Unit 5: Islam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5: Islam Deck (49):
1

Bedouins

-Arab nomads (in Spain)
-organized into groups called clans
--the clans provided security and support for a life made difficult by extreme conditions of the desert
-Bedouin ideals of courage and loyalty to the family would become the Islamic way of life

2

Mecca

-city in western Arabia
-a place where Muslims go to during their pilgrimage
-has the Ka'aba

3

the Ka'aba

-an ancient shrine in Mecca
-where Muslims (during their pilgrimage) worship
-had contained over 360 idols from many tribes
-Later, Muhammad destroyed all the idols and dedicated it to Allah

4

Allah

-the Muslim god

5

Muhammad

-born about A.D. 570 to a clan of a powerful Meccan family
-orphaned at 6 yrs. old & raised by his grandfather
-had little schooling and began working in the caravan trade as a very young man
-at age 25, be became a trader and business manager for Khadijah (wealthy business woman, 40 yrs. old), who he later married
-prayed and meditated
-one night, a voice (Gabriel, messenger of Allah) called to him while he was meditating in a cave outside of Mecca
-began to teach that Allah was the one and only god and that all other gods must be abandoned-his followers were called Muslims
-his first followers were his several close friends and his wife , Khadijah
- (year) 622 : moved out of Mecca to Yathrib ( a town 200 mile north of Mecca) after some of his followers were attacked.......this was called the Hijrah
-became a military, religious, and political leader in Yathrib (aka. Medina)
-(year) 630 : Muhammad and 10,000 followers came back to Mecca ------> Mecca's leaders surrendered
-most Meccan's pledged their loyalty to Muhammad and converted to Islam
-Muhammad died 2 years later at age 62

6

Islam

-religion
-started by Muhammad
-followers = Muslims
- means "submission to the will of Allah" in Arabic
-

7

Muslim

-followers of Muhammad (Islam)
-means "one who submitted" in Arabic
-viewd Jesus as a prophet, not the Son of God
-refer to the Christians and Jews as "ppl of the book" because each religion has a holy book with teachings similar to those of the Qur'an

8

umma

-Muslim religious community

9

The Five Pillars of Islam

5 duties
-Faith : To become a Muslim, a person has to testify that "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad if the Messenger of Allah." This statement is used in Islamic rituals and Muslim daily life

-Prayer : Muslims pray 5 times a day. They must assemble at a mosque or wherever they are and face towards Mecca

-Alms : Muslims meet their social responsibility, taught by Muhammad by giving alms to the poor through a special religious tax

-Fasting : Muslims fast from dawn to sunset during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. A simple meal is eaten at the end of the day. Fasting reminds Muslims that their spiritual needs are greater that their physical needs

-Pilgrimage : All Muslims who are financially and physically able perform the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) at least once. The Pilgrims wear identical garments so that all stand as equals before Allah.

10

mosque

-aka mahsk
-an Islamic house of worship

11

alms

-money for the poor

12

utama

-scholar class
-religious teachers apply the words of and deeds of Muhammad to everyday life

13

the Qur'an

-the holy book of the Muslims
-contains Muhammad's revelations
-written in Arabic
-Muslims consider the Arabic version to be the true word of Allah
-only Arabic can be used in worship
-wherever Muslims carried the Qur'an, Arabic becomes the language of worshipers and scholars
-the Arabic language helped united conquered ppls as Muslim control expanded

14

Sunna

-model for proper living

15

shari'a

-body of law assembled from the guidence of the Qur'an and Sunna
-system of law that regulates the family life, moral conduct, and business and community life of Muslims
-requires Muslim leaders to extend religious tolerance to Christians and Jews

16

the Hijrah

-the migration Muhammad and his followers made from Mecca to Yathrib (aka Medina)
-marked a turing point for Muhammad
-Muhammad attracted many more followers

17

What event in Muhammad's life signaled the beginning of Islam?

-after he talked with Gabriel he soon realized that Allah was speaking through Gabriel
-then he began teaching that Allah is the one and only God and that all other gods must be abandoned
-his followers were called Muslims, who are followers of Islam

18

Why was Mecca an important city in western Arabia?

-the city of Mecca has an ancient shrine, called the Ka'aba, where Muslim pilgrims worshiped during their religious pilgrimage to Mecca
-at first the Ka'aba had over 360 idols from many tribes and was a place where the Arabs worshiped many gods and spirits
-later, Muhammad destroyed the idols and dedicated the shrine to Allah

19

Why did Muslims consider Christians and Jews "people of the book?"

