Unit 8 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 8 Vocabulary Deck (64):
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The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

Sensation

1

The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

Perception

2

Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information

Bottom up processing

3

Information processing guided by higher level mental processes as when we construct perceptions drawing on our own experience and expectations

Top down processing

4

The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

Selective attention

5

Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

Inattentional blindness

6

Failing to notice changes in the environment

Change blindness

7

Conversion of one form of energy into another in sensation, transforming of stimulus energies such as sites sounds and smells into Nero impulses our brains can interpret

Transduction

8

The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli such as their intensity and our psychological experience of them

Psychophysics

9

The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time

Absolute threshold

10

The theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation(noise); assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience expectations motivation and alertness

Signal detection theory

11

Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness

Subliminal

12

The activation often unconsciously of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response

Priming

13

The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time; we experience this as a just noticeable difference

Difference threshold

14

The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage rather then a constant amount

Weber's law

15

Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

Sensory adaptation

16

A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

Perceptual set

17

The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy,clairvoyance and precognition

Extrasensory perception (ESP)

18

The study of paranormal phenomena including ESP and psychokinesis

Parapsychology

19

The distance from the peak of one light or soundwave to the peak of the next electromagnetic wavelengths very from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission

Wavelength

20

The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue green and so forth.

Hue

21

The amount of energy in a light or soundwave which we perceive as brightness or loudness as determined by the wave's amplitude

Intensity

22

The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters

Pupil

23

A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening

Iris

24

The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina

Lens

25

The light-sensitive inner surface of the ally containing the receptor rods and cones and plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information

Retina

26

In sensation and perception the process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects of the retina and developmental psychology at getting our current understandings to incorporate new information

Accommodation

27

Retina receptors that detect black white and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision When cones do not respond

Rods

28

Retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well lit conditions these detect fine detail to give rise to color sensations

Cones

29

The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

Optic nerve

30

The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye creating a blind spot because no receptor cells are located there

Blind spot

31

The central focal point in the retina around which the eyes cones cluster

Fovea

32

Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement

Feature detectors

33

The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously the brains natural mode of information processing for mere functions including vision. contrasts with the step-by-step processing of most computers and of conscious problem-solving

Parallel processing

34

The theory that the retina contains three different color receptors-- one most sensitive to red one to green one to blue which when simulated in combination can produce the perception of any color

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory

35

The theory that opposing retinal processes red green yellow blue white and black enable color vision. some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red others are stimulated by green

Opponent process theory

36

An organized whole. these psychologists emphasize our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes

Gestalt

37

The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)

Figure ground

38

The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

Grouping

39

The ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance

Depth perception

40

A laboratory device used for testing depth perception and infants and young animals

Visual cliff

41

Depth cues such as retinal disparity that depend on the use of two eyes

Binocular cues

42

A binocular cue for perceiving depth; by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images the closer the object

Retinal disparity

43

Depth cues such as interposition and linear perspective available to either eye alone

Monocular cues

44

An illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession

Phi phenomenon

45

Perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shapes, size, brightness and color) even as illumination and retinal images change

Perceptual constancy

46

Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths of light by the object

Color constancy

47

In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

Perceptual adaptation

48

This sense or act of hearing

Audition

49

The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time

Frequency

50

A tone's experienced highness or lowness depends on frequency

Pitch

51

The chamber between the eardrum and the cochlea containing three tiny bones (the hammer anvil and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window

Middle ear

52

A coiled bony fluid filled tube in the inner ear sound waves traveling through the cochlear nerve impulses

Cochlea

53

The innermost part of the ear; containing the cochlea, semicircular canals,and vestibular sacs.

Inner ear

54

Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells, or the auditory nerves.

Sensorineural hearing loss

55

Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea

Conduction hearing loss

56

A device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea

Cochlea implant

57

In hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated.

Place theory

58

In hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense it's pitch

Frequency

59

The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in the larger fibers or by info coming from brain

Gate-control theory

60

The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts

Kinesthesia

61

The sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance

Vestibular sense

62

The principle that one sense may influence another; as when the smell of food influences it's taste

Sensory interaction

63

In psychological science, the influences of bodily sensations, gestures, and other states on cognitive preferences and judgements

Embodied cognition