Unit 4 Flashcards Preview

Straightforward Upper-intermediate > Unit 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 4 Deck (272):
1

balance

rovnováha; harmonie *** n C /ˈbæləns/ a situation in which different aspects or features are treated equally or exist in the correct relationship to each other A healthy diet is about getting the correct balance of a variety of foods.

2

assertive

průbojný; asertivní   adj /əˈsɜː(r)tɪv/ behaving in a confident way in which you are quick to express your opinions and feelings You need to be more assertive to succeed in business.

3

regain

znovu nabýt/získat ** v /rɪˈɡeɪn/ to get something again that you lost, especially an ability or a mental state You should soon regain your appetite.

4

abolition

odstranění, zákaz   n U /ˌæbəˈlɪʃ(ə)n/ the official end to a law, system, practice etc James is in favour of the abolition of the death penalty.

5

fear

strach *** n U /fɪə(r)/ the feeling that you have when you are frightened Edward knew it was dangerous, but he felt no fear.

6

cruel

krutý; ukrutný ** adj /ˈkruːəl/ someone who is cruel enjoys causing pain to other people or animals, or enjoys making them unhappy or upset How could you be so cruel to someone who never did you any harm?

7

equal

rovný; rovnocenný *** adj /ˈiːkwəl/ the same in value, amount, or size President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Bill which granted equal rights to all American citizens.

8

defy

vzdorovat, postavit se čemu   v /dɪˈfaɪ/ to refuse to obey someone or something The commander defied a direct order to surrender.

9

stick

hůl ** n C /stɪk/ a thin piece of wood that has been broken or cut from a tree I went out to find some sticks for a fire.

10

confront

čelit, postavit se něčemu ** v /kənˈfrʌnt/ to deal with a difficult situation They have to confront the object of their fears.

11

pass down

předat mladšímu členovi rodiny   v /ˌpɑːs ˈdaʊn/ to give knowledge or teach skills to your children or to younger people These traditional stories have been passed down from parent to child over many generations.

12

threat

hrozba *** n C /θret/ a situation or an activity that could cause harm or danger Officials were confident there had been no threat to public health.

13

drop in

stavit se (na krátkou návštěvu)   v /ˌdrɒp ˈɪn/ to make a short visit somewhere Why don’t you drop in for coffee some time?

14

tale

příběh; vyprávění; historka ** n C /teɪl/ a story about imaginary events or people We read tales of bravery and romance.

15

distress

strádání; tíseň ** n U /dɪˈstres/ a feeling that you have when you are very unhappy, worried, or upset I wouldn’t want to cause her any distress.

16

grant

poskytnout; připustit *** v /ɡrɑːnt/ to allow someone to have or do what they want Irish nationalists urged the British government to grant an amnesty to all political prisoners.

17

capacity

kapacita; způsobilost *** n C / U /kəˈpæsəti/ the ability to do something Harry had a tremendous capacity for work.

18

openness

otevřenost; upřímnost * n U /ˈəʊpənnəs/ an honest way of talking or behaving in which you do not try to hide anything The judge praised him for his honesty and openness.

19

anxious

dychtivý; úzkostlivý; naplněný obavami ** adj /ˈæŋkʃəs/ worried because you think something bad might happen His silence made me anxious.

20

principal

hlavní, ústřední *** adj /ˈprɪnsəp(ə)l/ main, or most important The principal aim of the project is to provide an answer to this question.

21

stand up for

zastat se někoho   v /stænd ˈʌp fɔː(r)/ to defend someone or something that is being criticized or attacked You’ve got to stand up for what you believe in.

22

mass

masový; hromadný ** adj  /mæs/ involving or affecting a large number of people The government is trying to solve the problem of mass unemployment.

23

free

volný; svobodný *** adj /friː/ not a prisoner or a slave He will soon be a free man again.

24

prone to

náchylný k * adj /ˈprəʊn ˌtuː/ likely to do something or be affected by something, especially something bad The coastal region is prone to earthquakes.

25

bravery

statečnost; odvaha   n U /ˈbreɪvəri/ brave behaviour She showed bravery in the face of danger.

26

homeless

bez domova * adj /ˈhəʊmləs/ without a place to live The government runs hostels for young homeless people.

27

cautious

opatrný * adj /ˈkɔːʃəs/ careful to avoid problems or danger Perhaps a more cautious approach would bring better results.

28

liberate

osvobodit   v /ˈlɪbəreɪt/ to give someone the freedom to do what they want, for example by taking them out of a situation in which their behaviour is controlled People thought technology had the power to liberate them from hard work.

29

timid

plachý; bojácný   adj /ˈtɪmɪd/ shy and nervous She gave me a timid smile.

30

fang

tesák, zub   n C /fæŋ/ one of the long pointed teeth that some animals have, for example snakes, dogs, and tigers The snake bared its fangs.

31

gradual

postupný * adj /ˈɡrædʒuəl/ gradual processes and changes happen slowly and by small amounts Scientists have observed a gradual change in the climate.

32

swallow

polknout; polykat ** v /ˈswɒləʊ/ to make food or drink go from your mouth down through your throat and into your stomach She quickly swallowed the rest of her coffee.

33

unreasonable

nemající rozum; neracionální * adj /ʌnˈriːz(ə)nəb(ə)l/ not sensible She has an unreasonable fear of spiders.

