Unit 10 Part A Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 10 Part A Vocabulary Deck (38):
1

The processing of information into the memory system-for example by extracting meaning

Encoding

2

Process of retaining encoded information overtime

Storage

3

The process of getting information out of memory storage

Retrieval

4

The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brains natural mode of information processing for many functions including vision contrast with the step-by-step processing of most computers and conscious problem-solving

Parallel processing

5

The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

Sensory memory

6

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten

Short term memory

7

The relatively permanent and limitless store house of the memory system; includes knowledge skills and experiences

Long term memory

8

A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious active processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial information and information retrieved from long-term memory

Working memory

9

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare

Explicit memory

10

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

Effortful processing

11

Unconscious encoding of incidental information such as space time and frequency and of well learned information such as word meanings

Automatic processing

12

Retention independent of conscious recollection

Implicit memory

13

A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

Iconic memory

14

A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere,sounds and words can still be recalled within three or four seconds

Echoic memory

15

Organizing items into familiar or manageable units; often occurs automatically

Chunking

16

Memory aids especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

Mnemonics

17

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

Spacing effect

18

Enhanced memory after retrieving rather than simply re-reading information also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test enhanced learning

Testing effect

19

Encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words

Shallow processing

20

Encoding semantically based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention

Deep processing

21

Neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage

Hippocampus

22

A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

Flashbulb memory

23

An increase in a cell's firing potential after brief rapid stimulation believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

Long-term potentiation (LTP)

24

A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier as on a fill-in the blank test

Recall

25

A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned as on a multiple choice test

Recognition

26

A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again

Relearning

27

The activation often unconsciously a particular associations in memory

Priming

28

The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current mood

Mood congruent memory

29

Our tendency to recall best the last (a recency effect)and first items (a primacy effect) in a list

Serial position effect

30

An inability to form new memories

Anterograde amnesia

31

An inability to retrieve info from one's past

Retrograde amnesia

32

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

Proactive interference

33

The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

Retroactive interference

34

In psychoanalytic theory the basic mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts feelings and memories

Repression

35

Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event

Misinformation effect

36

Attributing to the wrong source of an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined

Source amnesia

37

That eerie sense that "I've experienced this before", cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience

Deja vu

38

The persistence of learning overtime through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information

Memory