Flashcards in Unit 10: Behavioral, Cognitive, Systemic, Brief, And Crisis Theories Of Counselling Deck (67):
Describe the view of human nature with behavioural therapy
Concentrate on behavioural processes, those processes closely associated with overt behaviour.
Focuses on the here and now as opposed to the then and there of behaviour.
An assumption that all behaviour is learned, whether it be adaptive or maladaptive.
A belief that learning can be effective in changing maladaptive behaviour.
A focus on setting up well-defined therapy goals with clients.
A rejection of the idea that the human personality is composed of treats.
Stress the importance of obtaining empirical evidence and scientific support for any techniques used. Those who embrace the social-cognitive form of learning, stress that people acquire new knowledge and behaviour by observing other people and events without engaging in the behaviour themselves and without any direct consequences to themselves.
Describe the role of the counsellor in behavioural therapy
The counsellor is active in counselling sessions in helping the client learn, unlearn, or relearn specific ways of behaving. The counsellor function as a consultant, teacher, advisor, reinforcer, and facilitator and may even instructor supervise support people in the clients environment who are assisting in the change process.
Describe the goals of behavioural therapy
Want to help clients make good adjustments to life circumstances and achieve personal and professional objectives. The focus is on modifying or illuminating the maladaptive behaviours that client displayed, while helping them acquire healthy, constructive ways of acting
A technique in behavioural therapy that uses those events that, when they follow a behavior, increase the probability of the behaviour repeating. May be either positive or negative
Use of reinforcers
A technique used in behavioural therapy in which behaviour is learned gradually in steps through successive approximations. When clients are learning new skills, counsellors may break down behaviour into manageable units
A technique used in behavioural therapy that involves the display of behaviours in environments outside where they were originally learned. It indicates that transference into another setting has occurred
A technique used in behavioural therapy that means the elimination of a behaviour because of a withdrawal of its reinforcement. Few individuals will continue doing something that is not rewarding
Technique used in behavioural therapy that involves presenting an aversive stimulus to a situation to suppress or eliminate a behaviour
A technique used in behavioural therapy that is designed to help clients overcome anxiety in particular situations. A client is asked to describe a situation that causes anxiety and then to rank the situation and related events on a hierarchical scale from those aspects that cause no concern to those that are most troublesome. The counsellor teaches the client to relax physically and mentally while reviewing the hierarchy starting with low anxiety items until they're able to remain calm even when thinking about or imagining the event that used to create the most anxiety.
What are two strengths and two limitations of the behavioural approach
Strengths: deals directly with symptoms. Because most clients seek help for specific problems, counsellors who work directly with symptoms are often able to assist them immediately.
Offers numerous techniques for counsellors to use
Supported by good research
Limitations: does not deal with the total person, just explicit behaviour.
Best demonstrated under controlled conditions that may be difficult to replicate in normal counselling situations.
Does not consider developmental stages
Thoughts, beliefs, and internal images that people have about events in their lives
These theories focus on mental processes and their influences on mental health and behavior. The premise is that how people think largely determines how they feel and behave
Cognitive counselling theories
What is the view of human nature for rational emotive behavioural therapy REBT
Believe that people have both self-interest and social interest and assumes that people are inherently rational and irrational, sensible and crazy. This duality is biologically inherent and perpetuated unless a new way of thinking is learned.
People have within themselves the means to control their thoughts, feelings, and actions, but they must first realize what they are telling themselves, their self talk, to gain command of their lives. This is a matter of personal, conscious awareness. The unconscious mind is not included
What is the role of the counsellor in REBT
Counsellors are active and direct. They are instructors who teach and correct the clients cognitions. They must listen carefully for a logical or faulty statements from their clients and change beliefs. They need to be bright, knowledgeable, empathetic, respectful, genuine, concrete, persistent, scientific, interested in helping others, and users themselves of the therapy
What are the goals in rational emotive behavioural therapy?
Helping people realize that they can live more rational and productive lives. Helps clients stop making demands and becoming upset do you catastrophizing. Helping them avoid having more of an emotional response to an event that is warranted.
Helps people learn how to recognize an emotional anatomy, to learn how feelings are attached to thoughts.
