Unit 5: Islam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5: Islam Deck (49):


-Arab nomads (in Spain)
-organized into groups called clans
--the clans provided security and support for a life made difficult by extreme conditions of the desert
-Bedouin ideals of courage and loyalty to the family would become the Islamic way of life



-city in western Arabia
-a place where Muslims go to during their pilgrimage
-has the Ka'aba


the Ka'aba

-an ancient shrine in Mecca
-where Muslims (during their pilgrimage) worship
-had contained over 360 idols from many tribes
-Later, Muhammad destroyed all the idols and dedicated it to Allah



-the Muslim god



-born about A.D. 570 to a clan of a powerful Meccan family
-orphaned at 6 yrs. old & raised by his grandfather
-had little schooling and began working in the caravan trade as a very young man
-at age 25, be became a trader and business manager for Khadijah (wealthy business woman, 40 yrs. old), who he later married
-prayed and meditated
-one night, a voice (Gabriel, messenger of Allah) called to him while he was meditating in a cave outside of Mecca
-began to teach that Allah was the one and only god and that all other gods must be abandoned-his followers were called Muslims
-his first followers were his several close friends and his wife , Khadijah
- (year) 622 : moved out of Mecca to Yathrib ( a town 200 mile north of Mecca) after some of his followers were attacked.......this was called the Hijrah
-became a military, religious, and political leader in Yathrib (aka. Medina)
-(year) 630 : Muhammad and 10,000 followers came back to Mecca ------> Mecca's leaders surrendered
-most Meccan's pledged their loyalty to Muhammad and converted to Islam
-Muhammad died 2 years later at age 62



-started by Muhammad
-followers = Muslims
- means "submission to the will of Allah" in Arabic



-followers of Muhammad (Islam)
-means "one who submitted" in Arabic
-viewd Jesus as a prophet, not the Son of God
-refer to the Christians and Jews as "ppl of the book" because each religion has a holy book with teachings similar to those of the Qur'an



-Muslim religious community


The Five Pillars of Islam

5 duties
-Faith : To become a Muslim, a person has to testify that "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad if the Messenger of Allah." This statement is used in Islamic rituals and Muslim daily life

-Prayer : Muslims pray 5 times a day. They must assemble at a mosque or wherever they are and face towards Mecca

-Alms : Muslims meet their social responsibility, taught by Muhammad by giving alms to the poor through a special religious tax

-Fasting : Muslims fast from dawn to sunset during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. A simple meal is eaten at the end of the day. Fasting reminds Muslims that their spiritual needs are greater that their physical needs

-Pilgrimage : All Muslims who are financially and physically able perform the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) at least once. The Pilgrims wear identical garments so that all stand as equals before Allah.



-aka mahsk
-an Islamic house of worship



-money for the poor



-scholar class
-religious teachers apply the words of and deeds of Muhammad to everyday life


the Qur'an

-the holy book of the Muslims
-contains Muhammad's revelations
-written in Arabic
-Muslims consider the Arabic version to be the true word of Allah
-only Arabic can be used in worship
-wherever Muslims carried the Qur'an, Arabic becomes the language of worshipers and scholars
-the Arabic language helped united conquered ppls as Muslim control expanded



-model for proper living



-body of law assembled from the guidence of the Qur'an and Sunna
-system of law that regulates the family life, moral conduct, and business and community life of Muslims
-requires Muslim leaders to extend religious tolerance to Christians and Jews


the Hijrah

-the migration Muhammad and his followers made from Mecca to Yathrib (aka Medina)
-marked a turing point for Muhammad
-Muhammad attracted many more followers


What event in Muhammad's life signaled the beginning of Islam?

-after he talked with Gabriel he soon realized that Allah was speaking through Gabriel
-then he began teaching that Allah is the one and only God and that all other gods must be abandoned
-his followers were called Muslims, who are followers of Islam


Why was Mecca an important city in western Arabia?

-the city of Mecca has an ancient shrine, called the Ka'aba, where Muslim pilgrims worshiped during their religious pilgrimage to Mecca
-at first the Ka'aba had over 360 idols from many tribes and was a place where the Arabs worshiped many gods and spirits
-later, Muhammad destroyed the idols and dedicated the shrine to Allah


Why did Muslims consider Christians and Jews "people of the book?"

