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Flashcards in Toxicology 2 Deck (78)
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31

With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to coagulation?

defect-- decreased coagulation proteins

32

With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to our CNS?

memory loss, dementia, cerebellar atrophy,

33

With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to our nerves?

peripheral neuropathy

34

With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens tour AST and GGTP, triglycerides?

They go up

35

With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to glucose tolerance?

impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus (pancreatic injury)

36

With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to plasma magnesium and phosphate?

go down

37

With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to plasma uric acid?

increased--> gout

38

With chronic alcohol abuse, what happens to plasma folate?

goes down, megaloblastic anemia

39

What are the 2 types of tolerances to chronic alcohol consumption?

metabolic and neuronal

40

Is fatty liver reversible?

yes from a good diet and strict abstinence

41

What are the major complications of liver cirrhosis?

1. portal hypertension (varicose and hemorrhoids)
2. salt and water retention (ascites, edema
3.Cancer

42

What are the major problems of liver transplantation in alcohol abusers?

1. narcosis/drug
2. other organ problems
3. malnourished
4. new liver endangered if not abstinence

43

What are the 3 multifactorial risks to fatty liver?

genes, environment, alcohol

44

What tells us we are alcoholic hepatitis?

only medium high AST levels for months

45

What happens to NAD and OAA in alcoholism?

concentration is decreased by EtOH oxidation--this might lead to the decreased F.A. oxidation and increased fatty liver

46

Acute intoxication reduces metabolizing activity?

Yes, reversible

47

does Long term alcohol use increase or decrease microsomal enzyme activity? which enzymes? What about when it finally reaches cirrhosis?

1. increase
2. CYP2E, CYP3A
3.overall metabolism reduced

48

aspirin and Etoh leads to what?

gastric bleeding

49

Are effects of CNS depressants and vasodilators and anti-coagulants exaggerated with alcohol?

yes

50

is there increased gastric uptake of penicillin with EtOh?

No reduced

51

What are 5 things FAS children have?

Mental retardation
smaller heads and brains
abnormal facial features
poor coordination
hyperactivity

52

Alcoholism is a disease that includes what 4 symptoms?

craving
loss of control
physical dependence
tolerance

53

How many alcohol abusers are in the US? how much of the annual health expenditure? how many deaths?

>14million
8.1%
100,000

54

What 3 races had the most alcoholics of persons greater than 11?

american indian> native hawaiian or islander>hispanic

55

What age group has the highest alcohol abusers?

18-25> 26-34> 35-49

56

When do seizures during alcohol withdrawal occur?

days 1-3 with minor symptoms

57

What are minor symptoms of alcohol withdrawal?

tremor
insomnia
irritability

58

What are the major symptoms of alcohol withdrawal?

anxiety
agitation
diaphoresis
delirium
disorientation

59

What is disulfiram?

aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor used to support alcoholism

60

What are pyrazoles?

alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor used to support alcoholism