Topic 9 - Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Topic 9 - Integumentary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 9 - Integumentary System Deck (99):
1

Overview of Integumentary System

  • consists of:
  1. skin
  2. hair, nails, glands
  3. sense receptors (nervous)
  4. muscles

2

how many layers does the skin have? name them

2

  1. epidermis - upper
  2. dermis - lower

below skin = hypodermis

3

epidermis

  • what kind of tissue?
  • vascular or avascular?

  • stratified squamous epithelieum (from ectoderm)
  • avascular

4

epidermis

  • serarated into how many sublayers?
  • name them

  • 4-5 sub-layers
  1. stratum corneum
  2. stratum lucidum
  3. stratum granusolum
  4. stratum spinosum
  5. stratum basale

5

stratum basale

 

  • single row cells
  • 2 cell types
    • keratinocytes (90%)
    • melanocytes (10%)

6

keratinocytes 

  • basic facts (part of what? percentage?)
  • undergoes mitosis or meiosis?
  • what does it make?
  • migrates to what

  • one of 2 cell types 
  • 90%
  • undergo mitosis
  • make keratin (tough protein)
  • migrate to surface as new cells produced in basale

7

melanocytes

  • basic facts (part of what? percentage?)
  • what does it produce for what?

  • part of stratum basale
  • 10%
  • produce pigment (melanin)  for UV light protection
    •   example: sunburns, wrinkles (Collagen damage), cancer (DNA damage)

8

we all have the same number of __________, but.....

we all have the same number of melanocytes

but cells produce different amounts/shades of melanin

9

albinos

people who have no melanin are 

10

what part in the dermis can give a pinkish tinge to fair skinned people?

blood (hemoglobin)

11

what produces pigment (melanin) for UV light protection

melanocytes (10%)

12

these are caused by collaged damage

wrinkles

13

this causes cancer

DNA damage

14

undergo mitosis

keratin (90%)

15

single row of cells

stratum basale

16

which strata has limited cell division?

stratum spinosum

17

which strata contains dark staining granules?

stratum granulosum

18

which strata has flat, dead cells (Too far from blood supply)

stratum lucidum

19

which strata is visible ONLY in thick skin

stratum lucidum

20

this strata has 20-30 layers of flat dead cells filled with keratin (tough protein), surrounded by waterproofing glycolipid (prevents water loss)

stratum corneum

21

this strata shed and replaced from below

stratum corneum

22

  • how many layers of flat dead cells does the stratum corneum have? 
  • What are these layers filled with?
  • what are they surrounded by?

  • 20-30
  • keratin
  • waterproofing glycolipid 

23

tough protein

keratin

24

prevents water loss

waterproofing glycolpid 

25

What does the Dermis contain?

  1. blood vessels
  2. nerves 
  3. glands
  4. hair follicles

26

  • how many sub-layers does dermis contain and what kind of tissue from where?
  • what are the 2 sub layers?

  • 2 sub-layers
  • CT from mesoderm
  1. Papillary layer
  2. Reticular layer

27

papillary layer

 

  • located where?
  • what kind of CT?
  • avascular or vascular?

  • beneath epidermis
  • areolar CT
  • vascular

28

papillary layer

has projection into epidermis called the dermal papillae

29

dermal papillae

what happens in thick skin?

form dermal ridges called fingerprints (improves grip)

 

30

Reticular layer

  • what kind of tissue?
  • ?

  • dense irregular CT
  • most of dermis

31

most of dermis

Reticular layer

32

dense irregular CT

  • papillary or reticular layer?

reticular layer

33

areolar CT

  • papillary or reticular layer?

papillary layer

34

subcutaneous layer 

hypodermis

35

superficial fascia

hypodermis

36

CT layers that surround and support organs

fascia

37

what kind of tissue is the hypodermis and where is it located?

 

adipose CT below skin

38

stores 1/2 of body's adipose tissue (insulation)

adipose CT below skin (hypodermis)

39

thin skin vs thick skin refers to the epidermis or dermis?

only the epidermis

40

True or False?

lucidum is apparent in thin skin

 

false

lucidum is NOT apparent in thin skin

41

thin skin has:

  1. hair follicles
  2. sebaceous glands
  3. arrector pili muscles

42

  1. hair follicles
  2. sebaceous glands
  3. arrector pili muscles

 

thick skin or thin skin?

thin skin

43

found on the palm of the hand and the sole of the foot

thick skin

44

lucidum is visible in thin skin or thick skin?

thick skin

45

has no hair follicles, sebaceous glands, or arrector pili muscles

thick skin

46

epidermal derivatives are derived from what?

ALL derived from the epidermis

47

epidermal derivatives includes:

  1. hair
  2. nails
  3. skin exocrine glands

48

hair

all ____ ______

all dead cells

49

name the 3 parts of the hair

  1. root
  2. shaft
  3. hair follicle

50

root

dead cells below the surface of the skin

51

dead cells below the surface of the skin

root

52

shaft

above the skin surface

53

above the skin surface

shaft

54

surrounds root

hair follicle

55

hair follicle

surrounds root

56

what are the 3 parts of the hair follicle

 

  1. epithelial root sheath
  2. bulb
  3. matrix

57

epithelial root sheath of the hair follicle

  • how many _____ layers extend into where?