34

equality

rovnost ** n U /ɪˈkwɒləti/ the state of being equal, especially in having the same rights, status, and opportunities The Party is committed to sexual and racial equality.

35

trigger

spoušť ** v /ˈtrɪɡə(r)/ to cause someone to have a particular feeling or memory People with a phobia often have an object that triggers their fears.

36

scout

zvěd; průzkumník * n C /skaʊt/ a boy or girl who is a member of the Scouts, an organization that encourages boys and girls to learn practical skills and help other people The proceeds all go to good causes – the boy and girl scouts, the Red Cross, the homeless.

37

course

chod (jídla) *** n C  /kɔː(r)s/ one of the parts of a meal I had prawns, followed by steak for my main course.

38

spark

jiskra, jiskřit, podnítit * v /spɑː(r)k/ to make something happen, especially something involving violence or angry feelings The protests were sparked by the firing of two restaurant employees.

39

acronym

akronym   n C /ˈækrənɪm/  an abbreviation consisting of letters that form a word. For example, NATO is an acronym for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It's a very memorable acronym.

40

deep-fried

smažený   adj /ˌdiːpˈfraɪd/ cooked in a lot of hot oil I love deep-fried onions.

41

reverend

reverend, pastor, farář   n C /ˈrev(ə)rənd/ a title used for some Christian priests and ministers That's the Reverend Francis Keenan.

42

severe

těžký (úraz) *** adj /sɪˈvɪə(r)/ a severe pain, injury, or illness is one which is serious and unpleasant They suffer severe panic attacks.

43

overturn

převrátit   v /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈtɜː(r)n/ to say officially that something such as a decision or law is wrong and change it The appeal court refused to overturn the lower court’s decision.

44

sacking

propustění z práce; strčení do pytle   n C /ˈsækɪŋ/ rattlesnake sacking is a sport in which people try to get live rattlesnakes into a sack without being injured Later in the programme, we’ll visit the Rattlesnake Sacking Championships.

45

slavery

otroctví   n U /ˈsleɪvəri/ the condition of being a slave, or of having to work for another person These were women who were forced into sexual slavery.

46

pray

modlit se ** v /preɪ/ to speak to God or a saint, for example to give thanks or ask for help Some people go to church to pray.

47

anxiety

úzkost; strach ** n U /æŋˈzaɪəti/ a worried feeling you have because you think something bad might happen A lot of students suffer from anxiety at exam time.

48

well-done

dobře propečený (steak)   adj /ˌwelˈdʌn/ well-done meat is meat that has been completely cooked Would you like your steak rare, medium-rare or well-done?

49

bake

péct (nikoli maso) * v /beɪk/ to cook food in an oven Bake the fish for about ten minutes.

50

frail

křehký, chtrný * adj /freɪl/ physically weak and not very healthy He is frail, but still manages to walk with a stick.

51

cruelty

krutost; ukrutnost * n C / U /ˈkruːəlti/ behaviour that deliberately causes pain to other people or animals, or that makes them unhappy or upset She was shocked by the cruelty of his words.

52

abusive

sprostý; vulgární   adj /əˈbjuːsɪv/ using offensive or insulting language He started receiving abusive text messages.

53

ensure

zajistit, zaručit *** v /ɪnˈʃɔː(r)/  to make certain that something happens or is done Our new system ensures that everyone gets paid on time.

54

antidote

protilátka, protijed   n C /ˈæntɪˌdəʊt/ a substance that prevents a poison from having bad effects There is no known antidote to the poison.

55

back

podpořit *** v /bæk/ to give support to a person, organization, or plan, making them more likely to succeed We’ll back you all the way on this one!

56

fearless

nebojácný   adj /ˈfɪə(r)ləs/ not afraid of anyone or anything. This word shows that you admire people like this. She was a fearless critic of the corrupt leadership.

57

self-assured

sebejistý   adj /ˌselfəˈʃɔː(r)d confident and relaxed because you are sure of your abilities He's a little too self-assured for my liking.

58

coarse

sprostý, hrubý * adj /kɔː(r)s/ a coarse substance or surface feels rough and hard The jacket was made of coarse material.

59

insure

pojistit * v /ɪnˈʃɔː(r)/  to regularly pay an insurance company an amount of money so that they will give you money if something that you own is damaged, lost, or stolen, or if you die or are sick or injured His appearance was so repulsive that I had to have my mirrors insured.

60

abolish

zrušit; odstranit ** v /əˈbɒlɪʃ/ to officially get rid of a law, system, practice etc Britain abolished slavery in 1807.

61

acupuncture

akupunktura   n U /ˈækjʊˌpʌŋktʃə(r)/ a medical treatment from China that involves putting special needles into particular parts of the body Have you tried acupunture or alternative medicine?

62

harassment

obtěžování * n U /ˈhærəsmənt/  /həˈræsmənt/ annoying or unpleasant behaviour towards someone that takes place regularly, for example threats, offensive remarks, or physical attacks The UN cannot tolerate the continuing harassment of peacekeeping soldiers.

63

conditioned

podmínečný, připravený   adj /kənˈdɪʃ(ə)nd/ if someone is conditioned by their experiences or by another person, they are influenced by them so that they think or behave in a particular way A phobia is a conditioned reflex.

64

bare

holý; nepokrytý ** adj /beə(r)/ a part of your body that is bare is not covered by any clothes The idea is to pick up the snake with your bare hands and throw it in the sack.

