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Flashcards in Unit 14: Deck (53):
1

ri-ben

-Chinese word where the name Japan came from
-means "origin of the sun" or "land of the rising sun"

2

archipelgalo

island group

3

Geography of Japan

-4,000 islands that extend 1,200 mile long
-4 largest islands: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku. Kyushu
-lots of mts= only 12% of land is suitable for farming
-late summer/early fall= typhoons
-southern Japan= rain
-natural resources (coal, oil, iron) are in short supply
-1st historic mention of Japan comes from Chinese writings of the first century BC

4

Shinto

-religion
-means "way of the gods"
-based in the respect for the forces of nature and on the worship of ancestors
-believed in kami (divine spirits that dwelled in nature--> beautiful things in nature)

5

Yamato clan

-AD 400s= Yamato clan established itself as leading clan
-they claimed to be descended from the sun goddess Amaterasu
-they lacked real power
-chiefs= called themselves emperors of Japan but they did not control the entire country
-when clans fought, the winning clan claimed control of the emperor and ruled in the emperor's name

6

Buddhism

-brought by Korean travelers
-mis 700s= Japanese imperial court accepted Buddhism in Japan
-ppl didn't give up shinto rituals
- but Buddhist rituals became Shinto rituals and some Shinto god and goddesses were worshiped in Buddhist temples

7

Cultural Borrowing from China

-Japanese adopted the Chinese system of writing
-Japanese artists painted landscapes in the Chinese manner
-they followed Chinese styles in the simple arts of everyday living (cooking, gardening, drinking tea, hairdressing)
-Japan modeled its government in China's (strong central gov)
-Shotoku tried to introduce China's civil service system but Japan continued to be a country where a few great families held power

8

Prince Shotoku

-served as a regent for his aunt (empress Suiko)
-most influential convert to Buddhism
-he sent the first 3 missions to China (study Chinese civilization)

9

regent

someone who rules when a monarch is absent, ill, or too young to rule

10

Heian Period

-highly refined court society
-rules dictated every aspect of court life (length of swords, color of official robes, forms of address, number of skirts a woman wore
-etiquette was very important
-FUJIWARA CLAN
-The Tale of Genji (world's first novel)
-strong central gov---> soon declined due to the power of great landowners and clan chiefs (independent/local rulers)

11

samurai

-loyal warriors to lords
-means "one who serves"

12

Bushido

-unwritten demanding code of behavior
-what samurai lived by
-They were expected to show reckless courage, reverence for the gods, fairness, and generosity toward those weaker than himself

13

shogun

-“supreme general of the emperor’s army”
-had the powers of a military dictator
-they ruled through puppet emperors until 1869 (headquarters= Kamakura, emperor ruled from Kyoto)
-Kamakura shoguns were strong enough to turn back the 2 naval invasions sent by Kublai Khan
-However, this drained the shogun’s treasury (samurai were bitter when the government failed to pay them)
-This caused the Kamakura shogun to lose prestige and power
-The samurai attached themselves more closely to their lords, who fought one another like they had fought the Mongols

14

Motives behind European Exploration

-For "God, Glory and Gold"
1. desire for more wealth from the trade of spices and other luxury goods
-during the Crusades, Europeans were introduced to these spices and other goods
-After the Crusades, Europeans demanded so many spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, pepper), the merchants could charge more money for them and therefore make bigger profits
-needed to find a seas route directly to Asia (didn't want to pay the Italians, who bought the goods from the Muslims and sold them at a hight price (profit), b/c it would cut into their own profits)
2. wanted to spread Christianity
-after the Crusades, there were more conflicting feelings between the Muslims and Christians
-Bernal Diaz del Castillo (spanish explorer)= hoped to Christianize the ppls in Asia and obtain goods from them
3. Glory

15

European sailing technology

-European ships could not sail against the wind
-They adopted the triangular sail from the Arabs, which allowed the ships to sail against the wind
-the Europeans used the astrolabe (used to calculate latitude and longitude, see how far north/south of the equator the ship was, or measure the height of the stars above the horizon), which was perfected by the Muslims
-they used the Chinese invention of the magnetic compass to more accurately track direction.

