Unit 7: After Rome: Constantinople, Baghdad, and Kiev Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 7: After Rome: Constantinople, Baghdad, and Kiev Deck (59):


-named after emperor Constantine
-made the new capital in A.D. 303c



-high-ranking Byzantine nobleman
-succeed his uncle to the throne of the Eastern Empire in 527 to 565
-533 = sent Belisarius to recover North Africa from the invading Germanic tribes
-his armies won nearly all of Italy and Parts of Spain
-set up a panel of legal experts to regulate Byzantium's increasingly complex society
-they combed through 400 years of Roman law and created the Justinian Code
-considered as a new Caesar
-built churches, baths, aqueducts, law courts, schools, and hospitals; rebuilt Constantinople from it's crumbling fortifications; hired workers to build a 14-mile wall along Constantinople's coastline; enlarged his palace into a vast complex
-rebuilt the Hagia Sophia
-after his wife, Theodora, died, he was so depressed that he didn't pass any major laws for the rest of his reign
-died in 565



-Justinian's best general
-attacked Rome and seized it from the Ostrogoths


Byzantine emperors

-like the old Caesars
-headed the state and church
-appointed and dismissed bishops at will
-their politics were brutal and often deadly
-always at risk of assassination
-29 Byzantine emperors died violently and 13 abandoned the throne to live in monasteries (out of 88)


the Justinian Code

-decided legal questions that regulated whole areas of Byzantine life (marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, women's rights, criminal justice)
-served the Byzantine Empire for 900 yrs
-consisted of 4 works.........
1. The Code contained 5,000 Roman laws that were still considered useful for the Byzantine Empire
2. The Digest quoted and summarized the opinions of Rome's greatest legal thinkers about the laws (50 volumes)
3. The Institutes was a textbook that told law students how to use the law
4. The Novellae (New Laws) presented legislation pass after 534.


Hagia Sophia

-means "Holy Wisdom" in Greek
-Church of the Holy Wisdom
-destroyed during riots in Constantinople
-rebuilt by Justinian
-many visited
-dome = 182 ft tall
-visitors hailed it as the greatest church in the Christian world (for 1,000 yrs)
-converted to a mosque (put in minarets)


Preservation of the Greco-Roman Culture

-Byzantine families valued education (classical learning)
-basic courses for byzantine students focused on Greek and Latin grammar, and philosophy
-the classics of Greek and Roman literature survived in textbooks
-Students memorized Homer, learned geometry form Euclid, history from Herodotus, and medicine from Galen
-kept latin (read latin and kept latin docs) but they spoke greek
-architecture = looked like Roman architecture
-old Roman laws survived and were still used
-still have emperors (all powerful)
-dress silimalr to Romans
-entertainment (chariot racing)



"Middle Way"
-main street running through Constantinople
-merchant stalls lined it and filled the sides of the streets
-products from Asia, Africa, and Europe passed though these stalls
-had food stands
-acrobats and street musicians performed



-from the Greeks words "horse" and racecourse"
-where citizens enjoyed free entertainment
-offered wild chariot races and performance acts
-held 60,000 spectators
-fans of different teams formed rowdy gangs maned for their colors worn by their heroes


the Nika Rebellion

-the 2 fan groups (blue & green --> chariot racers) sparked this rebellion
-yelled "Nika!"meaning "victory"
-both sides were angry with the government and felt that city officials had been to severe in putting down a previous riot of Hippodrome fans
-didn't like the taxation--> angry
-they packed the Hippodrome and demanded the overthrow of Justinian
-Belisarius broke in with his troops and killed about 30,000 rebels
-Justinian almost ran away but Theodora urged his to say (pg 303, theodora's speech to Justinian)



-was an actress (stipper/exotic dancer)
-she is the reason why Justinian survived
-Justinian's wife and steely advisor (married in 525)
-had immense power because she was his advisor
-met with foreign envoys, wrote to foreign leaders, passed laws, and built churches
-during one political crisis, she confiscated the property of general Belisarius
-743 = restored icons to Eastern Churches
-died in 548


the bubonic plague

-first crisis in the Byzantine Empire (before Justinian's death)
-probably arrived from India in ships infested with rats
-542= the worst year of the plague, 10,000 ppl were dying every day
-faded in 700
-destroyed a huge percentage of the Byzantine population


Attacks from the East and West

-lombards overran Justinian's conquests in the west
-Avars, Slavs, and Bulgars made frequent raids on the northern borders
-Sassanid Persians attacked in the east
-626 = the Persians and Avars struck Constantinople against itself
-674 and 717 = Arab armies attacked Constantinople
-between 860 and 1043 = Russians attempted invasions of Constantinople 3 times
-11th century = Turks took over the Muslim world and fought their way slowly into Byzantine territory
-1350 = the Byzantine Empire shrank under foreign attacks and eventually reduced to the tip Anatolia and a strip of Balkans
-1453 = Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks


What various methods did the Byzantines use to hold off their enemies?

