Topic 14 - Respiratory System (3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 14 - Respiratory System (3) Deck (53):
1

bronchial tree

  • main bronchi to alveolar ducts
    • draw diagram

A image thumb
2

main bronchi

  • epithelium of mucosa shows gradual change
    • draw diagram

A image thumb
3

main (1º) bronchi is composed of what kind of tissue?

 

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

4

terminal bronchioles is composed of what kind of tissue?

ciliated simple cuboidal

5

alveolar ducts is composed of what kind of tissue?

non-ciliated simple squamous

6

Lungs

1. right + left = separated by _________

 

mediastinum

7

lungs

2. right lung = how many lobes?

3 lobes

superior, middle, inferior

8

lungs

3. left lung = how many lobes?

2 lobes

  • superior, inferior
  • has cardiac notch (where heart lies)

9

lungs

4. pleura = _________

serous membrane

  • visceral - on surface of lung
  • parietal - on inner thoracic wall, superior diaphragm and mediastinum 

10

lungs

pleura = serous membrane

  • visceral - ?
  • parietal - ?

  • visceral - on surface of lung
  • parietal - on inner thoracic wall, superior diaphragm and mediastinum

11

lungs

5. pleural cavity = __________

filled with serous fluid

  • prevents friction when lungs move
  • hold lungs to thoracic cavity wall

12

lungs

pleural cavity = filled with?

  • prevents?
  • holds lungs to what wall?

filled with serous fluid

  • prevents friction when lungs move
  • holds lungs to thoracic cavity wall

13

lungs

6. Respiratory zone = _____________, ______, _______

  • O2 enters ______
  • CO2 enters _______  (gas exchange occurs mainly in _____)

6. Respiratory zone = respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli

  • O2 enters blood
  • CO2 enters air (gas exchange occurs mainly in alveoli)

14

has cardiac notch (Where heart lies)

 

left lung

15

holds lungs to thoracic cavity wall and prevents friction when lungs move

 

pleural cavity

16

O2 enters blood, CO2 enters air (gas exchange occurs mainly in alveoli) refers to:

respiratory zone

17

Lungs

everything

  • right + left = 
  • right lung =
  • left lung =
  • pleura =
  • pleural cavity = 
  • respiratory zone = 

  • right + left = separated by mediastinum
  • right lung = 3 lobes
    • superior, middle, inferior
  • left lung = 2 lobes
    • superior, inferior
    • has cardiac notch (where heart lies)
  • pleura = serous membrane
    • visceral - on surface of lung
    • parietal - on inner thoracic wall, superior diaphragm and mediastinum
  •  pleural cavity = filled with serous fluid
    • prevents friction when lungs move 
    • holds lungs to thoracic cavity wall
  • respiratory zone = respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli  
    • O2 enters blood, CO2 enters air (gas exchange occurs mainly in alveoli)

 

18

respiratory membrane

how many layers? what layers?

3 layers = 2 epithelia + their fused basement membrane

19

respiratory membrane

3 layers = 2 epithelia + their fused basement membrane

  1. wall of ________
  2. ___________ of alveolus + capillary
  3. wall of ________

  1. wall of alveolus
  2. basement membranes of alveolus + capillary
  3. wall of capillary

20

respiratory membrane

wall of alveolus

  • what tissue?
  • made of how many cell types? what are they called?

1.

2.

3.

​​note: alveolar pores allow air movement between alveoli

  • simple epithelium
  • made of 3 cell types
    1. Type I alveolar cells
    2. Type II alveolar cells
    3. Macrophages

21

Respiratory membrane

Type I alveolar cells

  • simple ______
  • allow _______

  • simple squamous
  • allow gas diffusion

22

Respiratory membrane

Type II alveolar cells

  • simple ______
  • secrete _____
    • allows ?

  • simple cuboidal
  • secrete surfactant
    • allows lung to expand with ease

23

respiratory membrane

macrophages

  • free moving across surface of ____________
  • remove ____________

  • free moving across surface of type I cells
  • remove dust + debris

24

simple squamous refers to what part of the wall of alveolus

a)  Type I alveolar cells

b) Type II alveolar cells

c) Macrophages

Type I alveolar cells

25

simple cuboidal  refers to what part of the wall of alveolus

a)  Type I alveolar cells

b) Type II alveolar cells

c) Macrophages

Type II alveolar cells

26

allow gas diffusion refers to what part of the wall of alveolus

a)  Type I alveolar cells

b) Type II alveolar cells

c) Macrophages

Type I alveolar cells

27

secrete surfactant - allows lung to expand with ease refers to what part of the wall of alveolus

a)  Type I alveolar cells

b) Type II alveolar cells

c) Macrophages

type II alveolar cells

28

free moving across surface of Type I cells refers to what part of the wall of alveolus

a)  Type I alveolar cells

b) Type II alveolar cells

c) Macrophages

macrophages

29

remove dust + debris refers to what part of the wall of alveolus

a)  Type I alveolar cells

b) Type II alveolar cells

c) Macrophages

macrophages

30

respiratory membrane

wall of capillary is composed of what kind of tissue?