16

Prince Henry

-son of Portugal's king
-Portugal's most enthusiastic supporter of exploration
-wanted to find the source of the exotic spices and treasure (gold, silver, jewels) in the East
-wanted to spread Christianity
-1419= founded a navigation school on the southwestern coast of Portugal, where mapmakers, instrument makers, shipbuilders, scientists, and sea captains gathered to perfect their trade
-1460= died

17

Bartolomeu Dias

-Portuguese captain
-1488= sailed down the coast of Africa until they reached the tip
-a storm caused them to be blown to the other side of the tip
-they explored and considered sailing to India but the crew was exhausted and were running low on food supplies
-they returned home

18

Vasco da Gama

-Portuguese explorer
-1497= began exploring the east African coast
-1498= reached the port of Calicut
-Da Gama and his crew found so many spices, rare silks, and precious gems in the store in Calicut.
-They filled their ships with spices (pepper, cinnamon) and brought it back to Portugal.
-This was all worth 60 times the cost of the voyage itself.
-In later years, many countries began competing for trade routes to the East.

19

Christopher Columbus

-Italian sea captain
-Spain financed a voyage to find a route to Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean
-reached the Caribbean but thought he reached the Eat Indies
-theis voyage opened a way for European colonization of the Americas
-increased tensions between Spain and Potugal

20

The Treaty of Tordesillas

-an agreement between Spain and Protugal which they agreed to honor the imaginary line that went through the Atlantic Ocean (north to south)
-After Columbus "reached asia" the Portuguese and Spanish fought over the land.
-1493= Pope Alexander VI drew and imaginary linegiving some lands to Spain and the others to Portugal
-line of Demarcation= lands west of the line, Spain's
-east of line= Portugal, most of the Americas
-Portugal complained that it gave too much to Spain
-THEN the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed

21

Portugal's Trading Empire

-thoughout the Indian Ocean
-took control over the spice trade from Muslim merchants
1514= built a fort on Hormuz, which established control of the Straits of Hormuz connecting the Persian Gulf and Arabian sea and helped stop Muslim traders fro reaching India
-1510= Portuguese captureed Goa
-Afonso de Albuquerque= stressed Portugals desire to crush Muslim-Italian domination over Asia trade but they did not
-merchant brough back goods from Asia ata bout 1/5 of what they cost when purchased throught the Arabs and Italians
-more Europeans could afford these items
-their success attracted attention from Spain, who wanted to estaclish their own trade empires in the East (Ferdinand Magellan), and Dutch

22

Dutch East India Company

-founded by the Dutch
-had the power to mint money, make treaties, and raise own armies
-it wa richer and more powerful than England's company
Dutch Republic= Netherlands
-owned the largest fleet in the world (20,000 vessels), which was used to take control of the trade in the Asia region from the English
-they eventually drove out the English and established their dominance over the region
-HQ= Batavia, islanf of Java
-they expanded west
-Netherland capital= Amsterdam
-Dutch seized Malacca and Spice Islands from Protugal
-1700= Dutch ruled Indonessia and had trading posts in several Asian countries
-the controlled the Cape of Good Hope (southern tip of Aftica), which was used as a resupply stop

23

British and French traders

-English East India Company= focused on establishing outpost in India (successful in trading cloth with India)
-France made its own east india company but it was attacked by the Dutch; they established an oupost in India in the 1720s but it didn't show profit

24

Ming Dynasty

-China became the dominant power in Asia
-1368-1644
-Koreas paid tributes
-200 yrs
-higher taxes, corrupt officials, a gov that was out of money
-higher tases, bad harvest

25

Hongwu

-peasant's son
-commanded a rebel army that drove the Mongols out of Chinain 1368
-first Ming emperor
-ruled from Yuan capital of Nanjing in the south
-began reforms designed to restore agricultural lands devestated by war, erase all past of Mongols, and promote Chians's power and prosperity
-thsi increase rice production
-imporved irrigation
-he sncourged ffish famring and growing commercial crops (cotton, sugar cane)
-he respected traditions and institutions to bring stablility to China
-encouraged Confucian moral standards
-mproved imperial admin---> retored the merit-based civil service examination
-became ruthless tyrant

26

Yonglo

-moved royal court to Beijing
-curious about outside world
-launched the first 7 voyages of exploration
-Voyages= BIG; 40-300 ships each trip (fighting ships, treasure ships= 400 ft long, storage vessels)

