Unit 9: Medieval Religion (FRQ) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 9: Medieval Religion (FRQ) Deck (41):
1

Pope Gelasius I

-recognized the conflicts between the Church and the state
-2 swords (one is religious and the other is political)
-the emperor has political sword and the pope had the religious sword
-he thought that the pope should bow to the emperor in political matters and the emperor should bow to the pope in religious matters
-if each ruler kept the authority in his realm, then they could share powerin harmony

2

clergy

-all bishops and preists
-fell under the pope's authority

3

priests

-lowest members of the clergy
-supervised by bishops
-local priests served as the main contact with the Church

4

bishops

-settled disputes over Church teachings and pratices

5

sacraments

-important religious ceremonies
-rites that paved the way for achieving salvation
-marriage
-baptism
-confession
-excorsism

6

canon law

-Church law / religious law
-head = pope
-marriage and divorce (the pope could decide who the king can marry and he could break the marriage)
-punishments = excommunication and interdict

7

the Church

-pope
-cardinals
-archbishops
-bishops = vassals; on the council for the king; provided men for the army; important to the king
-priests
-people

8

excommunication

-banishment from the Church (1 person)
-freed the vassals of the excommunicated

9

interdict

-banishments from the Church (whole country)
-usually caused by the king, who probably screwed up
-take away sacraments (no conffession, baptism....= everyone goes to hell)

10

Otto the Great

-Otto I
-crowned German king in 936
-formed close alliance with the Church
-formed the German-Italian Empire (the Holy Roman Empire)
-invaded Italy on the pope's behalf
-962 = crowned emperor by pope

11

The Holy Roman Empire

-formaly known as the German-Italian Empire
-remained the strongest state in Europe until 1100

12

lay investiture

-the practice of kings appointing bishops intead of the Church

13

Pope Gregory VII

-banned lay investiture

14

Henry IV

-practiced lay investiture
-excommunicated by Gregory VII
-vassals rebell
-promised to not practice lay investiture again (stood outside in the snow at Canossa for 3 days)
-the pope let him back in the Church
-continued to practice lay investiture
-got excommunicated again (vassals did not rebel)

15

Concordat of Worms

-1122
-let the Church appoint bishops but the emperor was allowed to veto

16

Frederick I

-Barbarossa (Red Beard)
-Germans Emperor (didn't wat to share power with the pope
-wanted to control N Italy (Charlemagne controled N Italy)--->where the Lombards lived
-pope (the Church) sides with Lombards
-Battle of Legnano = 1176; Lombard League vs. all the knights of Germany; Lombards won (Sacred War Wagon = ppl with cross bows--> armor piercing)
-knights have never lost before
-pope send him on crusade (3rd Crusade)
-Fred is 80 yrs old----> drowns in a river.....had lots of heavy armor on him
-myth = he is in a cave sleeping waiting until Germany needs his help again

17

reliquiaries

-box that hold the remains of a saint
-life-line to God (ask the saint to ask God to help them)

18

How does Germany disunite in the Middle Ages?

-German kings had little land, little power (weak), and fought to expand and fought with the pope
-German princes elected weak kings, so the princes could do whatever they want

19

Dark Ages

-500-1000
-Western Europe

20

The Age of Faith

-reformers established new religious orders
-restored power and authority
-pope began to reform the Church

21

simony

-practice of bishops selling positions in the Church

22

Problems in the Church

-some priest were illiterate(couldn't read prayers)
-village priest were marrying and this was against Churhc rulings
-simony
-lay investiture

23

the papal Curia

- the pope's groups of advisors
-acted as a court
-developed canon law

24

Pope Leo XI and Pope Gregory VII

-enforced Church laws against simony and the marriage of priests
-1100s-1200s = the Church was restructred to resemble a kingdom

25

tithe

-church tax
-10% of incom
-the Church used some of the money to perform social services (helping poor and sick)
-the Church operated most hospitals in medieval Europe

26

friars

-did not live in monateries, apart from the world
- they preached to the poor throughout Europe's town and cited
-they owned nothing and lived by begging

27

Dominic

-Spanish priest
-founded Dominicans (one of the earliest order of friars)

28

Francis of Assisi

-Italian
-founded Franciscans (friars)
-treated all creature (animals) as if they were his spiritual brothers

29

Clare

-1212 = worked with Francis of Assisi and founded the Francisan order for women
-known as the Poor Clares

30

Hildegard of Bingen

-mystic ans musicain
-1147 = founded Benedictine convent
-these women lived in poverty ans owrked to help the poor ans sick
-women were not allowed to travel from place to place

31

cathedrals

-large churches
-built in city areas

32

Gothic architecture

-Gothic = comes from the Germanic tribe named the Goths
-stain glass windows
-sculpture
-wood carvings
-pointed arches; flying butresses, ribbed vaults, tall spires
-very tall
Ex: Catherdral of Notre Dame; Chartres; Reims; Amiens; Beauvais;

33

Pope Urban II

-christmas = issued a call for a crusade

34

the Crusades

-"holy wars"
-the fight for the control of the Holy Lands of the Middle East
1. July 15, 1099 = crusaders capture Jerusalem
2. 1187 = Saladin and Muslims took back Jerusalem
3. Richard and Saladin fight a lot; Saladin wins
-1192 = truce---> Jerusalem remained under Muslim control but unarmed Christian pilgrims were allowed access to it's holy places
4. 1204 = crusaders attemt to capture Jerusamlem but fail; instead they looted Constantinople because they couldn't make it to the Holy Land

35

Saladin

-Kurdish warrior
-most famous Muslim leader of the 1100s
-most devout man
-Christians regarded him as honest and brave

36

Richard the Lion-Hearted

-English king
-fought Saladin during the 3rd Crusade
-

37

Phillip II

-Augustus
-king of France

38

The Children's Crusade

-1212 = thousands of children went to conquer Jerusalem
-on group was led by Stephen of Cloyes (12 yrs old) = only armed with their faith; 30,000 kids
-many died of starvation and cold (Mediterranean)
-the rest drowned at sea or sold into slavery
-Germany = Nicholas of Cologne gathered 20,000 kids and young adults and marched toward Rome
-thousands dies while crossing the Alps but those who survived reached Italy ans met the pope (he told them to wait until they are older)
-2,000 survied the trip back to Germany
-few boarded a ship for the Holy Land and were never heard of again

39

the Reconquista

-800-1492 (700 yrs)
-a long effort to drive the Muslims out of Spain
-1100s = Muslims (Moors) controlled most of Spain
-by 1400s = the Muslims only had the kingdom og Granada
-1492 = Granada fell to the Christian army of Ferdinand and Isabella (Spanish monarchs)

40

Inquisition

-a court held by the Church to supress heresy
-many Jews and Muslims converted to Christianity but these Jews and Muslims were suspected as converts of heresy
-someone accused of heresy as tortured until they confessed, then they were killed (burned at the stake)
-1492 = monarchs banned the practice of Judaism and Islam from Spain

41

Effects of the Crusades

-Crusades = a time of increased persecution for the Jews
-European merchants (who lived in the Crusader states) expanded trade between Wurope and Southwest Asis---> benefited Christians and Muslims
-SW Asia = spices, fruits, cloth
-pope's power weakened
-feudal nobility weaked and power of kings increased
-thousands of knights and other participants lost fortunes and lives
-the fall of Constantinople weakened the Byzantine Empire