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Flashcards in Toxicology 2 Deck (78)
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61

What is naltrexone used for in alcoholism?

opioid receptor antagonist--> inhibits desire for alcohol.

62

Should we use anti-depressants to treat alcoholism?

Yes

63

What is a dangerous alcohol with therapeutic use, flammable, hydroxyl derivative, miscible with water CNS depressant?

isopropanol

64

What is a dangerous alcohol without therapeutic use, flammable, hydroxyl derivative, miscible with water CNS depressant?

methanol
ethylene glycol

65

What is the 2nd most freq ingested alcohol?

isopropanol

66

What are the kinetics of isopropanol?

rapid, metabolism to acetone, slow elimination in kidneys and lung (acetone breath)

67

How potent is isopropanol a CNS depressant as EtOH?

twice- >3 swallows by a child contact health care

68

Should we use EtOH as an antidote for isopropanol?

NO!!!!

69

Where can we find methanol?

antifreeze, paint remover

70

Can methanol be absorbed through skin and lung exposure?

yes

71

How is methanol metabolized?

hepatic--to formaldehyde and formic acid

72

how much of methanol is needed to cause blindness?

10 ml of 40%

73

What correlates best with lethality of methanol?

blood acidosis

74

Is ethylene glycol bitter?

no it is sweet> sweet man's alcohol

[from antifreeze and coolant]

75

What is ethylene glycol metabolized to/

glycoaldehyde
glycolic acid
oxalic acid

76

What does ethylene glycol do to kidneys?

leads to failure and crystals in renal tubules (where it is filtered and reabsorbed)

77

What is a major problem of ethylene glycol in the body?

acidosis

78

Is alcohol dehydrogenase metabolism lower or higher for methanol and ethylene glycol?

Much lower