65

herpetologist

odborník na plazy   n C /ˈhɜː(r)pəˈtɒlədʒɪst someone who scientifically studies amphibians and reptiles I spoke to herpetologist, Chick Ferragamo, who introduced me to my first rattler.

66

venom

jed (hadí, hmyzí), zlost, hněv   n U /ˈvenəm/ poison produced by some animals, especially snakes and insects The venom causes paralysis within a few minutes.

67

courage

odvaha ** n U /ˈkʌrɪdʒ/ the ability to do something that you know is right or good, even though it is dangerous, frightening, or very difficult She has shown immense courage in opposing a corrupt and violent regime.

68

harm

poškození; ublížení ** n U /hɑː(r)m/ injury, damage, or problems caused by something that you do Too many projects that lead to environmental harm.

69

boycott

bojkot   n C /ˈbɔɪˌkɒt/ to not take part in an event, or to not buy or use something as a protest She urged people to boycott the company’s products.

70

reasonable

rozumný; racionální *** adj /ˈriːz(ə)nəb(ə)l/ fair and sensible Some people think it is perfectly reasonable to climb into the mouth of a volcano.

71

tail

ocas ** n C /teɪl/ a part at the back of an animal’s body that can move The animal sprays liquid from a gland under its tail.

72

abuse

zneuží(va)t ** n C/U /əˈbjuːs/ cruel, violent, or unfair treatment, especially of someone who does not have the power to prevent it The regime had been responsible for serious human rights abuses.

73

domineering

tyranský; despotický   adj /ˌdɒmɪˈnɪərɪŋ/ trying to control other people and make them obey you She has an unpleasant domineering personality.

74

rattle

rachotit; chrastit   n C /ˈræt(ə)l/ part of a rattlesnake's tail which makes short sharp knocking sounds as it moves or shakes The rattle on the end of the tail is a warning signal.

75

in a hurry

spěchat   phr /ˌɪn ə ˈhʌri/ to do something or go somewhere quickly because you do not have much time A frail old lady steps in line ahead of them and claims that she is in a hurry.

76

disobey

neposlouchat   v /ˌdɪsəˈbeɪ/ to deliberately do the opposite of what someone in authority has told you to do, or deliberately not obey a rule If you continue to disobey the rules, you will be punished.

77

caution

opatrnost ** n U /ˈkɔːʃ(ə)n/ careful thought and lack of hurry in order to try to avoid risks or danger We drove along the road with extreme caution.

78

disobedience

neposlušnost   n U /ˌdɪsəˈbiːdiəns/ someone’s behaviour when they do not obey orders or rules Disobedience will not be tolerated.

79

brave

statečný; odvážný ** adj /breɪv/ capable of dealing with danger or pain, without seeming to be frightened It is easy to be brave from a safe distance.

80

culminate

vrcholit, kulminovat   v /ˈkʌlmɪneɪt/ to happen or exist as the final result of a process or situation A series of financial disasters culminated in the collapse of the country’s largest bank.

81

plain

nížina; planina ** adj /pleɪn/ plain food is simple and does not have a lot of things added to it Plenty of stalls selling fried rattlesnake, rattlesnake kebabs, barbecued rattler, or just plain baked rattlesnake.

82

award

udělit; uložit (pokutu); přiznat (náhradu) *** v /əˈwɔː(r)d/ to give someone a prize or other reward because they have achieved something The prize is awarded annually.

83

enclosed

přiložený   adj /ɪnˈkləʊzd/ surrounded by something and separated from what is outside He has a fear of enclosed spaces.

84

deserve

zasloužit si ** v /dɪˈzɜː(r)v/ if you deserve something, it is right that you get it, for example because of the way you have behaved After five hours on your feet you deserve a break.

85

fearful

bázlivý, strašlivý   adj /ˈfɪə(r)f(ə)l/ frightened Fearful parents kept their children indoors.

86

treat (sb)

léčit někoho *** v /triːt/ to use medicine or medical methods to cure a patient or an illness Vitamin deficiency can be properly diagnosed and treated by a doctor.

87

overcome

přemoci; (be ~) zmocnit se ** v /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈkʌm/  to succeed in dealing with or controlling a problem What can I do to overcome my fear of rejection?

88

reason

důvod; příčina *** n C /ˈriːz(ə)n/ a fact, situation, or intention that explains why something happened, why someone did something, or why something is true What was your reason for not liking the film?

89

hypnosis

hypnóza   n U /hɪpˈnəʊsɪs/ a very relaxed state in which you seem to be sleeping but can still react to someone else’s suggestions He was under hypnosis for about an hour.

90

panic

panika; zmatkovat ** n U / v /ˈpænɪk/ a sudden strong feeling of fear or worry that makes you unable to think clearly or calmly She felt a moment of sheer panic.

91

install

(na)instalovat; (na)montovat ** v /ɪnˈstɔːl/  to put a piece of equipment somewhere and make it ready for use Crime has decreased since the security cameras were installed.

92

plane

letadlo *** n C /pleɪn/ an aircraft with wings and at least one engine Terrorists release two passengers from the plane.

93

oversleep

zaspat   v /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈsliːp/ to wake up later than you intended to Sorry I'm late. I overslept.

94

folks

lidi; rodiče ** n pl /fəʊks/ people Folks can watch the snake handling shows throughout the day.