27

Zheng He

-Chinese Muslim Admiral
-ships= bigger than European ships
-ships had carpenters, soldiers, sailors, interpreters, accountants, doctors, and religious leaders (more than 27,000 people)
-he distributed gifts (silver,silk) to show Chinese superiority
-went to more than 16 countries
-1433= China when into isolation b/c they thought they were wasting resources by giving away gifts

28

Ming Relations with Foreign Countries

-1500s= trade policies refelcted China's isolation
-only gov was allowed to conduct trade and only though 3 local ports (Canton, Macao, Ningbo)
-trade flourished up and down the coast
-profit-minded merchants smuggled cargos of silk, porcelain, and other valuable goods
-demand for Chinese goods had a ripple effect on the economy
-industries grew (silk-making, ceramics)
-manufacturing and commerce increased
-Christian misionaries brough Christianity and knowledge of European traners into China

29

Manchus

-lived northeast of the Great Wall in Manchuria
-1644= invaded China and the Ming Dynasty collapsed
-seized Beijing
-leader became China's new emperor
-they upheld China's traditional Confucian beliefs and social structures
-made the country's frontiers safe and restored China's prosperity

30

Qing Dynasy

-Manchus took a Chinese name for their dynasty
-ruled for 260 yrs
-China= Middle Kingdom
-expanded China's borders to include Taiwan, Chinese central Asia, Mongolia, and Tibet
-at first there were rebellions
-then the Manchus slowly earned respect
-irrigation and fertilizer increased

31

Kangxi

-1661= emperor of Qing Dynasty
-ruled for 60 yrs
- reduced gov expenses; lowered taxes
-gained support of intellectuals by offering them gov positions
-enjoyed the company of Jesuits at court, who told him about developments in science, medicine, and math in Europe

32

Qian-long

-Kangxi's grandson
-ruled from 1736-1795
-under him, China reached it's greatest size and prosperity
-industrious
-worked on the empire's problems (armed nomads on its borders and the expanding presence of european missionaries and merchants in China

33

kowtow

-kneeling in front of the emperor
-touch head to the grounf 9 times
-respect to emperor

34

Do you think Lord George Macartney should have kowtowed to Emperor Qian-long? Why?

-Great Britain wanted to increase trade in China but did not like China's restrictions (trading only at special ports and pay tribute)
-1763=Lord George Macartney delivered a letter from King George II to Qian-long, which asked for a better trade arrangement including Chinese acceptance of British manufactured goods
-Macartney refused to kowtow
-if he did, the Chinese might have been more open to their ideas

35

Korea Under Manchus

-1636= conquered by Manchus= vassal state
-independent
-Koreans organized their gov according to Confucian principles
-adopted Chinese technology, culture, and policy of isolation
-1590s Japanese attack and Manchu invasion provoked strong feelings of nationalism in the Korean ppls

36

Dream of the Red Chamber, By Cao Zhan

-examines upper-class Manchus society in 1700s

37

tribute

-payment by one counrty to another to acknowledge its submission

38

Matteo Ricci

-Italian Jesuit
-fist missionary to ahve an empact
-gained special favor at the Ming court through his intelligen and fluency in Chinese

39

Why did China not become highly industrialized?

1. the idea of commerce offended China's Confucian beliefs
2. Chinese economic policies traditionally favored agriculture. Taxes on agriculture stayed low. Taxes on manufacturing and trade increased

40

familes and roles of women

QING DYNASTY
-farmers grew rice ad new crops (corn, sweet potatoes)
-food production increased= nutrition improved, families expanded
-favored sons over daughters
-sons= performed vital religious rituals; raise family under parents's roof; dominated household and wives
-women= not valued (some female infants were killed); worked in the fields; supervised children's education and managed the family's finances; most were forced to remain secluded in their homes; some found outside jobs like working as midwives or textile workers

41

Sengoku, or "Warring States" period

-1467-1568
-powerful samurai seized control of old feudal states
-offered peasants and other protection in return for their loyalty

42

daimyo

-warrior chieftains
-ones who took control of feudal states
-means "great name"
-emperor at Kyoto was a figurehead (just a leadership title, no actual power) ; the daimyo help real power and secured the country

43

Oda Nobunaga

-one brutal and ambitious daimyo
-defeated his rivals and seized the imperial capital (Kyoto) in 1568
- motto= "Rule the empire by force"
-killed enemies= daimyo and wealthy Buddhist monasteries
-1575= him and 3,000 soldiers (armed with muskets) crushed and enemy force of samurai
-first time firearms were used effectively in battle in Japan
-he was not able to unify Japan
-committed "seppuku" (ritual suicide of a samurai) in 1582 whe one fo his own generals tuened on him

