Unit 3: The Roman Republic Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3: The Roman Republic Deck (24):
1

republic

-form of government where power rests with the citizens who have the right to vote for their leader
-only free-born male citizens could vote
-established in Rome after a tyrant, Tarquin the Proud (last king of Rome), was harsh to Romans
-509 BC = no king anymore, republic was esablished

2

patricians

-wealthy landowners
-held most of the power
-inherited power and social status

3

plebians

-common farmers
-artisans
-merchants
-made up the majority of the population in Rome
-had right to vote but couldn't hold the most important government positions
-allowed to form their own assembly and elect representatives (tribunes)

4

tribunes

-elected representatives for plebian assembly
-protected the rights of the plebians from unfair acts of patrician officials
-represented the plebians
-could veto (like consuls)
-if ignored, the plebians could go on strike (again) and not serve in the army

5

Twelve Tables

-made in 451 BC
-Rome's first written law code
-written by 10 officials
-became the basis for later Romans law
-established the idea that all free citizens had a right to the protection of thelaw

6

consuls

-Roman officials
-commanded army and directed the government (like but not like kings)
-had limited power
-term was only 1 year long
-the same person could not be elected again for another 10 years
-one consul could veto (overrule) the other's decision

7

senate

-aristocratic branch of Rome's government
-had legislative and administative functions in the republic
-300 members
-members were chosen from upper class of Roman society
-served for life
-most powerful part of Roman Empire
-in charge of all the money
-later plebians were allowed in the senate
-exercised great influence over foreign and domestic policy (trade, war & peace)

8

The Tribal Assembly

-assembly organized by plebians
-represented the more democratic side of government
-elected tribunes
-made laws for the common ppl (later for the republic itself)

9

dictator

-leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army
-appointed in a time of crisis
-could only rule for 6 months
-chosen by consuls, elected by senate

10

legions

-large military units with Roman soldiers
-made up of 5,000 foot soldiers (infantry)
-had cavalry
-divided into small groups of 80 men, which was called a century
-the word legion also means multitude

11

Punic Wars

-3 wars: (1) 264- 241 BC , (2) 218-202 BC, (3)149-146 BC = 120 years, only 40 years of fighting during this time
-war between Carthage (Romans called then the "Phoenicians") and Rome

12

1st Punic War

-in Sicily
-264-241 BC
-Romans didn't have a navy, Carthage did have a navy (better at fighing at sea because of the vast trade)
-boats = had oars (made it easier to control direction and speed)
-Romans invented a spike that would go down from their ship to the enemy ship so that when it came down, the boats couldn't move. This made it a "land" battle on the deck of the boats (Romans were better at land battles)
-ROME WON
-Sicily became Rome's first province
-Rome made Carthage give them Sardinia and Corsica (Rome's 2nd provinces)

13

What are the benefits of Rome having provinces?

-like subjects
-the provinces had to pay taxes (way to get Rome richer)
-they supply and are in the army
-governor could make money from provinces
-slaves

14

2nd Punic War

-in Spain and Rome
-218-202 BC
-Hanninbal (Carthaginian gerneral from Spain) comes up with a UNEXPECTED strategy to march from Spain, through France and across the Alps to Rome
-ARMY: 50, 000 infantry (foot soldiers), 9,000 cavalry, 60 elephants
-spent over a decade fighting in Italy

BATTLE OF CANNAE (215 BC)
-Hannival vs. Bothe Roman Consuls
-Rome:87,000 trrops, 8 legions, 6,400 cavalry
Carthage: 40,000 troops, 10,000 cavalry
-Hannibal's strategy: be in position where the sun will face directly at the Roman army (in the morning) and the wind will be blowing towards the Romans
-stopping of feet wil creat dust clouds and blind Roman soldiers
-CARTHAGINIANS WON
-50,000 Romans died
-8,000 Carthaginians died

15

Hannibal

-Carthaginian general in Spain
-brilliant military strategist
-wanted to avenge Carthage's defeat in the 1st Punic War
-basically never been beaten (in Italy)

16

3rd Punic War

-149-146 Bc
-Scipio Africanus = Roman general, studied Hannibals tactics + knew how to fight Hannibal
-attacked Carthage; forced Hannibal to return home to Carthage

BATTLE OF ZAMA (202 BC)
- (near) Carthage
-only time Hannibal wa defeated
-Romans took Spain as a province
-Carthaginians promised not to fight anyone EVER without permission from Rome (SEE CLASSNOTES)
-50,000 Carthaginians sold to slavery

17

"foundation myth"

myth about how an empire started

18

What is the "foundation myth" for Rome?

ROMULUS AND REMUS: twin brothers
-parents: Mars (god of war) & priestess (vestal virgin for Vesta)-------->not supposed to have kids
-they couldn't keep Romulus and Remus, so they put them in a basket in the Tiber River
-found by a mother wolf, who raised them
-when they grow up, they both want to find/build cities and they do
-Remus makes fun of Romulus's city because his walls are only knee high but Romulus is proud of his city
-Romulus gets mad and kills Remus

MESSAGE
-Romans are strong, warlike, devoted to the gods, and proud
-DO NOT MESS WITH THE ROMANS!

19

civil war

-conflict between groups within the same country

20

Julius Caesar

-military leader
-59 BC = elected consul
-60 BC = joined forces with Crassus and Pompey, ruled as a triumvirate for 10 years
-strong leader, genius at military strategy
-January 10, 49 BC = took army across Rubicon River (Italy) , marched to Rome and Pompey ran away; Caesars' troops defeated Pompey's armies at Greece, Asia, Spain, and Egypt
-44 BC = appointed dictator for life; absolute ruler (ruled with total/absolute power)
-March 15, 44 BC = stabbed to death (in "senate chamber") by nobles and senators who disagreed with his reforms and thought he was acting to much like a king
-after death = civil war again and destroyed what was left of the Republic

21

triumvirate

group of 3 rulers

22

Augustus

- real name = Octavian
-Augustus means "exalted one"
-Octavian was also called imperator ("supreme military commander"; where the word emperor comes from)

23

Pax Romana

-"Roman peace"
-time of peace and prosperity
-Roman Empire = 3 million square miles, 60-80 million ppl, 1 million ppl lived in Rome
-organized government
-vast trade network
-lots of farming (agriculture)

24

denarius

-silver coin used during Augustus's time
- used throughout empire
-made trade easier