-they used bribes, diplomacy, political marriages, and military power
-7th century= Emperor Heraclius reorganized the empire along military lines
-provinces became themes
-each theme was run by a general who reported directly to the emperor
-these strategies didn't last ofrever



military district


Saint Basil

-one of the early Church fathers
-357 = wrote the rules for the life of the monks
-look on pg 304



leading bishop (of the East)
-bowed to the emperor


Saint John Chrysostom

-bishop of Constantinople from 398-404
-leading bishop of the East (patriarch)



religious images used by Eastern Christians to aid their devotions


Emperor Leo III

-730 = banned the use of icons
-he viewed the use of icons as idol worship
-ppl responded with riots and the clergy rebelled
-excommunicated by the pope



outcasted from the Church


Cryllic alphabet

-alphabet for the writing of Slavic languages, including Russian
-invented by Saint Methodius and Saint Cyril


Eastern and Western churches

-East = the Orthodox Church (emperor = leader; had a period where icons were banned
-West = the Roman Catholic Church (used icons; pope = leader)
-1050 = schism


Saint Methodius and Saint Cyril

-2 most successful Eastern missionaries
-worked among the Slavs in the 9th century
-invented the alphabet for the Slavic languages
-with an alphabet, Slavs will be able to read the Bible in their own tongues



-aka: Rus
-most likey the Vikings
-settling among Slavs



-absorbed Greek Byzantine ways
invited Vikinh chief Rurik to be king
-862 = he founded Norgorod (Russia's first important city)
-880 = Oleg (nobleman from Novgorod) moved south to Kiev



-Vikings could sail to Constantinopleand trade
-small, ruled by prince


Princess Olga

-memeber of Kievan nobility
-957 = converted to Christianity at Constantinople
-governed Kiev (945 - 964)
-her son resisted Christianity
-her grandson considered converting to Christianity



-Olga's grandson
-sent out teams to observe the major religions of the times
-Islam, Judaism, Western Christianity = meh, so so
-Byzantium = beautiful, WOW
-converted to Byzantine Christianity along with his subjects
-989 = a babtism of all the citizens in Kiev was held in the Dnieper River
-appreciated the Byzantine idea of the emperor as the supreme ruler of the Church (close link btween Church and state)
-expanded Kiev west into Poland and north almost to the Baltic Sea


Yaroslav the Wise

-Valdimir's son
-1019 = came to throne
-led Kiev to greater glory
-married off sisters and daughters to kings and princes of Western Europe (alliances)
-built the first lobrary in Kiev
-under his rule Christianity prospered
-by the 12th century = Kiev was home to 400 churches
-divided his kingdom among his sons = sons fought for territory
-this brought more struggles, including the Crusades (Christians and Muslims clash/fight for control of the Holy Lands in the Middle East that began in 1095)


The Mongols

-nomads fron central Asia
-forced to move out by economic or military pressures (maybe)
-their savage killing anf burning won them a reputation for ruthless brutality
-1240 = attacked Kiev, all slaughtered
-after the fall of Kiev, the Mongols ruled all of southern Russian for 200 yrs


Genghis Khan

-one of the most feared marriors of all time
-he and his successors shaped the biggest land empire in history
-grandson = Batu Khan (led the attack on Kiev)


The Mongol Empire

-official name = "Khanate of the Golden Horde" (Kingdon of the Golden Camp) -->mongolian words
-stetched from Yellow sea to the Baltic Sea and from the Himilayas to northern Russia


Mongol rule in Russia

-Russians could follow thier usual customs as long as they didn't rebel
-the Mongols tolerated all the religions
-the Church acted as a mediator between the Russian ppl and the Mongol rulers
-Russian ppl had to have absolute obedience to the Mongols and have to pay tribute
-isolated the Russians from Western Europe (they had little access to new ideas and inventions)






mongol word for "ruler"


Alexander Nevsky

-Norvgorod's prince and military hero
-advised his fellow princes to cooperate with the Mongol rulers



-first founded in 1100s
-1156 = it was a crude village protected by a log wall
-located near 3 rivers: the Volga, Dneiper, and Don
-a prince of Moscow who could gain control of the 3 rivers could control nearly all of European Russi and perhaps challenge the Mongols


