymes
  • transporters
  • channels
  • receptors
  • anchors -> holds cells to one another
  • identity markers (for immune system)

33

fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane

​fluid - mebrane constituents can move around (phospholipids + some proteins)

mosaic - proteins dot surface like tiles in a mosaic

34

what are the 2 divisions of the cytoplasm?

  1. cytosol
  2. organelles

35

describe the cytosol of the cytoplasm

  • gel like intracellular fluid
    • contains water and a suspension of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids
    • may contain inclusions ...e.g. melanin (pigment), glycogen (stored glucose)

36

describe the organelles of the cytoplasm

  • structures that perform a specific function and are essential for life
  • 2 types

37

what are the 2 types of organelles of the cytoplasm

  1. non membranous
  2. membranous

38

describe the non-membranous organelles of the cytoplasm

  • in direct contact with cytosol

39

describe the membranous organelles of the cytoplasm

surrounded by membrane that isolates them from the cytosol

40

Name the membranous organelles

  1. Mitochondria
  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum
  3. Golgi apparatus
  4. Lysosomes

41

Membranous Organelles

Mitochondria

  • site of ATP synthesis
  • contains own DNA, RNA, + proteins
  • have a double membrane

42

Membranous Organelles

ER

  • Membranous network throughout the cytoplasm
  • 2 types
    • rough ER
    • smooth ER

43

Rough ER

  • ribosomes attached - synthesis of secretory, lysosomal and membrane proteins

44

Smooth ER

  • Lacks attached ribosomes
  • continuous with Rough ER (RER)
  • synthesized lipids + steroid hormones

45

Membranous Organelles

Golgi Apparatus/Complex

  • stacks of membrane discs
  • modifies (e.g. trims or adds CHO groups), sorts, packages, and delivers proteins/lipids to cell membrane, lysosomes, or for secretion (cellular post office)

46

Membranous Organelles

Lysosomes

  • break down things
  • filled with digestive enzymes
  • digest bacteria, viruses, worn-out organelles (clean up function)

47

Nucleus

  • definition
  • also what are the parts of the nucleus?
  • cells may have one or more nuclei true or false?

  • Largest membranous organelle
  • cell control centre
  • cells may have 1 or more nuclei
  • Parts:
    • nuclear envelope
    • nucleolus
    • chromosomes/chromatids

48

nuclear envelope of nucleus

and what is it CONNECTED to

  • double membrane with nuclear pores
  • connected to ER

49

nucleolus (>1 in some plants)

-what region?

  • non-membranous
  • dense (less light gets through) region of DNA, and proteins where ribosomes are made and assembled

50

chromosomes/chromatids of nucleus

  • contain DNA + histone proteins
  • can be:
    1.  dipersed = chromatin
    2. condensed + individually visible

51

dispersed = chromatin of chromosomes of chromatids

  • DNA uncoiled + not individually visible
  • in this form MOST of the time (when cell is not dividing)

52

condensed + individually visible chromosomes

  • found in dividing cells (during mitosis/meiosis)

53

what organelle containts

ribosomal RNA + proteins?

ribosomes

54

what contains water and suspensions of carbs, proteins, and lipids?

cytosol

55

what organelle has these functions?

  • muscle contraction (With myosin)
  • cell locomotion
  • cytokinesis
  • maintance of cell shape and projection

microfilaments

56

what may contain inclusions?

cytosol

57

what has these functions?

  • enzymes
  • transporters
  • identity markers (for immune system)
  • receptors
  • anchoring (hold cells to one another)
  • channels

membrane proteins

58

what forms:

  • spindle apparatus
  • centrioles
  • cilia (short)
  • flagella (long)

microtubules

59

what makes up structure of cells skeleton?

microtubules

60

what moves or secures organelles in place?

microtubules

61

what has this function?

cell recognition?

membrane carbohydrates

62

what has this function?

anchors cells together

membrane carbohydrates

63

64

largest membrane organelle

nucleus

65

cell control center

nucleus

66

dense region of DNA and proteins where ribosomes are made and assembled

Nucleolus

67

what organelle organizes microtubules to form spindle apparatus?

centrosomes

68

what is made of actin?

microfilaments

69

small projections of cell membrane

microvilli

70

what increases surface area

microvilli

71

what is best seen in small intestine and kidney?

microvilli

72

what is important in cell division, cell movement, movement/anchoring of organelles and proteins?

cytoskeleton

73

what contains DNA + histone proteins

chromosomes

74

what are bounded to glycoproteins and glycolipids

membrane carbohydrates

75

hollow tubes made of tubulin

microtubules

76

membranous network throughout cytoplasm

ER