95

victim

oběť *** n C /ˈvɪktɪm/ someone who has suffered as a result of the actions or negative attitudes of someone else or of people in general He was a victim of racism.

96

bossy

panovačný   adj /ˈbɒsi/ someone who is bossy keeps telling other people what to do, in a way that annoys them Don’t be so bossy!

97

risky

riskantní * adj /ˈrɪski/ involving the possibility of danger, harm, or failure I wouldn’t do it if I were you – it’s too risky.

98

round-up

zátah, razie, přehled, sehnání stád dobytka   n C /ˈraʊndʌp/ an occasion when animals or people are forced to gather together in one place The police conducted a round-up of suspects.

99

rattlesnake

chřestýš   n C /ˈræt(ə)lˌsneɪk/  a poisonous US snake that makes a noise that sounds like a rattle with its tail Rattlesnakes usually hunt at night.

100

risk

riziko *** n C / U /rɪsk/ the possibility that something unpleasant or dangerous might happen Some people's fear of flying is far out of proportion to the actual risk it involves.

101

rattler

chřestýš   n C /ˈræt(ə)lə(r)/  a rattlesnake I was bitten by a rattler.

102

freedom

svoboda; volnost *** n C /ˈfriːdəm/ the right to do what you want, make your own decisions, and express your own opinions You can’t separate peace from freedom because no one can be at peace unless he has freedom.

103

courageous

odvážný; statečný   adj /kəˈreɪdʒəs/ very brave and determined You've taken a courageous decision today.

104

reassured

klidný díky ujištění ** adj /ˌriːəˈʃʊə(r)d/ made to feel less worried about something Feeling better informed, but not particularly reassured it was time to move on to Sweetwater.

105

privilege

výsada; pocta ** n C /ˈprɪvəlɪdʒ/ a special benefit that is available only to a particular person or group Cheap air travel is one of the privileges of working for the airline.

106

harmless

neškodný * adj /ˈhɑː(r)mləs/ not causing any harm Most of these bugs are harmless to us.

107

needle

jehla; jehlice ** n C /ˈniːd(ə)l/ a very thin sharp metal tube used for putting medicine or drugs into your body, or for taking blood out. It is attached to a plastic tube called a syringe He has a fear of needles.

108

reserved

zdrženlivý   adj /rɪˈzɜː(r)vd/ someone who is reserved tends not to talk about or show their feelings They are emotionally reserved.

109

liberty

svoboda ** n C /ˈlɪbə(r)ti/ the freedom to think or behave in the way that you want and not be controlled by a government or by other people The movement would fight for liberty and equality.

110

antivenin

protilátka, protijed   n U /ˌæntiˈvənɪn/ a substance that prevents venom from having bad effects We use the venom to manufacture the antivenin.

111

stiff

tuhý; neohebný ** adj /stɪf/ something that is stiff does not bend easily. If you have a stiff upper lip, you remain calm and do not let other people see what you are really feeling in a difficult or unpleasant situation It is often said that the British have a ‘stiff upper lip’.

112

alliance

spojenectví; aliance ** n C /əˈlaɪəns/ a group of people, organizations, or countries who have united to work together to achieve something Have you spoken to members of other parties within the alliance?

113

phobia

fobie   n C /ˈfəʊbiə/ a very strong feeling of disliking or being afraid of someone or something She has a phobia about spiders.

114

civilize

(z)civilizovat   v /ˈsɪvəlaɪz/ to make someone behave in a more polite and reasonable way The time has come for us to civilize ourselves.

115

whole

celý *** adj /həʊl/ all of something I’m getting tired of the whole thing.

116

hole

díra *** n C /həʊl/ a space in the surface of something that goes partly or completely through it Rain poured through a gaping hole in the roof.

117

segregation

segregace, oddělování   n U /ˌseɡrɪˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n/ the policy of keeping people from different groups, especially different races, separate. Integration is the policy of bringing these groups together Racial segregation in schools is no longer legal in the US.

118

fine

dát pokutu * v /faɪn/ to make someone pay an amount of money as punishment for breaking the law She was fined £250 for speeding.

119

rebellion

povstání; vzpoura; revolta   n C /rɪˈbeljən/ opposition to someone in authority or to accepted ways of doing things We can achieve our aims through disobedience and through rebellion.

120

interstate

mezistátní   adj /ˌɪntə(r)ˈsteɪt/ existing or taking place between states, especially between the states in the US or Australia He's an expert in interstate commerce.

121

rule

vládnout *** v /ruːl/ to officially control or govern a country or area Portugal ruled East Timor for nearly four centuries.

122

short-changed

ošizený (zákazník)   adj /ˌʃɔː(r)tˈtʃeɪndʒd/ if someone is short-changed, they do not receive back enough money for something they have paid for after they have paid more than the full price for the things After walking out of a store, they discover they were short-changed by £3.

123

reflex

reflex, odraz   n C /ˈriːfleks/ a way of reacting to something that you do very quickly, without thinking about it A phobia is a conditioned reflex.

124

overemphasize

příliš zdůrazňovat   v /ˌəʊvərˈemfəˌsaɪz/ to treat something as more important than it really is We cannot overemphasize how damaging these results are to our reputation.

125

genetic

genetický ** adj /dʒəˈnetɪk/ relating to genes, or to the study of genes Doctors believe the condition is caused by a genetic defect.

