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Flashcards in Unit 4 Vocabulary Deck (66):
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A branch of psychology that studies physical cognitive and social change throughout the lifespan

Developmental psychology

1

The fertilized egg; it enters into a two week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.

Zygote

2

The developing human organism from about two weeks after fertilization through the second month

Embryo

3

The developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth

Fetus

4

Agents such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

Teratogens

5

Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. in severe cases signs include a small out of proportion head and abnormal facial features

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

6

Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation as infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus their interest wanes and they look away sooner

Habituation

7

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience.

Maturation

8

All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

Cognition

9

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

Schema

10

Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

Assimilation

11

In developmental psychology, adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

Accommodation

12

The stage from birth to about two years of age during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

Sensorimotor stage

13

The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

Object permanence

14

The stage from about two to about six or seven years of age during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

Preoperational stage

15

The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.

Conservation

16

The preoperational child's difficulty of taking another's point of view

Egocentrism

17

People's ideas about their own and others' mental states about their feelings,perceptions, and thoughts and behaviors these might predict

Theory of mind

18

A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

19

The stage of cognitive development from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

Concrete operational stage

20

The stage of cognitive development normally beginning about age 12 during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

Formal operational stage

21

The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about eight months of age

Stranger anxiety

22

An emotional tie with another person; shows in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

Attachment

23

An optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development

Critical period

24

The process by which certain animals form strong attachment during an early life critical period

Imprinting

25

A persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

Temperament

26

A sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

Basic trust

27

All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in answer to the question "who am I?"

Self concept

28

The socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female

Gender

29

Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

Aggression

30

A set of expected behaviors for males or females

Gender role

31

A set of expectations(norms) about a social position defining how those in the position ought to behave

Role

32

Our sense of being male or female

Gender identity

33

The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

Social learning theory

34

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

Gender typing

35

An umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expressions differs from that associated with their birth sex

Transgender

36

The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

Adolescence

37

Our sense of self; according to Erikson the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles

Identity

38

The "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "who am I?" that comes from our group memberships

Social identity

39

The ability to form close loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

Intimacy

40

For some people in modern cultures a period from the late teens to mid 20s, bridges the gap between adolescent dependence and full independent and responsible adulthood

Emerging adulthood

41

The sex chromosome found in both men and women females have 2 of these and males have one. One of these from each parent produces a female child

X chromosome

42

The sex chromosome found only in ; when paired with an X chromosome from the mother it produces a male child

Y chromosome

43

The most important of the male sex hormones; both males and females have it but the additional amount of this in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

Testosterone

44

The period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

Puberty

45

The body structures (ovaries, testes,and externals genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible

Primary sex characteristics

46

Non-reproductive sexual traits such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair

Secondary sex characteristics

47

The first menstrual period

Menarche

48

A life-threatening sexually-transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) this depletes the immune system, leaving the person vulnerable to infections

AIDS (acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)

49

And enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex, the other sex,or both sexes

Sexual orientation

50

The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

Menopause

51

A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

Cross-sectional study

52

Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

Longitudinal study

53

The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

Social clock

54

Studied children's cognitive development all the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating

Jean Piaget

55

Studied how children think and learn. emphasized how a child's mind grows through interaction with the social environment

Lev Vygotsky

56

Explored the rigid attachment process called imprinting

Konrad Lorenz

57

An American psychologist who provided a new understanding of human nature and development through studies of social behavior of monkeys

Harry Harlow

58

An American psychologist who low-bred monkeys for their learning studies

Margaret Harlow

59

Designed the strange situation experiment; she observed mother-infant pairs at home during the first six months

Mary Ainsworth

60

Psychologist who developed the theory that there are four main types of parenting styles that accounted for the way children function socially emotionally and cognitively

Diana Baumrind

61

Believed females tend to differ from males both in being less concerned with viewing themselves separate individuals and being more concerned with "making connections"

Carol Gilligan

62

Believed that humans are active information processors and think about the relationship between there behavior and its consequences

Albert Bandura

63

Sought to describe the development of moral reasoning, the thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrong

Lawrence Kohlberg

64

A theorist who contended that each stage of life has its own psychological task, a crisis that needs resolution

Erik Erikson

65

Founder of psychoanalysis;a new approach to understanding human personality

Sigmund Freud