Unit 11: Middle Ages Part II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 11: Middle Ages Part II Deck (47):

Switch to Horsepower

-horses were started to be used to pull wagons and plows instead of oxen
-the new plow had iron blades and wheels
-horse collar invented (replaces ox yoke)
-horses were stronger and faster but eat more high quality food than oxen


three-field system

-farmers plant 3 fields instead of 2--> specialized labor
-1 field had grain, 1 had legumes, the other lay fallow
-2 were planted and the other rested for a year
-it allowed farmers to grow crops on 2/3 of their land instead of just half
-changed the way ppl organized themselves on manors
-kicked off the growth in cities
-food prodcution increased



-organization of indivivuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members
-merchant guilds, craft guilds
-set standards for quiality of work, wages, and working condition
-they created plans for supervising training of new workers
-covered members with health insurance
-provided funeral expensives and dowries for poor girls
-built almshouses for victims of misfortune
-guaranteed quality work
-took turns policing streets
-donated windows to the Church


the Commercial Revolution

-expansion of trade and business
-changed the making and exchanging of goods
-changed transportation and payment (checks, banks)
-roads--> security


letters of credit

-a letter issued by a bank allowing the bearer to withdraw a specific amount of money from the bank or its branches
-they eliminated the need to carry large amounts of cash and made trade easier


bills of exchange

-established exhange rates between different coinage systems



-increased business at markets and fairs made merchants willings to take chances on buying merchandise that they could sella at a profit
-merchants then reinvested the profits in more goods



-parents paid for training
-lived with master and his family and required to obey him
-trained 2-7 yrs
-wasn't allowed to marry during training
-when train progressed to journeyman



-day worker
-worked for a master to earn slary
-worked 6 days a week
-needed to produce a masterpiece (finest work) to become a master
-had to be accepted byt the guild to become a master



-owned own shop
-worked with other masters to protect trade
-sometimes served in civic gov



-Chirstians lending money at intrest
-forbidden (by Church)



-unsophisicated and tiny
-first under authority of lords, but burghers won rights
-serfs abandoned maors to live in towns (become free)
-houses = built with wood, fire hazard
-streets were narrow
-ppl didn't bath, no sewers (dumped waste on streets)
-no fresh air, light, water



-merchant-class town dwellers
-demanded privileges
-allyed with kings against lords
-won rights by force (fought against landlords)



-everday language
-not latin
-common ppl could understand


How were Muslims linked to the revival of learning in Europe?

-christian scholars form Europe began visiting Muslim libraries in Spain
-Jewish scholars in Spain translated the Arabic versions of works of Aristotle.. etc into latin (science, math, philosophy, law...)



-common ppl could learn to read and write
-run by Chruch
-made up of ppl, not buildings
-originally referred to a group of scholars meeting whenever they could
-new ideas and forms of expression


Dante Alighieri

-wrote the Divine Comedy in Italian


Geoffrey Chaucer

-wrote the Canterbury Tales in English


Christine de Pisan

-wrote The Book of the City of Ladies in French


Thomas Aquinas

-argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument
-wrote Summa Theologicae (everything he knows about religion)



-Aquinas and his followers who met at the great universities
-used their knowledge of Aristotle to debate issues of their time


William the Conqueror

-duke of Normandy
-King Edward the Confessor's cousin, who died without and heir
-vassal of French king
-claimed the English crown; invaded England with a Norman army
-won at the battle of hastings


Harold Godwinson

-William the Conqueror's rival
-killed swedish harold
-Anglo-Saxon who claimed the throne
-Halley's Comet= sign to Harold


the Battle of Hastings

-Normans and Anglo-Saxons fought
-Harold= killed by an arrow in his eye
-William declared all England his personal property (kept 1/5 for himself)
-he took the lands of the lords who supported Harold and gave them to 200 Norman lords who swore oath of loyalty to him personally


Alfred the Great

-Anglo-Saxon king from 871-899
-turned back the vikings
-he and his successors united the kingdom under one rule
-called it England ("land of the Angles")



-Danish king
-1016= conquered England (molded Anglo-Saxons and Vikings into one people)
-1042= King Edward the Confessor (descendant of Alfred the Great) took throne---> died in 1066 without an heir


Henry II

-English King from 1154-1189 (Henry Platagenet)
-added to the land that William that Conqueror (and descendants) had by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine (France) ----> Aquitaine
-vassal to the French king because he owned land in France but also a king in his own right
-strengthened royal courts of justice (sent royal judges to every part of England a least once a year to collect taxes, settle lawsuits, and punish crimes)
-introduced the use of jury in English courts
-succeeded by Richard the Lionhearted, hero of the Third Crusade
-Richard was succeeded by John (younger brother), ruled from 1199-1216


jury in Medieval England

-group of loyal ppl (12 neighbors of the accused) who answered the judges questions about the facts of a case
-a popular means of settle disputes
-conducted only by the king's court


common law

-unified body of law formed by the rulings of England's royal judges
-basis for law in many English-speaking countries (USA)


King John

-ruled form 1199-1216
-nickname: John Softsword (not good at military)
-cruel to subjects, forced taxes (high taxes on wars)
-lost Normandy and all lands in northern France to the French under Philip Augustus
-alienated the Church
-June 15, 1215= his nobles revolted and forced him to sign the Magna Carta


the Magna Carta

-guaranteed rights: no taxation without representation, a jury trial, and protection of the law
-limited the power of the king to do whatever he wants



