Unit 1: Ancient Greece Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1: Ancient Greece Deck (30):
1

Cyrus

a Persian king in 550 BC, who respected conquered nations and their religions/customs, also was a military genius

2

Cambyses

son of Cyrus, named after his grandfather, Persian king after Cyrus in 530 BC, failed to follow his father's wise and honorable example when conquering Egypt

3

Darius

next Persian king after Cambyses in 522 BC,who spent the first 3 years of his reign putting down revolts across the Persian Empire, he brought peace and organization to the Persian Empire; he divided the Persian Empire into 20 provinces, each with it's own satrap, or governor, military leader, and tax collector; the " King's Eyes and Ears" were inspectors who ensured loyalty of provinces; made coins of standard value

4

Satrap

appointed governor of a province

5

Royal Road

ran from Susa (Persia) to Sardis (Anatolia), 1,677 miles long; allowed quick communication with other parts of the empire

6

Zoroaster

Persian prophet, who lived in 600 BC, taught that the earth is a battleground where a great struggle id fought between the spirit of good and the spirit of evil; preached that everyone is expected to take part in this struggle and at the end of time, Ahura Mazda (Zoroastrian god) will judge you according to how well you fought for good

7

Mycenaeans

people who settled in Greece in 2000 BC; the name Mycenaean came from the name of their main city, Mycenae, which had an almost unpenetrable 20 ft thick wall surrounding it; had strong rulers that dominated Greece from about 1600-1100 BC

8

Trojan War

1150 / 1200s BC, 10 years; fought between Troy and Greece; it began when the Mycencaeans conquered the Minoans and then wanted to conquer another civilization, Troy
Legend: Trojan prince kidnapped Helen (beautiful wife of Greek king) and Greece wanted to get her back

9

Dorians

barbarians; Around 1200 BC, they moved into the raided Mycenaean countryside after the Mycenaean civilization collapsed; they spoke a dialect of Greek, less advanced than the Mycenaeans

10

Homer

blind storyteller and great epic poet, wrote the Illiad around 750-700 BC, which was based upon the Trojan War

11

epic

narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds

12

myth

traditional stories

13

polis

Greek city-state

14

acropolis

fortified hilltop in ancient Greece; used to see of enemies were coming; had temples; government; the city forms around it

15

monarchy

-type of government where one king rules
-practiced by Mycenae in 2000 BC

16

aristocracy

-type of government ruled by a small group of noble, landowning families (ppl who inherited nobility)
-practiced in Athens before 594 BC

17

oligarchy

-type of government that is ruled by a few powerful/wealthy citizens
-anyone can participate as long as they meet the wealth requirement
-practiced in Sparta in 500 BC

18

tyrant

not cruel or mean, powerful individuals (usually nobles/ wealthy ppl) who seized control of gov by appealing to the common ppl for support

19

democracy

type of government that is ruled by the ppl

20

helot

peasants who were forced to stay on the land they worked

21

phalanx

a military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields; an array of warriors; used teamwork

22

Persian Wars

series of wars fought between the Persian Empire and the Greek city-states from 546 BC, which was when the Persians conquered Ionia, to several years after in 479 BC, when Xerxes' army was defeated when his ships sank.

23

What was the major difference between Cyrus and Darius?

Darius developed many successful strategies combining Persian control with self-government which Cyrus didn't have a chance to build

24

What did Darius not use to hold his empire together?

Zoroastrianism

25

What quote was on Cyrus's tomb and what does it tell you about his character?

"I established the Persian Empire.....Do not begrudge me at my memorial." It tell you that he is a respectful, compassionate, humble, and modest man.

26

What events led to the development of Zoroastrianism?

a time of war and famine made ppl question why there is so much suffering and chaos in the world

27

What was the major importance of the Royal Road?

it helped unify the Persian Empire

28

hoplites

Spartan warriors

29

1st Persian War

490 BC, 1 year, one battle- the Battle of Marathon; Athenians won; the Persians weren't used to fighting a phalanx; 200 Athenians died, 6,000 Persian died

30

2nd Persian War

480-479 BC, battles of Thermopylae (480 BC), Salamis (480 BC), and Plataea (479 BC); at Thermopylae, the Persians won; at Salamis, the Greeks won by wiping out most of the Persian ships; at Plataea, the Greeks won on Spartan land