 

simple squamous epithelium (=endothelial cell)

31

Blood supply to the lung

  • how many routes?
    • what are they called?

  • 2 routes
    1. pulmonary circulation
    2. bronchial circulation

32

blood supply to the lung

pulmonary circulation = 

blood to be oxygenated

33

blood supply to the lung

draw diagram of the pulmonary circulation

A image thumb
34

blood supply to the lung

bronchial circulation

  • = subdivision of ________
  • blood to nourish ________
  • bronchial arteries
    • arise from
    • carry oxy blood to ______ except _______ portion
  • returning to heart blood drains into:
    • _______ vein (little blood) (to ______ - systemic)
    • OR ____________ (most blood) (to ______ - pulmonary)

  • subdivision of systemic
  • blood to nourish lung tissue
  • bronchial arteries 
    • arise from aorta (systemic)
    • carry oxy blood to lung tissue except respiratory portion
  • returning to heart blood drains into:
    • bronchial vein (little blood) (to right atrium - systemic)
    • OR pulmonary veins (most blood) to (to left atrium - pulmonary)

35

blood supply to the lung

draw diagram for bronchial circulation

A image thumb
36

respiratory system structures

​​name the 5

  1. pulmonary edema
  2. tuberculosis
  3. pulmonary embolism
  4. pneumothorax
  5. emphysema

37

respiratory system structures

  1. pulmonary edema
    • accumulation of 

accumulation of fluid in the lungs - between cells + within alveoli

38

respiratory system structures

2. tuberculosis (myobacterium tuberculosis)

  • thickens what?
  • decreased ________ and __________ area

  • thickens respiratory membrane - lung tissue replaced by fibrous CT (scars)
  • decreased lung elasticity and gas exchange area

39

respiratory system structures

3. pulmonary embolism

  • blockage of
    • due to

blockage of pulmonary vaculature

  • due to blood clot, ateriosclerosis, air bubbles in vessels

40

respiratory system structures

4. Pneumothorax

  • entry of air into ________
  • causes lung to _________

  • entry of air into pleural cavity
  • causes lung to collapse

41

respiratory system structures

5. emphysema

  • _______ breaks
    • ?
    • ?
    • ?

alveolar wall breaks

  • fewer, larger alveoli
  • lowers surface area for gas exchange
  • decreased eleasticity (hard to breathe) + recoil (less air out on exhalation)

42

accumulation of fluid in the lungs - between cells + within alveoli refers to

a) pulmonary edema

b) tuberculosis (myobacterium tuberculosis)

c) pulmonary embolism

d) pneumothorax

e) emphysema

pulmonary edema

43

thickens respiratory membrane - lung tissue replaced by fibrous CT (scars) refers to

a) pulmonary edema

b) tuberculosis (myobacterium tuberculosis)

c) pulmonary embolism

d) pneumothorax

e) emphysema

tuberculosis

44

decreased lung elasticity and gas exchange area refers to 

a) pulmonary edema

b) tuberculosis (myobacterium tuberculosis)

c) pulmonary embolism

d) pneumothorax

e) emphysema

tuberculosis

45

blockage of pulmonary vasculature refers to

a) pulmonary edema

b) tuberculosis (myobacterium tuberculosis)

c) pulmonary embolism

d) pneumothorax

e) emphysema

pulmonary embolism

46

blockage of pulmonary vasculature is due to:

 

  • blood clot
  • arteriosclerosis
  • air bubbles in vessels

47

entry of air into pleural cavity refers to

a) pulmonary edema

b) tuberculosis (myobacterium tuberculosis)

c) pulmonary embolism

d) pneumothorax

e) emphysema

pneumothorax

48

entry of air into pleural cavity and causes lung to collapse refers to

a) pulmonary edema

b) tuberculosis (myobacterium tuberculosis)

c) pulmonary embolism

d) pneumothorax

e) emphysema

pneumothorax

49

alveolar walls break refers to

a) pulmonary edema

b) tuberculosis (myobacterium tuberculosis)

c) pulmonary embolism

d) pneumothorax

e) emphysema

emphysema

50

ventilation

  • muscles are all _________
    • 1)
    • 2)

  • muscles are all skeletal
    • ​inspiration (intake of air)
    • expiration (air moves to atmosphere from lungs)

51

ventilation

inspiration (intake of air)

  • _______ + _______ ___ contract

  • diaphragm + external  intercoastals contract

52

ventilation

expiration (air moves to atmosphere from lungs)

  • ____________ + ________ _______ relax
  • exhaling = 

  • diaphragm + external intercostals relax
  • exhaling = passive

53

how do the diaphragm + external intercostals differ during inspiration and expiration?

inspiration = contract

expiration = relax