126

starve

hladovět; mít velký hlad * v /stɑː(r)v/ to suffer or to die because there is not enough food Better to starve free than be a fat slave.

127

campaigner

kandidát; uchazeč   n C /ˌkæmˈpeɪnə(r)/ someone who tries to achieve political or social change by persuading other people or the government to do something Animal rights campaigners are trying to close down the farm.

128

regardless

bez ohledu na ** adv /rɪˈɡɑː(r)dləs/ without being affected or influenced by someone or something President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Bill which granted equal rights to all American citizens regardless of the colour of their skin.

129

reverse

obrátit; obrácený; opak ** v /rɪˈvɜː(r)s/ to change the order or development of events, a process, or a situation to be the opposite of what it was The effects of the disease can only be reversed by a bone-marrow donation.

130

slave

otrok; nevolník ** n C /sleɪv/ someone who belongs by law to another person as their property and has to obey them and work for them Better to starve free than be a fat slave.

131

medium-rare

částečně propečený (steak)   adj /ˌmiːdiəmˈreə(r)/ meat that is medium-rare has been cooked for a short time so that it is still slightly red in the middle They are in a restaurant and order a steak medium-rare.

132

principle

podstata; princip *** n C /ˈprɪnsəp(ə)l/ a basic belief, theory, or rule that has a major influence on the way in which something is done Don’t move and he’ll stay still, too. In principle anyway!

133

prey

kořist ** n C /preɪ/ an animal that is caught by another animal and eaten Spiders usually catch their prey by building webs.

134

proceeds

výtěžek, zisk * n pl /ˈprəʊˌsiːdz/ money that a person or organization makes from selling or winning something, or from organizing an event or activity The proceeds will go to the school for refugee children.

135

harmful

škodlivý * adj /ˈhɑː(r)mf(ə)l/ causing harm This decision could have harmful consequences.

136

bear

medvěd ** n C /beə(r)/ a large wild animal with thick fur. There are several different types of bears, for example the polar bear and the grizzly bear. A young bear is called a bear cub. They were attacked by a bear.

137

rovnováha; harmonie *** n C /ˈbæləns/ a situation in which different aspects or features are treated equally or exist in the correct relationship to each other A healthy diet is about getting the correct balance of a variety of foods.

balance

138

průbojný; asertivní   adj /əˈsɜː(r)tɪv/ behaving in a confident way in which you are quick to express your opinions and feelings You need to be more assertive to succeed in business.

assertive

139

znovu nabýt/získat ** v /rɪˈɡeɪn/ to get something again that you lost, especially an ability or a mental state You should soon regain your appetite.

regain

140

odstranění, zákaz   n U /ˌæbəˈlɪʃ(ə)n/ the official end to a law, system, practice etc James is in favour of the abolition of the death penalty.

abolition

141

strach *** n U /fɪə(r)/ the feeling that you have when you are frightened Edward knew it was dangerous, but he felt no fear.

fear

142

krutý; ukrutný ** adj /ˈkruːəl/ someone who is cruel enjoys causing pain to other people or animals, or enjoys making them unhappy or upset How could you be so cruel to someone who never did you any harm?

cruel

143

rovný; rovnocenný *** adj /ˈiːkwəl/ the same in value, amount, or size President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Bill which granted equal rights to all American citizens.

equal

144

vzdorovat, postavit se čemu   v /dɪˈfaɪ/ to refuse to obey someone or something The commander defied a direct order to surrender.

defy

145

hůl ** n C /stɪk/ a thin piece of wood that has been broken or cut from a tree I went out to find some sticks for a fire.

stick

146

čelit, postavit se něčemu ** v /kənˈfrʌnt/ to deal with a difficult situation They have to confront the object of their fears.

confront

147

předat mladšímu členovi rodiny   v /ˌpɑːs ˈdaʊn/ to give knowledge or teach skills to your children or to younger people These traditional stories have been passed down from parent to child over many generations.

pass down

148

hrozba *** n C /θret/ a situation or an activity that could cause harm or danger Officials were confident there had been no threat to public health.

threat

149

stavit se (na krátkou návštěvu)   v /ˌdrɒp ˈɪn/ to make a short visit somewhere Why don’t you drop in for coffee some time?

drop in

150

příběh; vyprávění; historka ** n C /teɪl/ a story about imaginary events or people We read tales of bravery and romance.

tale

151

strádání; tíseň ** n U /dɪˈstres/ a feeling that you have when you are very unhappy, worried, or upset I wouldn’t want to cause her any distress.

distress

152

poskytnout; připustit *** v /ɡrɑːnt/ to allow someone to have or do what they want Irish nationalists urged the British government to grant an amnesty to all political prisoners.

grant

153

kapacita; způsobilost *** n C / U /kəˈpæsəti/ the ability to do something Harry had a tremendous capacity for work.

capacity

154

otevřenost; upřímnost * n U /ˈəʊpənnəs/ an honest way of talking or behaving in which you do not try to hide anything The judge praised him for his honesty and openness.

openness

155

dychtivý; úzkostlivý; naplněný obavami ** adj /ˈæŋkʃəs/ worried because you think something bad might happen His silence made me anxious.

anxious

156

hlavní, ústřední *** adj /ˈprɪnsəp(ə)l/ main, or most important The principal aim of the project is to provide an answer to this question.