-a legislative group
-provided a royal check on power
-Under Edward I, Parliament was a royal tool that weakened great lords
-Model Parliament= November 1295: knights, burgesses, bishops, and lords met together at Westminster in London (commoners, non-nobles, and lords served)
-House of Commons= knights and burgesses, called by the king whenever a new tax is needed
-House of Lords= nobles and bishops, met separately from knights and burgesses


Hugh Capet

-undistinguished duke from middle of France
-succeeded Louis the Sluggard (last member of the Carolingian family), who died in 987
-began the Capetian Dynasty of French kings who ruled from 987-1328 (heart of territory= Paris)
-300 yrs= spread outward from paris---> spread of royal power would unite France


Philip II

-Philip Augustus
-ruled from 1180-1223
-wanted to weaken the power of the English kings in France
-little success against Henry II or Richard the Lionhearted
-took French land under King John
-he seized so much land that he had become more powerful then any of his vassals
-wanted strong central gov (established royal bailiffs, who were sent from Paris to every district in the kingdom to collect taxes and preside over the king's courts)


Louis IX

-Philip's grandson
-pious and saintly
-ideal king
-created French/royal appeals court (overturned the decisions of local courts and strengthened monarchy, while weakening feudal ties)
-after death= made a saint by Catholic church


Philip IV

-ruled France from 1285-1314
-Estates General......
-quarreled with pope= pope didn't allow priests to pay taxes to the king
- to win support, Philip added commoners to the meeting
-kidnapped Pope Boniface VIII on Sept 1303 to bring him to France for a jury trial because Philip thought he had authority over popes (pope thought kings must obey popes)
-Pope Boniface was rescued but died a month later
-he bribed 50% + 1 cardinals to chose a French pope (who acted as a "puppet fot the king")


Estates General

-meeting with three estates
-helped increase royal power and nobility
-First Estate: Church leaders
-Second Estates: great lord
-Third Estate: commoners, merchants, or wealthy landholders--> invited by Philip IV to participate the council, played a key role in overthrowing the French monarchy during the French revolution


What steps were necessary to centralize government in England and France?

1. creation of common law and court systems
2. including commoners in the decision-making process of government



-in France
-where Clement V (newly selected pope after Pope Boniface died), lived
-this move weakened the Church


The Great Schism

-the split in the Church when there were 2 popes (Clement VII= French and Urban VI= Italian) and they excommunicated each other
-when Pope Gregory XI died (while visiting Rome), the ppl wanted an Italian for a pope (Urban VI
-French thought this was an invalid election, so they elected a French pope (Clement VII)
-Council of Contance
-new religious ideas (heresy)
-the Church lost contrl of the religions in Europe
-lost money (expensive to support 2 Churches)


The Concil of Constance

-1414 (at Pisa)= attempted to end the schism by chosing a single pope and firing the other 2 but the other 2 refused to steop down
-3 popes
-Holy Roman Emperor= forced all 3 popes to resign and the concil chose a new pope (Martin V), which ended the Great Schism but leaving the papacy greatly weakened


John Wycliff

-preached that Jesus was the true head of the Church, not the pope
-believed the clergy should not own land or wealth
-taught that the Bible is the final authority for Christian life


Jan Hus

-professor at Bohemia
-influenced by Wycliff's teachings
-taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the pope
-1412= excommunicated
-1414= tried as a heretic--> burned at the stake in 1415


bubonic plague

-came from Central Asia (Mongols: Kaffa= threw dead bodies w/ plague over city walls)
-symptoms: buboes (swelling in lymph nodes) w/ black spots, fever, death
-standard of living rose (less ppl = more stuff to have, not a lot of time to live, make the best of it)
-killed 1/3 of European population (25 million) and more in Asia and North Africa
1. town populations fell
2. trade declined (quarantine for 14 days), prices rose
3. serfs left manors in search of better wages
4. nobles resisted demands for higher wages; peasants revolted in England, France, Italy, and Blegium
5. Jews were blamed for the plague (massacred or kicked out of homes)
6. The Church lost prestige
7. priests abandoned posistions because they refused to visit the sick to give last rites and prayers didn't work
8. flagellants= whipped themselve to make God forgive them and lift the plague


Hundred Years' War

-France vs. England
-during the bubonic plague and the Great Schism
-started when the last Capetian king died without and heir and Edward III (grandson of Philip IV) claimed the right to the French throne
-brought a change in warfare
-longbow= better than knights
-Battles of Crecy, poitier, and Agincourt (all won by English)
-1420: English and French truce
-Joan of Arc turned the tide of the war
-French had cannons during the alast 20 yrs of the war, which could knock down walls os Englsih strongholds (castles and fortified cities)
-French won
1. nationalism (ppl began fighting for country, not feudal lords)
2. power of French monarch incresed
3. Englished suffered turmoil (War of Roses)
4. no more code of chivalry



-easy to carriy
-deadly (armour piercing)
-could be shot from 200 yards away but deadly at 100 yard
-fast/easy to load (1 every 4 seconds)
-"machine gun of the Middle Ages"
-the Englsih were using it for 100 years (since Edward I)


Joan of Arc

-French peasant girl
-heard voices and saw saints--> moved by God to save the French from the English
-led French army to a fort city near Orleans and broke the siege at Orleans (May 7, 1429)
-persuaded Charles VII to come with her to Reims and there he was crowned king of France
-she was caputured and the French didn't save her
-tried of heresy and accused of witchcraft and of being a transventite (had short hair, wore men's clothes)
-1431= burned at the stake