  • several epidermal layers extend into the dermis

58

bulb of hair follicle

_____ region at what?

expanded region at base of root

59

matrix of hair follicle

  • how many layers of _____ 
    • derived from?
  • site of?

  • single layer of cells
    • derived from basale cells
  • site of hair growth and melanin for hair colour

60

what part of the hair follicle is the expanded region at base of root

bulb

61

what part of the hair follicle is the single layer of cells (derived from basale cells) - site of hair growth and melanin for hair colour

matrix

62

what part of the hair follicle has several epidermal layers that extend into the dermis?

epithelial root sheath

63

name the 5 parts associated with each hair follicle?

  1. outer CT sheath
  2. hair papilla
  3. root hair plexus
  4. sebaceous (oil) gland
  5. arrector pili muscle (smooth muscle)

64

associated with each hair follicle:

Outer CT sheath

holds follicle in place (formed from the dermis)

65

associated with each hair follicle:

hair papilla

extends upward beneath matrix

  • contains blood supply for growing hair and signals for its regulation
  • dermal

66

associated with each hair follicle:

root hair plexus

free nerve ending (touch)

67

associated with each hair follicle:

sebaceous gland

opens into follicle

68

associated with each hair follicle:

arrector pili muscle 

causes "goosebumps"

69

extends upward beneath matrix

hair papilla

70

free nerve ending (touch)

root hair plexus

71

opens into follicle

sebaceous gland

72

causes goosebumps

arrector pili muscle

73

contains blood supply for growing hair and signals for its regluation

hair papilla

74

dermal

hair papilla

75

nails

  • very _____ _______ _____ cells
  • consists of:

  • very heavily keratinized epidermal cells
  • consists of:
    • nail root (buried in skin)
    • body (visible portion)
    • free edge

76

very heavily keratinized epidermal cells

nails

77

name the 4 parts of the skin exogrine glands

  1. sebaceous glands
  2. sudoriferous glands
  3. ceruminous glands
  4. mammary glands

78

skin exocrine gland:

sebaceous gland

  • connected mainly to:
  • what does it secrete?

  • connected mainly to hair follicles
  • secretes sebum (oily - mix of fats, salts, proteins)
    • softens, lubricates hair and skin, prevents drying out, antibiotic

79

skin exocrine gland:

sudoriferous glands

  • what kind of glands?
  • _____ portions in where? of what?
  • these open onto where?
  • act to:

  • sweat glands
  • secretory portions in dermis of thick and thin skin
  • ducts open onto skin surface
  • act to:
    • cool the body
    • antibiotic (acidic)
    • remove wastes (urea, etc)

80

what kind of glands are sudoriferous glands?

sweat glands

81

sebaceous glands

  • connected mainly to?
  • secretes?
  • _____, _____ hair and skin
  • prevents __________
  • and antibiotic:)

  • connected mainly to hair follicles
  • secretes sebum
  • softens and lubricates hair and skin
  • prevents drying out

82

sudoriferous glands

  • ​_____  glands
  • secretory portions in?
  • ducts open _______

  • sweat glands
  • secretory portions in dermis of thick and thin skin
  • ducts open onto skin surface

83

sudoriferous glands act to:

  • cool the _____
  • anti______ 
  • removes what?

  1. cool the body
  2. antibiotic
  3. removes wastes

84

skin exocrine gland:

ceruminous glands

  • modified _______?
  • located where?
  • what does it produce? which prevents?

  • modified sweat glands
  • in ear canal
  • produces ear wax 
    • prevents insects, etc. from entering

85

ceruminous glands (no hints)

  • ?
  • ?
  • ?

 

  • modified sweat glands
  • in ear canal
  • produces ear wax which prevents insects, etc from cominh in

86

skin exocrine gland:

mammary glands

  • modified sweat glands
  • produce milk

87

what parts of the skin exocrine glands has modified sweat glands?

ceruminous and mammary glands

88

which gland produces milk?

  • mammary glands of the skin exocrine glands

89

produces ear wax

ceruminous glands

90

 list the 4 major types of cutaneous sense receptors

  1. touch receptors
  2. pressure receptors
  3. thermoreceptors
  4. nocireceptors

91

receptor = ?

sensory neuron (part of NS)

92

cutaneous sense receptors are a:

 

specialized cell that responds to stimuli (touch, temp. pain)

93

specialized cell that responds to stimuli (touch, temp. pain)

cutaneous sense receptors

94

name the 3 touch receptors

  • free nerve endings (in epidermis)
  • root hair plexuses
  • meissner's corpscles (in dermal papillae)

95

name the 2 pressure receptors and their locations

  1. free nerve endings (in dermis)
  2. pacinian corpuscles (deep in drmis or hypodermis)

96

thermoreceptors

  • free nerve endings for temperature

97

nociceptors

  • free nerve endings for pain
  • 3rd degree burns = no pain because nociceptors DESTROYED :O 

98

sense receptors:

thermoreceptors = tempurature

nociceptors = pain

______________________

Pressure receptor = P for pacinian corpuscles, therefore....Touch receptors have Meissner's corpuscles

99

difference between free nerve endings of the touch receptor and pressure receptor

touch receptor = in epidermis

pressure receptor = in dermis