Unit 10 Part B Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 10 Part B Vocabulary Deck (29):
1

A mental grouping of similar objects events ideas or people

Concept

2

A mental image or best example of a category matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories

Prototype

3

The abilityto produce novel and valuable ideas

Creativity

4

Narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution

Convergent thinking

5

Expands the number of possible problem solutions creative thinking that diverges in different directions

Divergent thinking

6

A methodical logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem contrast with the usually speedier but also more error-prone use of heuristics

Algorithm

7

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms

Heuristic

8

A sudden realization that a problem solution contrasts with the strategy based solutions

Insight

9

I tendency to search for information that supports our perceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

Confirmation bias

10

A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way often a way that has been successful in the past

Mental set

11

An effortless immediate automatic feeling or thought as contrasted with explicit conscious reasoning

Intuition

12

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to present or match particular prototypes may lead us to ignore other relevant information

Representativeness heuristic

13

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory if instances come readily to mind perhaps because of their visiting us a present such events are common

Availability heuristic

14

The tendency to be more confident than correct to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments

Overconfidence

15

Clinging to one's initial concepts after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

Believe perseverance

16

The way an issue is posed how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments

Framing

17

Our spoken written or signed words and the ways we combined them to communicate meaning

Language

18

In a language the smallest distinctive sound unit

Phoneme

19

In a language the smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word or a part of the word such as a prefix

Morpheme

20

In a language a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others in a given language. semantics is a set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds and syntax is a set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences

Grammar

21

Beginning at about four months the stage of speech development which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

Babbling stage

22

The stage in speech development from about 1 to 2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words

One-word stage

23

Beginning about age 2 the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two word statements

Two word stage

24

Stage in which a child speaks like a telegram "go car" using mostly nouns and verbs

Telegraphic speech

25

Impairment of language usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to broca's area impairing speaking, or to wernicke's area impairing understanding

Aphasia

26

Controls language expression. an area of the frontal lobe usually in the left hemisphere that directs the muscle movements involved in speech

Broca's area

27

Controls language reception a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression usually in the left temporal lobe

Wernicke's area

28

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think

Linguistic determinism

29

All the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating

Cognition