Also encourages clients to be more tolerant of themselves and others and urges them to achieve personal goals
A primary technique used in REBT that involves having clients learn the basic ideas of REBT and understand how thoughts are linked with emotions and behaviors. This procedure is directive and is generally known as rational emotive education
A technique primary to REBT in which thoughts and beliefs are challenged and takes one of three forms, cognitive, imaginal, and behavioural
In rational emotive behavioural therapy, involves the use of direct questions, logical reasoning, and persuasion
In REBT, this involves using a clients ability to imagine and employs a technique known as rational emotive imagery
In REBT, this involves behaving in a way that is the opposite of the clients usual way, including roll-plane and the completion of a homework assignment in which a client actually does activities previously thought impossible to do. May take the form of bibliotherapy, in which clients read self-help books
What are two strengths and two weaknesses of REBT?
Strengths: is clear, easily learned, and effective.
Can be easily combined with other behavioural techniques to help client more fully experience what they're learning.
Relatively short term and clients may continue to use the approach on a self-help basis
Limitations: cannot be used effectively with individuals who have mental problems or limitations, such as schizophrenics and those with severe thought disorders
The approach is direct, and the potential for the counsellor being overzealous and not as therapeutic as would be ideal is a real possibility
What is the view of human nature for reality therapy?
Focussed on consciousness: human beings operate on a conscious level, they are not driven by unconscious forces or instincts.
Everyone has a health/growth force manifested on two levels: the physical and the psychological. Physically, there is the need to obtain life-sustaining the set cities such as food, water, and shelter and use them. The psychological needs include the need for identity, the development of A psychologically healthy sense of self. Identity needs are met by being accepted as a person by others.
Human learning is a life-long process based on choice. If individuals do not learn something early in life, they can choose to learn it later and in the process may change their identity and the way they behave
What is the role of the counsellor in reality therapy?
Serves primarily as a teacher and model, accepting the client in a warm, involved way, and creating an environment in which counselling can take place.
The counsellor immediately seeks to build a relationship with the client by developing trust to friendliness, firmness, and fairness. There is an emphasis on choice, on what the client chooses to do. Their interaction focusses on behaviours that the client would like to change and ways to go about making these desires a reality. It emphasizes positive, constructive actions
What are the goals of reality therapy?
To help clients become psychologically strong and rational and realize they have choices in the ways they treat themselves and others.
Help clients clarify what they want in life. Is the clients responsibility to choose behaviours that fulfil personal needs.
Help the client formulate a realistic plan to achieve personal needs and wishes.
Have the counsellor become involved with the client in a meaningful relationship.
To focus on behaviour and the present.
Aims to eliminate punishment and excuses from the clients life.
Describe the techniques used in reality therapy
Uses action-oriented techniques that help clients realize they have choices and how they respond to events and people and that others do not control them any more than they control others.
Some effective techniques include teaching, employing humor, confronting, role-playing, offering feedback, formulating specific plans, and composing contracts.
Uses the W DET system as a way of helping counsellors and clients make progress and employ techniques: W stands for wants, the counsellor find out what clients want and what they have been doing and in turn, share their wants for and perceptions of the clients situations The D involves clients further exploring the direction of their lives. East End for a valuation where clients are helped to evaluate their behaviours and how responsible their personal behaviours are. P stands for plan, a client concentrate on making a plan for changing behaviours which stresses actions that the client will take, not behaviours that he or she will eliminate
Describe two strengths and two limitations of reality therapy
Strengths: versatile and can be applied to many different populations. Especially appropriate in the treatment of conduct disorders, substance-abuse disorders, impulse control disorders, personality disorders, and antisocial behaviour.
The approach is concrete, both counsellor and client are able to assess how much progress is being made.
Limitations: emphasizes the here and now of behavior so much that it sometimes ignores other concepts, such as the unconscious and personal history.
Susceptible to becoming overly moralistic.
Depends on verbal interaction and has limitations and helping clients who cannot adequately express their needs, options, and plans
What is the view of human nature in cognitive therapy?
Perception and experience are active processes that involve both inspected and introspective data. How a person appraises a situation is generally evident in his cognitions. Dysfunctional behaviour is caused by dysfunctional thinking. If beliefs do not change, there is no improvement in a person's behaviours or symptoms, but if beliefs change, symptoms and behaviours change
What is the role of the counsellor in cognitive therapy?
