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Flashcards in Unit 15: Deck (34):
1

Christopher Columbus

-Genoese (Italian) sea captain/ explorer
-August 3, 1492= sailed from Spain to Americas/Caribbean (though he reached Asia)
-sailed west to get east
-landed Oct 12, 1492
-nina, pinta, sata maria
-met the natives= Taino
-called them Indians
-gave them small trinkets, they gave parrots, balls of cotton thread, VALUABLE THINGS
-he took advantage of that
-interested in gold
-1493= reurned to Spaim,; rulers sgreeed to finance 3 more trips
-Sept 1493= returned but to colonize
-brought 17 ships, 1,000 soldiers, crewmen and colonists

2

colony

land that are controlled by another nation

3

Pedreo Alvares Cabral

-Portuguses exploerer
-1500= reached modern-day Brazil and claimed it for Portugal

4

Amerigo Vespucci

-Italian serving for Spaim
-1501= traveled to coast of South America
-claimed that the land wa not Asia but a "new" world
-1507= a German mapmaker named the new continent "America" in honor of Amerigo Vespucci

5

Ferdinand Magellan

-Portuguses explorer
-1519= led a expedition that sailed around the entire world but he died in the Phillipines (CIRCUMNAVIGATE)
-250 men, 5 ships
-only 28 men and 2 ship arrived bakc in Spain in 1522, almost 3 yrs after they left (died from disease or battle)

6

Vasco Nunez de Balboa

-Spanish explorer
-marched through moder-day Panama
-became the first european to see the Pacific Ocean

7

Hernando Cortes

-Spaniard
-1519= landed on the shores of Mexico
-colonized some Caribbean islands
-learned of the wealth of the Aztecs
-reached Tenochtitlan
-Montezuma II (EMPEROR)= convinced that Cortes and his men were gods wearing armor
-he gave them gold
-Cortes watd more gold ("disease of the heart that only gold can cure")
-he killed Aztecs during a religious festival
-June 1520= Aztecs rebelled and drove out Cotes's forces but they fought back and conquered the Aztec Empire
-FACTORS.......
1. Spanish weapons (guns) were beter than the Aztec spears
2. some other native groups helped defeat the Aztecs (some hated the Aztecs rituals---> human sacrifice)
3. DISEASE (measles, mumps, smallpox, typhus; the native were not immune
-equivalent to 4 bubonic plagues
-1519= 253 mil natives
-1523= 16.8 mil natives
-1548= 6.3 mil natives
-1605= 1 mil natives

8

conquistadors

-Spanish explorers, soldiers and fortune hunters
-took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century

9

Francisco Pizarro

-conquistador
-son of infantry captain and a young peasnat woman
-raised by poor mom's family
-can't read
-1532= conquered Incan Empire
-captured Atahualpa
-killed him
-Incan capital- Cuzco

10

Atahualpa

-last Incan ruler
-captured by Pizarro
-ransome= fill a room with gold and 2 with silver (24 tons of gold/silver); richest ransome in history
-he wasn't released but supposed to be burned at the stake
-if he converted to Christianity, he would be stangled instead
-he converted and was strangled
-the Incans believed that the soul needs the body after a person died (mummies)
-if he wasn burned, there would be no body

11

other empires conquered by the Spanish

-Mayan (at Yucatan and Guatamala)3

12

peninsulares

-Spanish settlers to the Americas
-mostly men

13

mestizo

-mizxed Spanish and Native American population
-becuase almost all the colonists were men, they began to have relationships with or rape the natve women

14

encomienda

-Spanish forcing the Native Americans to work
-mining, farming, ranching
-doing things the Spainish don't want to do themselves
-lords promised they would act fairly but many abused the natives or worked them to death, especially in the mines

15

Portuguses in Brazil

-1500= Cabral claimed Brazil for Portugal
-little gold or silver
-began growing sugar (sugar plantations)--> cleared out many forests
-the demand for sugar in Europe was great and the colony soon enriched Portugal
-settled more land for sugar production

16

Spain

-became the richest, most powerful nation in the world during much of the 16th century
-all b/c of Spain's American colonies
-increased military
-built a powerful navy
-created a skillful and determined army
-wealth= held bring about a golden age of art and culture
-Spanish bured the Aztec codex (all of Aztec writings)
-they wanted to wipe it out and replace it

17

Juan Ponce de Leon

-Spanish explorer
-1513= landed on the coast of modern-day Florida and claimed it for Spain

18

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado

-1540-1541= led an expedition throughout much of present-day Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas
-found littel gold
-result= Spanish monarchy assigned mostly priests to explore and colonize the future united states

