Unit 3 Part A Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3 Part A Vocabulary Deck (32):
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Announcing discoveries about the interplay of our behavior and mind at an exhilarating pace

Biological psychologist

1

A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

Neuron

2

Neurons bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

Dendrites

3

The neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands

Axon

4

A fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next

Myelin sheath

5

A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

Action potential

6

A period of inactivity after a neuron has fired

Refractory period

7

The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron;the tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft

Synapse

8

Chemical messengers across the synaptic gaps between neurons

Neurotransmitters

9

A neurons transmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron

Reuptake

10

"Morphine within"-- natural opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

Endorphins

11

A molecule that by binding to receptors site, stimulates a response

Agonist

12

The body's speedy electrochemical communication network consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

Nervous system

13

Neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

Sensory neurons

14

Neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

Motor neurons

15

Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

Interneurons

16

The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

Endocrine system

17

Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

Hormones

18

Pair of glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress

Adrenal glands

19

The endocrine system's most influential gland under the influence of the hypothalamus

Pituitary gland

20

Tissue destruction

Lesion

21

An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain surface

EEG

22

A series of x-ray photos taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice of the brain's structure

CT scan

23

A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

PET scan

24

Technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue

MRI

25

The oldest part and central core of the brain beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull

Brainstem

26

Base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

Medulla

27

The brain's sensory control Center located on top of the brainstem; directs messages to sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

Thalamus

28

The "little brain"at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement out put and balance and enabling nonverbal learning and memory

Cerebellum

29

Neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions

Limbic system

30

Two Lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system; link to emotion

Amygdala

31

A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities such as aiding drinking and the body temperature helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland and is linked to emotion and reward

Hypothalamus