principal

157

zastat se někoho   v /stænd ˈʌp fɔː(r)/ to defend someone or something that is being criticized or attacked You’ve got to stand up for what you believe in.

stand up for

158

masový; hromadný ** adj  /mæs/ involving or affecting a large number of people The government is trying to solve the problem of mass unemployment.

mass

159

volný; svobodný *** adj /friː/ not a prisoner or a slave He will soon be a free man again.

free

160

náchylný k * adj /ˈprəʊn ˌtuː/ likely to do something or be affected by something, especially something bad The coastal region is prone to earthquakes.

prone to

161

statečnost; odvaha   n U /ˈbreɪvəri/ brave behaviour She showed bravery in the face of danger.

bravery

162

bez domova * adj /ˈhəʊmləs/ without a place to live The government runs hostels for young homeless people.

homeless

163

opatrný * adj /ˈkɔːʃəs/ careful to avoid problems or danger Perhaps a more cautious approach would bring better results.

cautious

164

osvobodit   v /ˈlɪbəreɪt/ to give someone the freedom to do what they want, for example by taking them out of a situation in which their behaviour is controlled People thought technology had the power to liberate them from hard work.

liberate

165

plachý; bojácný   adj /ˈtɪmɪd/ shy and nervous She gave me a timid smile.

timid

166

tesák, zub   n C /fæŋ/ one of the long pointed teeth that some animals have, for example snakes, dogs, and tigers The snake bared its fangs.

fang

167

postupný * adj /ˈɡrædʒuəl/ gradual processes and changes happen slowly and by small amounts Scientists have observed a gradual change in the climate.

gradual

168

polknout; polykat ** v /ˈswɒləʊ/ to make food or drink go from your mouth down through your throat and into your stomach She quickly swallowed the rest of her coffee.

swallow

169

nemající rozum; neracionální * adj /ʌnˈriːz(ə)nəb(ə)l/ not sensible She has an unreasonable fear of spiders.

unreasonable

170

rovnost ** n U /ɪˈkwɒləti/ the state of being equal, especially in having the same rights, status, and opportunities The Party is committed to sexual and racial equality.

equality

171

spoušť ** v /ˈtrɪɡə(r)/ to cause someone to have a particular feeling or memory People with a phobia often have an object that triggers their fears.

trigger

172

zvěd; průzkumník * n C /skaʊt/ a boy or girl who is a member of the Scouts, an organization that encourages boys and girls to learn practical skills and help other people The proceeds all go to good causes – the boy and girl scouts, the Red Cross, the homeless.

scout

173

chod (jídla) *** n C  /kɔː(r)s/ one of the parts of a meal I had prawns, followed by steak for my main course.

course

174

jiskra, jiskřit, podnítit * v /spɑː(r)k/ to make something happen, especially something involving violence or angry feelings The protests were sparked by the firing of two restaurant employees.

spark

175

akronym   n C /ˈækrənɪm/  an abbreviation consisting of letters that form a word. For example, NATO is an acronym for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It's a very memorable acronym.

acronym

176

smažený   adj /ˌdiːpˈfraɪd/ cooked in a lot of hot oil I love deep-fried onions.

deep-fried

177

reverend, pastor, farář   n C /ˈrev(ə)rənd/ a title used for some Christian priests and ministers That's the Reverend Francis Keenan.

reverend

178

těžký (úraz) *** adj /sɪˈvɪə(r)/ a severe pain, injury, or illness is one which is serious and unpleasant They suffer severe panic attacks.

severe

179

převrátit   v /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈtɜː(r)n/ to say officially that something such as a decision or law is wrong and change it The appeal court refused to overturn the lower court’s decision.

overturn

180

propustění z práce; strčení do pytle   n C /ˈsækɪŋ/ rattlesnake sacking is a sport in which people try to get live rattlesnakes into a sack without being injured Later in the programme, we’ll visit the Rattlesnake Sacking Championships.

sacking

181

otroctví   n U /ˈsleɪvəri/ the condition of being a slave, or of having to work for another person These were women who were forced into sexual slavery.

slavery

182

modlit se ** v /preɪ/ to speak to God or a saint, for example to give thanks or ask for help Some people go to church to pray.

pray

183

úzkost; strach ** n U /æŋˈzaɪəti/ a worried feeling you have because you think something bad might happen A lot of students suffer from anxiety at exam time.

anxiety

184

dobře propečený (steak)   adj /ˌwelˈdʌn/ well-done meat is meat that has been completely cooked Would you like your steak rare, medium-rare or well-done?

well-done

185

péct (nikoli maso) * v /beɪk/ to cook food in an oven Bake the fish for about ten minutes.

bake

186

křehký, chtrný * adj /freɪl/ physically weak and not very healthy He is frail, but still manages to walk with a stick.

frail

187

krutost; ukrutnost * n C / U /ˈkruːəlti/ behaviour that deliberately causes pain to other people or animals, or that makes them unhappy or upset She was shocked by the cruelty of his words.

cruelty

188

sprostý; vulgární   adj /əˈbjuːsɪv/ using offensive or insulting language He started receiving abusive text messages.

abusive

189

zajistit, zaručit *** v /ɪnˈʃɔː(r)/  to make certain that something happens or is done Our new system ensures that everyone gets paid on time.