The counsellor is active, working with the client to make covert thoughts more overt
What are the goals of cognitive therapy?
Examining and modifying unexamined and negative thoughts. Especially focus on excessive cognitive distortion's, such as all-or-nothing thinking, negative prediction, overgeneralization, labelling of oneself, self-criticism, and personalization.
Also work with clients on overcoming their lack of motivation which is often linked with the tendency that clients have to view problems as insurmountable
Describe techniques associated with cognitive therapy
Challenging the way individuals process information. Countering mistaken belief systems. Doing self-monitoring exercises designed to stop negative automatic thoughts. Improving communication skills. Increasing positive self statements and exercises. Doing homework, including disputing irrational thoughts
What are two strengths and two contributions of cognitive therapy
Strengths: has been adapted to a wide range of disorders, including depression and anxiety.
Applicable in a number of cultural settings.
Well-researched, evidence-based therapy that has proven effective for clients from multiple backgrounds.
Spawned a number of useful and important clinical instruments including the beck anxiety inventory.
Limitations: structured and requires clients to be active, which often means completing homework assignments.
Not an appropriate therapy for people seeking a more unstructured, insight-oriented approach that does not require their strong participation.
Primarily cognitive in nature and is not usually the best approach for people who are intellectually limited or who are unmotivated to change
A generic term for conceptualizing a group of related elements that interact as a whole entity. More of a way thinking than a coherent, standardized theory.
The focus is on how the interaction of parts influences the operation of the system as a whole
What are three basic assumptions that distinguish systems theory from other counselling approaches?
1. Causality is interpersonal
2. Psychosocial systems are best understood as repeated patterns of interpersonal interaction
3. Symptomatic behaviours must be understood from an interactional viewpoint
The focus in general systems theory is how the interaction of parts influences the operation of the system as a whole
One of the main concepts of systems theory: the idea that events are related to a series of interacting feedback loops
Scapegoating in which one person is singled out as the cause of a problem, and Linear causality in which one action is seen as the cause of another are eliminated
What is the view of human nature in Bowen systems theory?
There is chronic anxiety in all life that is both emotional and physical. Some individuals are more affected than others by this anxiety because of the way previous generations in their families have channel the transmission of it to them. If anxiety remains low, a few problems exist for people or families, but if anxiety becomes high, people are much more prone to illness and they may become chronically dysfunctional.
What is the role of the counsellor in Bowens systems theory?
To coach and teach the client to be more cognitive in his or her dealings with others. The counsellor may construct a multigenerational genogram with the client to aid in this process.
What are the goals in Bowens systems theory?
For clients to understand and modify the coping strategies and patterns of coping with stress that have been passed on from generation to generation. They will display a non-anxious presents in their daily lives and will be able to separate their thoughts from their feelings and themselves from others.
Describe some of the techniques used in Bowens systems theory
Techniques focus on ways to create and individuated person with a healthy self-concept who can interact with others and not experience undue anxiety every time the relationship becomes stressful. This may include assessment of self and family in a number of ways, for example the construction of a multigenerational genogram, which is a visual representation of a person's family tree depicted in geometric figures, lines, and words.
Asking content-based questions of one's family to understand what happened in one's family without any emotional overlay.
A client me go home again and visit with his or her family in order to get to know them better which promotes person-to-person relationships and the asking of questions about pivotal events that had an impact on the family.
Detriangulation: involves the process of being in contact and emotionally separate with others
What are two strengths and two contributions of Bowens systems therapy
Strengths: Focusses on multigenerational family history and the importance of noticing in dealing with past patterns in order to avoid repeating these behaviours in interpersonal relationships.
Unique because of its cognitive emphasis and its focus on differentiation of self and detriangulation
Limitations: the approach is extensive and complex and is more involved than many other therapeutic approaches.
May require considerable investment on multiple levels, which some clients may not be willing or able to do
What is the view of human nature in structural family counseling?