-both/all religions have a holy book
with teachings similar to to those of the Qur'an

20

In what ways are the teachings of the Muslims similar to those of the Christians and Jews?

-to Muslims, Allah is the same God that is worshiped in Christianity and Judaism
-they all believe in a heaven and a hell and a day of judgement
-all have the Old Testament
-they all trace their ancestry to Abraham
-Look at classnotes

21

caliph

-title that means "successor" or "deputy"
-a supreme political and religious leader in Muslim government

22

Abu-Bakr

-first caliph in 632
-elected by Muslim community
-loyal friend of Muhammad
-one of the 4 "rightly guided" caliphs
-promised the Muslim community he would defend what Muhammad stood for
-invoked jihad, and applied it to encourage and justify the expansion of Islam
-died 634

23

Who were the 4 "rightly guided" caliphs?

-Abu-Bakr
-Umar
-Uthman
-Ali
-all had known Muhammad
-used that Qur'an and Muhammad's actions as guids to leadership
-their rule was called a caliphate
-made great progress in their quest to speard Islam

24

jihad

-means "striving"
-can refer to the inner struggle aginst evil
-can also be used in the Qur'an to mean an armed struggle against unbelievers

25

Umar

-2nd caliph
-under him, Muslim armies conqured Syria and lower Egypt, which were a part of the Byzantine Empire
-also took parts of the Sassanid Empire
-he and Ali continued to expand Muslim territory
-by 750, the Muslim Empire stretched 6,000 miles from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River

26

How were Chrisitians and Jews treated?

-as "ppl of the book" they recieved special consideration
-paid a poll tax each year to keep them from doing military duties
-subject to many restrictions

27

Uthman

-3rd caliph
-murdered in 656, which started a civil war where various groups struggle for power

28

Ali

-4th caliph
-Muhammad's cousin and son in-law
-his right to rule was challenged by Muawiya, a governor of Syria
- 661, Ali was assassinated and the elective system of chosing a caliph died with him

29

Umayyads

-family that came to power after Ali
-moved capital to Damascus---->made controlling conquered territoried easier
-Arabs felt it was too far away from their lands
-Unmayyads abandoned simple caliph life and surrounded themselves with wealth and ceremonies similar to those of non-Muslims
-overthrown by rebel groups in 750

30

Damascus

-away from Mecca
-made controlling territoried easier
-leading city during the construction of Baghdad
-cultural center of Islamic learning

31

Shi'a

-means the "party" of Ali
-thought that the caliph needed to be a descendent of Muhammd
-resisted to Umayyad rule
-members = Shi'ites

32

Sunni

-means followers of Muhammd's example
-did not resist the rule of the Umayyads

33

Sufi

-rejected the lixurious life of the Umayyads
-pursued a life of poverty and devoted to a spiritual path

34

Abbasids

-one of the groups (most powerful) who overthrew the Umayyads
-took control of the empire in 750
-murdered the Umayyad family (prince named Abd al-Rahman escaped to Spain and set up an Umayyad caliphate)
-moved capital to Baghdad (central Iraq) in 762
-Abbasids develpoped a stron bureaucracy to conduct the huge empire's affairs
-treasury : kept track of money flow
-a special department managed the business of the army
-diplomats were sent to courts in Europe, Africa, and Asia to conduct imperial business
-Abbasids taxed land, imports and exports, and non-Muslims' wealth
-increased authority by consulting religious leaders
-failed to keep complete political control of the empire
-governed during a prosperous period of Muslim history (riches came from Europe, Asia, and Africa--->build luxurious cities
-Abbisad caliphate lasted from 750-1258

35

al-Andalus

-Muslim ruled region in Spain

36

Baghdad

--central Iraq
-had key tade routes
-gave the caliph access to trade goods, gold, and information throughout the empire

37

the Fatimid

-caliphate
-formed by Shi'a Muslims who claimed descent from Muhammad's daughter Fatima
-began in North Africa and spread scross the Red Sea to western Arabia and Syria
-still connected to the Abbasid caliphate through religion, language, trade and economy

38

sakks

-pronounced "check" in Europe
-letters of credit (check)
-could be cashed in
-used my merchants