-both/all religions have a holy book
with teachings similar to to those of the Qur'an


In what ways are the teachings of the Muslims similar to those of the Christians and Jews?

-to Muslims, Allah is the same God that is worshiped in Christianity and Judaism
-they all believe in a heaven and a hell and a day of judgement
-all have the Old Testament
-they all trace their ancestry to Abraham
-Look at classnotes



-title that means "successor" or "deputy"
-a supreme political and religious leader in Muslim government



-first caliph in 632
-elected by Muslim community
-loyal friend of Muhammad
-one of the 4 "rightly guided" caliphs
-promised the Muslim community he would defend what Muhammad stood for
-invoked jihad, and applied it to encourage and justify the expansion of Islam
-died 634


Who were the 4 "rightly guided" caliphs?

-all had known Muhammad
-used that Qur'an and Muhammad's actions as guids to leadership
-their rule was called a caliphate
-made great progress in their quest to speard Islam



-means "striving"
-can refer to the inner struggle aginst evil
-can also be used in the Qur'an to mean an armed struggle against unbelievers



-2nd caliph
-under him, Muslim armies conqured Syria and lower Egypt, which were a part of the Byzantine Empire
-also took parts of the Sassanid Empire
-he and Ali continued to expand Muslim territory
-by 750, the Muslim Empire stretched 6,000 miles from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River


How were Chrisitians and Jews treated?

-as "ppl of the book" they recieved special consideration
-paid a poll tax each year to keep them from doing military duties
-subject to many restrictions



-3rd caliph
-murdered in 656, which started a civil war where various groups struggle for power



-4th caliph
-Muhammad's cousin and son in-law
-his right to rule was challenged by Muawiya, a governor of Syria
- 661, Ali was assassinated and the elective system of chosing a caliph died with him



-family that came to power after Ali
-moved capital to Damascus---->made controlling conquered territoried easier
-Arabs felt it was too far away from their lands
-Unmayyads abandoned simple caliph life and surrounded themselves with wealth and ceremonies similar to those of non-Muslims
-overthrown by rebel groups in 750



-away from Mecca
-made controlling territoried easier
-leading city during the construction of Baghdad
-cultural center of Islamic learning



-means the "party" of Ali
-thought that the caliph needed to be a descendent of Muhammd
-resisted to Umayyad rule
-members = Shi'ites



-means followers of Muhammd's example
-did not resist the rule of the Umayyads



-rejected the lixurious life of the Umayyads
-pursued a life of poverty and devoted to a spiritual path



-one of the groups (most powerful) who overthrew the Umayyads
-took control of the empire in 750
-murdered the Umayyad family (prince named Abd al-Rahman escaped to Spain and set up an Umayyad caliphate)
-moved capital to Baghdad (central Iraq) in 762
-Abbasids develpoped a stron bureaucracy to conduct the huge empire's affairs
-treasury : kept track of money flow
-a special department managed the business of the army
-diplomats were sent to courts in Europe, Africa, and Asia to conduct imperial business
-Abbasids taxed land, imports and exports, and non-Muslims' wealth
-increased authority by consulting religious leaders
-failed to keep complete political control of the empire
-governed during a prosperous period of Muslim history (riches came from Europe, Asia, and Africa--->build luxurious cities
-Abbisad caliphate lasted from 750-1258



-Muslim ruled region in Spain



--central Iraq
-had key tade routes
-gave the caliph access to trade goods, gold, and information throughout the empire


the Fatimid

-formed by Shi'a Muslims who claimed descent from Muhammad's daughter Fatima
-began in North Africa and spread scross the Red Sea to western Arabia and Syria
-still connected to the Abbasid caliphate through religion, language, trade and economy



-pronounced "check" in Europe
-letters of credit (check)
-could be cashed in
-used my merchants