19

Pedro de Peralta

-governor of New Mexico (Spained northern holdings)
-1609-1610= led sttlers to a tributary on the upper Rio Grande
-built Santa Fe (capital)--> "Holy Faith"
-next 2 decades= a string of Christian missions rose among the Peublo (native inhabitants of the region)
-scattered forts, missions, and small ranches were created in New Mexico, which became the headquarters for advancing the Catholic religion

20

Bartolome de Las Casas

-Dominican monk
-didn;t like the encomienda system
-ppl should import slaves from Africa
-1542= no more encomienda system
-he later changed his opinion about enslaving africans but other liked the idea

21

Jacques Cartier

-Frenchman
-1534= reached a gulf off the eastern coast of Canada that led to a broad river
-he named it the St Lawrence River
-he follewed it inward until he reached a large island donimated by mountain (he named it Mont Reat (Mount Royal) which becam known as Montreal)

22

Samual de Champlain

-French explorer
-1608= sailed up the St Lawrence River with 32 colonists
-founded Quebec (became the base of France's colonial empire in North America)

23

New France

-France's colonial empire in North America
-covered what is now the midwestern United States and eastern
-large but sparsely populated
-many of the French colonists didn't want to raise families or build towns but they becmae traders instead (fur trade= New France's main economical activity)
-more interestedin making money

24

Sieur de La Salle

-explored the lower Mississippi
-claimed the entire river valley for France
-named it Louisiana in honor of the French king, Louis XIV

25

Jamestown

-coast of Virginia
-named in honor of the English king, King James, who sent 3 ships with 100 settlers to here
- settlers were mostly single men who didn't want to build towns or raise families but participated in trade
-England's first permanent settlement in North America
-it's start was terrible
-the settlers were more intersted in finding gold than planting crops
-during the first few yrs, 7/10 ppl died of hunger, disease, ot battles with the native americans
-they eventually began to plant

26

Pilgrims

-persecuted for their reilgious beliefs in England
-sought religious freedom
-1620= founded a second English colony; PLYMOUTH in Massachusetts

27

Puritans

-also sought religious freedom from England's Anglican Church
-established a larger colony at Massachusetts Bay
-they wanted to build the model community that would set an example for other Christians to follow
-early difficulties, gradually got better
-numerous families, unlike the sinlge, male population in Jamestown

28

Henry Hudson

-Englishman in service of the Netherlands
-1609= sailed west, searching for northwest sea route to Asia-unsuccessful
-he exploered 3 waterways that were later named after him (Hudson River, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait)

29

New Netherland

-the Dutch holdings in North America
-slow to attract colonists
-to encourage settlers the comoly opened it's doors to a vaiety of peoples
-the Dutch established furtrade woth the Iroquois Indians
-they built trading posts along the Hudson River ar Fort Orange (Albany) and on Manhattan Island
-Dutch merchants formed the Dutch West India Comapny
-1621= the Dutch gov grated the company permission to colonize the rigion and expand fur trade
-profited from fur trade

30

Colonizing the Caribbean

-1600s
-French= seized control of present-day Haiti, Guadeloupe, and Marinique
-English= settle Barbados and Jamaica
-Dutch= captured modern-day Antilles and Aruba from Spain
-cotton and sugar plantations, where enslaved Africans would work
-French, English, and Dutch battle eachother for colonial supremacy
-the English defeat the Dutch (the Dutch surrendered
-1750= 1.2 mil English settlers lived in 13 colonies from Maine to Georgia

31

the French and Indian War

-war between the English and French in North America
-they also fought for supremacy in Europe, the West Indies, and India
-became part of a larger conflict known as the Seven Years War
-the French surrendered their North American holdings
-British siezed control of the eastern half of north America

32

French and Dutch's relationship with the Natives

-mutual benefits of the fur trade
-Native American did most of the trapping and then trader furs to the French for guns, hatchets, mirrors, and beads
-the Dutch cooperated with the Native Americans in an effort to establish a fur-trading enterprise

33

English relations with Native Americans

-early relations= ok
-worsened over the issues of land and religion
-English wanted to move natives off the land to grown tabacco
-they thought of the Native Americans as heathans (people without a faith)
-Puritans viewed Native Americans as agents of the devil ans as a threat to their godly society
-Native Americans developed a similarly harsh view of the European invaders

34

Metacom

-King Philip
-Native American ruler
-King Philip's War= bloodiest conflicts between colonists and Native Americans
-started when he led an attack on colonial villages throughout Massachusetts
-both sides massacred hundreds of victims
-colonoist defeated natives