39

Claliph al-Mansur

-placed Baghdad (capital) on the west bank of the Tigris River and was near the grand mosque
-Baghdad's population rose to 1 million ppl

40

the 4 Social Classes

1. Upper Class : inclided those who were Muslims at birth
2. Second Class : converts to Islam
3. Third Class : the "protected ppl", which included Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians
4. Lowest Class : slaves (prisoners of war, all were non-Muslim, frequently performed houshold work or fought in the military)

41

the Role of Women

- the Qur'an says men and women are equal (as believers)
-had specific rights on marriage, family and property
-Muslim women had more economic and property rights than European, Indian, and Chinese women of the same time period
-Muslim women were expected to submit to men
(if a man wanted to divorce his wife, all he had to do was say "I dismiss thee" three times and the divorece was final in 3 months)
-had access to education and could participate in public life, some became poets and scholars
-all were responsible for raising the children
-rich women took care of the household and servants
-poor women would often work in the fields with her husband
-all women were expected to wear a veil when in public

42

the House of Wisdom

-opened by Caliph al-Ma'mum
-Baghdad
-it was a combination of a library, academy and a translation center
-scholars (researchers, editors, linguists, and technical advisors) of differnt cultures and beliefs worked side by side translating scientific and philosophical texts from Greece, India, Persia, and elswhere into Arabic
-scholars developed standards and techniques for research that are a part of basi methods of today's research
-some Muslim scholars used Greek ideas in fresh, new ways; others created original works of the highest quality

43

Muslim Literature

-strong tradition in Arabia
-poems celebrated bravery, love, generosity, and hospitality; later, poems about nature and thepleasure of life and love were written
-the Qur'an in the standard for all Arabic literature and poetry
-popular literature : The Thousand and One Nights (look in book, pg. 276)

44

Muslim Art and Architecture

-Muslims believed that only Allah can create life and that no images of living beings were to be made. So, many artists turned to calligraphy
-some began doing woodwork, glass, ceramics, and textiles
-some buildings reflectedthe culture of the ppl of the area
-Ex: the Great Mosque of Damascus (built on the side of a Christian church)
-in Syrian areas, the architecture included features that were very Roman (baths and heating systems)

45

calligraphy

-the art of beautiful handwriting (ornamental writing)
-considered to reflet the glory of Allah
-pictoral calligraphy : used letters from the alphabet (Arabic)

46

Medical Advances

-al-Razi (Persian scholar, greatest physician of the Muslim world): wrote the Comprehensive Book (medical encyclopedia), which drew knowledge from Greek, Syrian, Arabic, and Indian cultures along with his own experience
-he also wrote Treatise on Smallpox and Measles (translated into several languages)
-he believed that patients would recover more quickly if they breathed cleaner air

47

Advances in Math and Science

-Muslims translated and studies Greek texts
-Muslim scientists preferred to solve problems by conducting experiments in labratories, rather than using logical resoning over uncovered facts through observation (what Greek thinkers, like Aristotle and Pythagoras did)
-Muslim schoalrs believed that math was the basis of all knowledge
-al-Khwarizimi (mathematician born in Baghdad in late 700s) studied the Indian sources rather than Greek
-he wrote a text book explaining "the art of bringing together unknowns to match a known quality"
-he called this technique al-jabr, known today as algebra
-many advances in math related to astronomy; Mulsim observatories charted starts, comets, and planets
-Ibn al-Haytham (brilliant mathematician) made a book called Optics, which revolutionized ideas about vision
-his studies about optics were used in devloping lenses for telescopes and micrscopes

48

Philosophy

-scholars in the House of Wisdom translated works of Greeks philosphers like Aristotle and Plato into Arabic
-1100s: Ibn Rushd (liven in Cordoba) argued that Greek philosophy ans Islam both have the same goal: to find the truth
-Moses Ben Maimon (Jewish physician and philosopher, born in Cordoba, lived in Egypt) faced strong oppostion for his ideas but later became known as the greatest Jewish philosopher in history
-he made a book called The Guide for the Perplexed, which blended philosphy, religion, and science

49

The "Ideal Man"

pg 279
-should be of East Persian derivation
-Arabic
-have and Iraqi education
-Hebrew in intellegence
-discipline of Christ in conduct
-as religious as a Greek monk
-a Greek in the individual sciences
-an Indian in the interpretation of all mysteries
-especially a Sufi in his whole spiritual life