ensure

190

protilátka, protijed   n C /ˈæntɪˌdəʊt/ a substance that prevents a poison from having bad effects There is no known antidote to the poison.

antidote

191

podpořit *** v /bæk/ to give support to a person, organization, or plan, making them more likely to succeed We’ll back you all the way on this one!

back

192

nebojácný   adj /ˈfɪə(r)ləs/ not afraid of anyone or anything. This word shows that you admire people like this. She was a fearless critic of the corrupt leadership.

fearless

193

sebejistý   adj /ˌselfəˈʃɔː(r)d confident and relaxed because you are sure of your abilities He's a little too self-assured for my liking.

self-assured

194

sprostý, hrubý * adj /kɔː(r)s/ a coarse substance or surface feels rough and hard The jacket was made of coarse material.

coarse

195

pojistit * v /ɪnˈʃɔː(r)/  to regularly pay an insurance company an amount of money so that they will give you money if something that you own is damaged, lost, or stolen, or if you die or are sick or injured His appearance was so repulsive that I had to have my mirrors insured.

insure

196

zrušit; odstranit ** v /əˈbɒlɪʃ/ to officially get rid of a law, system, practice etc Britain abolished slavery in 1807.

abolish

197

akupunktura   n U /ˈækjʊˌpʌŋktʃə(r)/ a medical treatment from China that involves putting special needles into particular parts of the body Have you tried acupunture or alternative medicine?

acupuncture

198

obtěžování * n U /ˈhærəsmənt/  /həˈræsmənt/ annoying or unpleasant behaviour towards someone that takes place regularly, for example threats, offensive remarks, or physical attacks The UN cannot tolerate the continuing harassment of peacekeeping soldiers.

harassment

199

podmínečný, připravený   adj /kənˈdɪʃ(ə)nd/ if someone is conditioned by their experiences or by another person, they are influenced by them so that they think or behave in a particular way A phobia is a conditioned reflex.

conditioned

200

holý; nepokrytý ** adj /beə(r)/ a part of your body that is bare is not covered by any clothes The idea is to pick up the snake with your bare hands and throw it in the sack.

bare

201

odborník na plazy   n C /ˈhɜː(r)pəˈtɒlədʒɪst someone who scientifically studies amphibians and reptiles I spoke to herpetologist, Chick Ferragamo, who introduced me to my first rattler.

herpetologist

202

jed (hadí, hmyzí), zlost, hněv   n U /ˈvenəm/ poison produced by some animals, especially snakes and insects The venom causes paralysis within a few minutes.

venom

203

odvaha ** n U /ˈkʌrɪdʒ/ the ability to do something that you know is right or good, even though it is dangerous, frightening, or very difficult She has shown immense courage in opposing a corrupt and violent regime.

courage

204

poškození; ublížení ** n U /hɑː(r)m/ injury, damage, or problems caused by something that you do Too many projects that lead to environmental harm.

harm

205

bojkot   n C /ˈbɔɪˌkɒt/ to not take part in an event, or to not buy or use something as a protest She urged people to boycott the company’s products.

boycott

206

rozumný; racionální *** adj /ˈriːz(ə)nəb(ə)l/ fair and sensible Some people think it is perfectly reasonable to climb into the mouth of a volcano.

reasonable

207

ocas ** n C /teɪl/ a part at the back of an animal’s body that can move The animal sprays liquid from a gland under its tail.

tail

208

zneuží(va)t ** n C/U /əˈbjuːs/ cruel, violent, or unfair treatment, especially of someone who does not have the power to prevent it The regime had been responsible for serious human rights abuses.

abuse

209

tyranský; despotický   adj /ˌdɒmɪˈnɪərɪŋ/ trying to control other people and make them obey you She has an unpleasant domineering personality.

domineering

210

rachotit; chrastit   n C /ˈræt(ə)l/ part of a rattlesnake's tail which makes short sharp knocking sounds as it moves or shakes The rattle on the end of the tail is a warning signal.

rattle

211

spěchat   phr /ˌɪn ə ˈhʌri/ to do something or go somewhere quickly because you do not have much time A frail old lady steps in line ahead of them and claims that she is in a hurry.

in a hurry

212

neposlouchat   v /ˌdɪsəˈbeɪ/ to deliberately do the opposite of what someone in authority has told you to do, or deliberately not obey a rule If you continue to disobey the rules, you will be punished.

disobey

213

opatrnost ** n U /ˈkɔːʃ(ə)n/ careful thought and lack of hurry in order to try to avoid risks or danger We drove along the road with extreme caution.

caution

214

neposlušnost   n U /ˌdɪsəˈbiːdiəns/ someone’s behaviour when they do not obey orders or rules Disobedience will not be tolerated.

disobedience

215

statečný; odvážný ** adj /breɪv/ capable of dealing with danger or pain, without seeming to be frightened It is easy to be brave from a safe distance.

brave

216

vrcholit, kulminovat   v /ˈkʌlmɪneɪt/ to happen or exist as the final result of a process or situation A series of financial disasters culminated in the collapse of the country’s largest bank.

culminate

217

nížina; planina ** adj /pleɪn/ plain food is simple and does not have a lot of things added to it Plenty of stalls selling fried rattlesnake, rattlesnake kebabs, barbecued rattler, or just plain baked rattlesnake.

plain

218

udělit; uložit (pokutu); přiznat (náhradu) *** v /əˈwɔː(r)d/ to give someone a prize or other reward because they have achieved something The prize is awarded annually.