Every family has a structure, the informal way in which a family organizes itself and interacts. Structure influences people and families for better or worse. If there is a hierarchical structure, people relate well to each other. If there is no such structure or little structure, developmental or situational events increase family stress, rigidity, chaos, and dysfunctionality, throwing the family into crisis
What is the role of the counsellor in structural family counseling?
Practitioners are both observers an expert in making interventions to modify and change the underlying structure of a family. The advocate for structural changes in the organization of the family unit, with particular attention on changing interactional patterns and subsystems of the family such as in the marital dyad. They also work at establishing clear boundaries among family members.
What are the goals of structural family counselling?
Action is emphasized over insight in order to alter and re-organize a family into a more functional and productive unit.
Describe some of the techniques used in structural family counselling
Techniques are aimed at getting a family to change the way it operates. One technique is to work with family interaction. When family members repeat nonproductive sequences of behaviour or demonstrate a disengaged or and messed position in the family structure, the counsellor will rearrange the physical environment so that they have to act in a different way, for example, simply having people face each other when they talk.
What are two strengths and limitations of structural family counseling?
Strengths: versatile, being an approach that is appropriate for low-socioeconomic-level families as well as for high-income families
Effective, having been used in treating juvenile delinquent's, alcoholics, and anorexics
Culturally sensitive, clear in his definition of terms and procedures, easily applicable
Limitations: structural work is not complex enough, may be sexist at times, and focusses too much on the present.
Difficult to distinguish from strategic family therapy
Since the counsellor is in charge of the process of change, families may not become empowered enough which may limit their overall adjustment and change in the future
What is the view of human nature in strategic or brief counselling
Based on the belief that when dysfunctional symptoms occur, they are an attempt to help people adapt. Seas problems as occurring within a developmental framework of the family life cycle. Focus on several dimensions of family life that are developmentally significant: Family rules, family homeostasis, Quid Pro quo, circular causality
What is the role of the counsellor in strategic or brief counseling?
Take a systemic view of problem behaviours and focus on the process rather than the content of dysfunctional interactions. The job of the strategic counsellor is to get people to try new behaviours because their old behaviours are not working.
What are the goals in strategic or brief counseling?
To resolve, remove, or ameliorate a problematic behaviour brought to counseling. In the process, new functional behaviours are generated that will help individuals, couples, and families achieve a specific goal. By limiting the number of sessions available, hope is to increase the motivation and determination of the client to be successful
What are some techniques used in strategic or brief counseling?
Accepting the presenting problems: counsellors are non-blaming, avoid pathological labels, and view symptoms as serving the positive purpose of communication.
Relabeling: giving a new perspective to a behaviour
What are two strengths and two limitations of strategic or brief counseling?
Strengths: therapists often work in teams.
The approach is pragmatic and flexible and creative
Limitations: some of its underlying foundation and techniques overlap with other system and brief therapy theories and so there is sometimes confusion.
The emphasis on the expertise and power of the counsellor may mean that clients do not obtain as much independence or ability as they might otherwise
Describe the view of human nature in solution-focused counselling
Focusses on client health and strength. Traces its roots to Ericksons idea that people have within themselves the resources and abilities to solve their own problems even if they do not have a causal understanding of them.
Sees people as being constructivist in nature, meaning that reality is a reflection of observation and experience.
Based on the assumption that people really want to change and that change is inevitable
What is the role of the counsellor in solution-focused counselling
To determine how active and committed a client is to the process of change. Clients usually fall into three categories: visitors, complainants, customers.
Act as facilitators of change to help clients access to resources and strengths they already have but are not aware of or are not utilizing
Not particularly interested in how a problem arose, but are interested in working with the client to arrive at a solution allowing the client to be the expert of his or her life
What are the goals in solution-focused counseling?
To help clients tap into resources and notice exceptions to the times when they are distressed. The goal is then to direct them toward solutions to situations that already exist in these exceptions. The focus of sessions and homework is on positives and possibilities either now or in the future
What are some techniques used in solution-focused counselling
Encourage the client to examine exceptions to times when there are problems.
The miracle question: basically focuses on A hypothetical situation where a problem has disappeared and how that person would react or how things would be different.