Prince Ivan I

-prince of Moscow
-helped to crush a Russian revolt against Mongol rule
-earned the gratitude of the Mongols adn given the title of "Grand Price"
-he was also made tax collector of all the Slavic lands they had conqured
-became the most powerful and wealthiest of all Russian princes
-kown as "Ivan Moneybag"
-convinced the Patriarch of Kiev (leading bishop of eastern Europe) to move to Moscow
-this imporovedthe city's pretige and gave Moscow's princes a powerful ally: the Church
-he and his successors used strategies to enlarge thier territory (land purchases, wars, trickery, and shrewd marriages)


Ivan III

-ruled Russian state for 43 yrs
-everyone viewed him as cold and ruthless (he was critisized)
-father = Grand Prince Vasali II was imprisoned and blonded by oppositon forces
-after becoming prince of Moscow, he challenged Mongol rule
-took the name czar
-publicaly claimed his intent to makew Russia the "Third Rome"
-1480 = he refused to pay his tribute to the Mongols
-Russians and Mongols faced each other at the Ugra River (150 miles southwest of Moscow) but n one fought
-enventually, they turned around and went home
-Russians makred this as thier liberation from Mongol rule
-After this, the czarsw could openly pursue an empire



-Russian version of Caesar



-powerful but constantly struggled to maintain control of their empire
-after setting up their capital in Baghdad, they lost other parts of the empire (Morocco = 788, Tuisia = 800, regions in Persia = 809, Egypt = 868)
-took note of the Turkish military skills
-bought Turkish children to raise as slaves, train as soldiers, and employ as bodyguards
-prized slaves for skill and loyalty



-nomads that rode horses over vast plains
-herded goats and sheep, lived in tets, used 2 humped camels to carry goods



-Turkish military salves
-became a powerful force in the Abbasid Empire


Seljuk Turks

-one of the migrating Turkish groups, that weakened the Abbasid Empire
-named after the family that led them
-adopted Islam
-1055 = attacked + captured Baghdad from Persians
-1071 (the Battle of Manzikert) = Turkish forces crushed the Byzantine defenders
-10 yrs = Seljuks occupied most of Anatolia (eastern flank of Byzantium)
-this brought Turks closer to Constantinople, than the Arabs or Persians had ever come
-treated Persians well
-seeked cultural ans religious guidance from the Persians to learn about Islam and stuff because they were illiterate
-adopted Persian language as the laguage of culture, and feature of the Persian way of life


Toghril Beg

-founder of Seljuk Empire
-chose the Persian city of Isfahan as the capital of his kingdom



prime minister


Malik Shah

-thought to be the greatest Seljuk sultan
-built the great mosque Masjid-i-Jame in Isfahan and many others
-beautified Isfahan
-treated intellectuals and artists with kindness (like Omar Khayyam)
-capable of great cruelty
-when his brother Takash revolted against him, he blinded him as a punishment
-died suddenly at 37 yrs old, possible poisoned by his wife



-Persian word for king
-what Sejuk rulers were called


Nizam al-Mulk

- Persian who served as a vizier


Jalaludin Rumi

-Persian writer
-mystical Islamic poet
-often wrote of his desire to achieve a personal experience with God


Omar Khayyam

-wrote the Rubaiyat (a collection of poems describing the poet's love of life's pleasures)
-created a more acurate calender for Malik


the Crusades

-series of military campaigns (the West vs. the Turks & other Muslims) for control of the Holy Land of the Middle East


Pope Urban II

-launched the First Crusade in 1095
-called on Christmas to drive the Turks out of Anatolia and recover Jersalem from Muslim rule
-armies from Western Europe poured though Constantinople and on to Palestine
-1099 = the Crusaders captured Jerusalem and massacred its Jewish and Muslim inhabitants
-they established a Latin Christian kingdom that lasted a century



-Kurdish captain
-signed a truce with King Richard I, which gave Jerusalem to the Muslims but granted Western pilgrims access to Christian holy places


King Richard I

- king of England
-signed truce with Saladin



-Genghis Khan's grandson
-1258 = led his troops to the outskirts of Baghdad, which (by this time) is surrounded bya defensive wall
-took Baghdad
-burned the caliph's palace
-killed tens of thousands of ppl
-wrapped the caliph in a carpet and had horses trample him to his death


the Schism of 1054

-the pope and the partiarch excommunicated each other in a dipute over a religious doctrine
-After, Christianity officially slipt between the Roman Catholic Church (West) and the Orthodox Church (East)