Claliph al-Mansur

-placed Baghdad (capital) on the west bank of the Tigris River and was near the grand mosque
-Baghdad's population rose to 1 million ppl


the 4 Social Classes

1. Upper Class : inclided those who were Muslims at birth
2. Second Class : converts to Islam
3. Third Class : the "protected ppl", which included Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians
4. Lowest Class : slaves (prisoners of war, all were non-Muslim, frequently performed houshold work or fought in the military)


the Role of Women

- the Qur'an says men and women are equal (as believers)
-had specific rights on marriage, family and property
-Muslim women had more economic and property rights than European, Indian, and Chinese women of the same time period
-Muslim women were expected to submit to men
(if a man wanted to divorce his wife, all he had to do was say "I dismiss thee" three times and the divorece was final in 3 months)
-had access to education and could participate in public life, some became poets and scholars
-all were responsible for raising the children
-rich women took care of the household and servants
-poor women would often work in the fields with her husband
-all women were expected to wear a veil when in public


the House of Wisdom

-opened by Caliph al-Ma'mum
-it was a combination of a library, academy and a translation center
-scholars (researchers, editors, linguists, and technical advisors) of differnt cultures and beliefs worked side by side translating scientific and philosophical texts from Greece, India, Persia, and elswhere into Arabic
-scholars developed standards and techniques for research that are a part of basi methods of today's research
-some Muslim scholars used Greek ideas in fresh, new ways; others created original works of the highest quality


Muslim Literature

-strong tradition in Arabia
-poems celebrated bravery, love, generosity, and hospitality; later, poems about nature and thepleasure of life and love were written
-the Qur'an in the standard for all Arabic literature and poetry
-popular literature : The Thousand and One Nights (look in book, pg. 276)


Muslim Art and Architecture

-Muslims believed that only Allah can create life and that no images of living beings were to be made. So, many artists turned to calligraphy
-some began doing woodwork, glass, ceramics, and textiles
-some buildings reflectedthe culture of the ppl of the area
-Ex: the Great Mosque of Damascus (built on the side of a Christian church)
-in Syrian areas, the architecture included features that were very Roman (baths and heating systems)



-the art of beautiful handwriting (ornamental writing)
-considered to reflet the glory of Allah
-pictoral calligraphy : used letters from the alphabet (Arabic)


Medical Advances

-al-Razi (Persian scholar, greatest physician of the Muslim world): wrote the Comprehensive Book (medical encyclopedia), which drew knowledge from Greek, Syrian, Arabic, and Indian cultures along with his own experience
-he also wrote Treatise on Smallpox and Measles (translated into several languages)
-he believed that patients would recover more quickly if they breathed cleaner air


Advances in Math and Science

-Muslims translated and studies Greek texts
-Muslim scientists preferred to solve problems by conducting experiments in labratories, rather than using logical resoning over uncovered facts through observation (what Greek thinkers, like Aristotle and Pythagoras did)
-Muslim schoalrs believed that math was the basis of all knowledge
-al-Khwarizimi (mathematician born in Baghdad in late 700s) studied the Indian sources rather than Greek
-he wrote a text book explaining "the art of bringing together unknowns to match a known quality"
-he called this technique al-jabr, known today as algebra
-many advances in math related to astronomy; Mulsim observatories charted starts, comets, and planets
-Ibn al-Haytham (brilliant mathematician) made a book called Optics, which revolutionized ideas about vision
-his studies about optics were used in devloping lenses for telescopes and micrscopes



-scholars in the House of Wisdom translated works of Greeks philosphers like Aristotle and Plato into Arabic
-1100s: Ibn Rushd (liven in Cordoba) argued that Greek philosophy ans Islam both have the same goal: to find the truth
-Moses Ben Maimon (Jewish physician and philosopher, born in Cordoba, lived in Egypt) faced strong oppostion for his ideas but later became known as the greatest Jewish philosopher in history
-he made a book called The Guide for the Perplexed, which blended philosphy, religion, and science


The "Ideal Man"

pg 279
-should be of East Persian derivation
-have and Iraqi education
-Hebrew in intellegence
-discipline of Christ in conduct
-as religious as a Greek monk
-a Greek in the individual sciences
-an Indian in the interpretation of all mysteries
-especially a Sufi in his whole spiritual life