Scaling: the client is asked to use a scale from 1 to 10 to evaluate how severe a problem is which helps them understand both where they are in regard to a problem and where they need to move in order to realistically achieve their goals
Other techniques include giving complements, clues, and skeleton keys, which are procedures that have worked before and that have universal applications in regard to unlocking a variety of problems
What are two strengths and two limitations of solution-focused counseling?
Strengths: emphasizes brevity and it's empowerment of client families.
Displays flexibility and excellent research in support of its effectiveness.
Reveals a positive nature to working with a variety of clients
Limitations: pays almost no attention to client history.
Has a lack of focus on insight
The use of teams makes the cost of treatment high
What is the view of human nature in narrative counseling?
Emphasize that meeting or knowledge is constructed through social interaction. There is no absolute reality except as a social product. People are seen as internalizing and judging themselves through creating stories of their lives.
What is the role of the counsellor in narrative counseling?
Counsellors are collaborators and Masters of asking questions. They engage their clients and use basic relationship skills such as attending, paraphrasing, clarifying, summarizing, and checking to make sure they hear the client story or problem correctly. And effort is made by the counsellor to address and eliminate problems as rapidly as possible.
The counsellor uses narrative reasoning, which is characterized by stories, means a list, and liveliness, in an effort to help clients redefined their lives and relationships through new narratives
What are the goals in narrative counseling?
The emphasis is shifted to a narrative way of conceptualizing and interpreting the world. Client will learn to value their own life experiences and stories if they are successful. They will also learn how to construct new stories and meanings in their lives and, in the process, create new realities for themselves
What are some of the techniques used in narrative counseling?
The goal is to develop unique and alternative stories of one's life in the hope that a client will come up with novel options and strategies for living. To do so, the problem that is brought to counselling is externalized. In externalization, the problem is the problem. This separates the person from a problem and objectifies difficulties so that the resources of a client can be focussed on how a situation can be dealt with.
Raising dilemmas: so that a client examines possible aspects of a problem before the need arises
Predicting setbacks: so the client will think about what to do in the face of adversity
Re-authoring lives: by refining one's life and relationships do a new narrative, change becomes possible. In changing their stories, clients perceive the world differently and are freed up to think and behave differently
What are two strengths and two limitations of narrative counseling?
Strengths: blame is alleviated and dialogue is generated as everyone works to solve a common problem.
Clients create a new story and new possibilities for action
Clients are prepared ahead of time for setbacks or dilemmas through counsellor questions
Limitations: quite cerebral and does not work well with clients who are not intellectually astute.
There are no norms regarding who clients should become
Does not deal with the history of a difficulty
A perception or experiencing of an event or situation as an intolerable difficulty that exceeds the person's current resources and coping mechanisms
The employment of a variety of direct and action-oriented approach is to help individuals find resources within themselves and/or deal externally with crisis. Quick and efficient services are provided in specialize ways
Describe the view of human nature in crisis counselling
Loss is an inevitable part of life. The extent of the grief and it's depth are associated with the value of what has been lost and how. Includes developmental, situational, existential, and ecosystemtic crises
What are the goals of crisis counseling?
Goals revolve around getting those who are suffering immediate help in a variety of forms. Initially, counsellors use basic crisis theory to help people in crisis recognize and correct temporary effective, behavioral, and cognitive distortion brought on by dramatic events. Long-term adjustment and health may require considerable follow up
What is the role of the counsellor in crisis counseling?
Counsellors need to be mature individuals with a variety of life experiences with which they have successfully dealt. They must have a good command of basic helping skills, high-energy, and quick mental reflexes, and yet be poised, calm, creative, and flexible in the midst of highly charge situations.
They are often direct and active in crisis situations
What techniques are used in crisis counseling?
Techniques very according to the type of crisis and the potential for harm. What the worker does is dependent on assessing the individuals experiencing crisis in a continuous and fluid manner.
Essential listening activities: defining the problem, ensuring client safety, providing support
Acting strategies: examining alternatives, making plans, obtaining commitment
What are two strengths and two limitations of crisis counseling?
Uses modest goals and objectives because of the sudden and/or traumatic nature of crises
Utilizes a more transitional nature
Limitations: deals with situations of an immediate nature
Does not go into the same gaps in regard to resolution that most counselling approach is due
More time Limited and trauma oriented