44

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

-Nobunaga's best general
-continued him mission
-he set out to destroy the daimyo that remained hostile
-1590= he controlled most of the country (combined a brute force with shrewd political alliances)
-wanted to conquer China
- 1592= invaded Korea
-began a long campaign against Koreans and Ming Chinese allies
-1598= died, troops withdrew form Korea

45

Tokugawa Ieyasu

-one of Hideyoshi's strongest daimyo allies
- completed the unification of Japan
-1600= he defeated his rivals at the Battle of Sekigahara
-this victory earned him the loyalty of daimyo throughout Japan
-moved capital to Edo (Tokyo)= small fishing village, Japan's power base
-1603= became the sole ruler of Japan (shogun)
-required daimyo to spend every other yr in the capital to keep them from rebelling
-"alternate attendance policy"= major step toward restoring centralized gov to Japan
-had to leave families as hostages in Edo when the retuned to their land
-founded Tokugawa Shogunate
-died 1616
-advised son (Hidetada) to "Take care of the people" and to "strive to be virtuous"...."Never neglect to protect the country

46

Tokugawa Shogunate

-founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu
-this held power until 1867
-Ieyasu advised son (Hidetada) to "Take care of the people" and to "strive to be virtuous"...."Never neglect to protect the country

47

Society in Tokugawa Japan

-Structured Society......
1. emperor= top rank but only a figurehead
2. shogun= actual ruler
3. daimyo
4. samurai
5. peasants= made up 4/5 of population, artisans
6. merchants= bottom but gradually became more important as Japanese economy expanded
-Confucian values influenced idea ideas about society
-Confucius= ideal society depended on agriculture, not commerce
-famers made ideal citizens, not merchants
-peasant farmers bore the main tax burden and faced more difficulties than any other class
-many abandoned farm life and headed for expanded towns and cities
-they mixed with samurai, artisans, and merchants
-society= became rural, rather than urban
-rise of commercial centers= increased employment oppotunities for women
-women found jobs in entertainment, textile manufaturing, and publishing
-majoriity of women led sheltered and restricted lives as peasnat wives (worked in fields, managed the household, cared for childre, obeyed husband withou country

48

Culture Under the Tokugawa Shogunate

-traditional culture continued to thrive
-samuria attended ceremonial noh dramas (baed on tragic themes)
-read tales of ancient warriors and their courage in battle
-new styles of literature, drama, and art
-haiku
-kabuki

49

haiku

-5-7-5-syllable. 3-line verse poetry
-presents images rather than ideas
-Matsuo Basho= greatest haiku poet

50

kabuki theater

-where actors in elaborate costumes, using music, dance, and mime, performed skits about modern life

51

Japan Encounters Europeans

-1543= Japanese first encounter Europeans
-Portuguese sailors/ merchants, who wanted to involved themselves in Japan's trade with China and Southeast Asia came to Japan
- they brough clocks, eyeglasses, tabacco, firearms.......
-Japanese= eaget to expand markets
-daimyo welcomed strangers
-interested in Portuguese muskets and cannons (wantd advantage overhis rivals
-traditional weapon= sword; musket= easier to win against samurai with swords
-peasants were recruited by the daimyoto use muskets\
-cannons= huge impact;
-daimyo had to build fortified castles that could withstand cannonballls
-castes= attracted merchants, atisans.......
-Edo (Tokyo), Osaka, Himeji, Nagoya

52

Christian Missionaries in Japan

-1549=Christian missionaries began coming to Japan
-they brough muskets
-Jesuits, Franciscans, Dominicans,............
-Frncis Xavier= Jesuit; led first mission to Japan; baptized about 100 convertsbefore he left Japan
- by 1600= other European missionaries had converted 300,000 Japanese to Christianity
-Ieyasu banned Christianity
-rebellion= 30,000 peasants, led by samurai
-shosguns then believed the Christianity was the root of rebellion
-European missionaries were killed or driven out of Japan
-All Japanese were forced to demonstate faithfulness to some branch of Buddhism

53

"closed country policy"

-limited contancts woth Europeans
-one port (Nagasaki) was open to traders
-partially bc of the persecution of Chritians
-attempt to control foreign ideas
-only Dutch and Chinese merchants were allowed into the port