award

219

přiložený   adj /ɪnˈkləʊzd/ surrounded by something and separated from what is outside He has a fear of enclosed spaces.

enclosed

220

zasloužit si ** v /dɪˈzɜː(r)v/ if you deserve something, it is right that you get it, for example because of the way you have behaved After five hours on your feet you deserve a break.

deserve

221

bázlivý, strašlivý   adj /ˈfɪə(r)f(ə)l/ frightened Fearful parents kept their children indoors.

fearful

222

léčit někoho *** v /triːt/ to use medicine or medical methods to cure a patient or an illness Vitamin deficiency can be properly diagnosed and treated by a doctor.

treat (sb)

223

přemoci; (be ~) zmocnit se ** v /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈkʌm/  to succeed in dealing with or controlling a problem What can I do to overcome my fear of rejection?

overcome

224

důvod; příčina *** n C /ˈriːz(ə)n/ a fact, situation, or intention that explains why something happened, why someone did something, or why something is true What was your reason for not liking the film?

reason

225

hypnóza   n U /hɪpˈnəʊsɪs/ a very relaxed state in which you seem to be sleeping but can still react to someone else’s suggestions He was under hypnosis for about an hour.

hypnosis

226

panika; zmatkovat ** n U / v /ˈpænɪk/ a sudden strong feeling of fear or worry that makes you unable to think clearly or calmly She felt a moment of sheer panic.

panic

227

(na)instalovat; (na)montovat ** v /ɪnˈstɔːl/  to put a piece of equipment somewhere and make it ready for use Crime has decreased since the security cameras were installed.

install

228

letadlo *** n C /pleɪn/ an aircraft with wings and at least one engine Terrorists release two passengers from the plane.

plane

229

zaspat   v /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈsliːp/ to wake up later than you intended to Sorry I'm late. I overslept.

oversleep

230

lidi; rodiče ** n pl /fəʊks/ people Folks can watch the snake handling shows throughout the day.

folks

231

oběť *** n C /ˈvɪktɪm/ someone who has suffered as a result of the actions or negative attitudes of someone else or of people in general He was a victim of racism.

victim

232

panovačný   adj /ˈbɒsi/ someone who is bossy keeps telling other people what to do, in a way that annoys them Don’t be so bossy!

bossy

233

riskantní * adj /ˈrɪski/ involving the possibility of danger, harm, or failure I wouldn’t do it if I were you – it’s too risky.

risky

234

zátah, razie, přehled, sehnání stád dobytka   n C /ˈraʊndʌp/ an occasion when animals or people are forced to gather together in one place The police conducted a round-up of suspects.

round-up

235

chřestýš   n C /ˈræt(ə)lˌsneɪk/  a poisonous US snake that makes a noise that sounds like a rattle with its tail Rattlesnakes usually hunt at night.

rattlesnake

236

riziko *** n C / U /rɪsk/ the possibility that something unpleasant or dangerous might happen Some people's fear of flying is far out of proportion to the actual risk it involves.

risk

237

chřestýš   n C /ˈræt(ə)lə(r)/  a rattlesnake I was bitten by a rattler.

rattler

238

svoboda; volnost *** n C /ˈfriːdəm/ the right to do what you want, make your own decisions, and express your own opinions You can’t separate peace from freedom because no one can be at peace unless he has freedom.

freedom

239

odvážný; statečný   adj /kəˈreɪdʒəs/ very brave and determined You've taken a courageous decision today.

courageous

240

klidný díky ujištění ** adj /ˌriːəˈʃʊə(r)d/ made to feel less worried about something Feeling better informed, but not particularly reassured it was time to move on to Sweetwater.

reassured

241

výsada; pocta ** n C /ˈprɪvəlɪdʒ/ a special benefit that is available only to a particular person or group Cheap air travel is one of the privileges of working for the airline.

privilege

242

neškodný * adj /ˈhɑː(r)mləs/ not causing any harm Most of these bugs are harmless to us.

harmless

243

jehla; jehlice ** n C /ˈniːd(ə)l/ a very thin sharp metal tube used for putting medicine or drugs into your body, or for taking blood out. It is attached to a plastic tube called a syringe He has a fear of needles.

needle

244

zdrženlivý   adj /rɪˈzɜː(r)vd/ someone who is reserved tends not to talk about or show their feelings They are emotionally reserved.

reserved

245

svoboda ** n C /ˈlɪbə(r)ti/ the freedom to think or behave in the way that you want and not be controlled by a government or by other people The movement would fight for liberty and equality.

liberty

246

protilátka, protijed   n U /ˌæntiˈvənɪn/ a substance that prevents venom from having bad effects We use the venom to manufacture the antivenin.

antivenin

247

tuhý; neohebný ** adj /stɪf/ something that is stiff does not bend easily. If you have a stiff upper lip, you remain calm and do not let other people see what you are really feeling in a difficult or unpleasant situation It is often said that the British have a ‘stiff upper lip’.

stiff

248

spojenectví; aliance ** n C /əˈlaɪəns/ a group of people, organizations, or countries who have united to work together to achieve something Have you spoken to members of other parties within the alliance?

alliance

249

fobie   n C /ˈfəʊbiə/ a very strong feeling of disliking or being afraid of someone or something She has a phobia about spiders.

phobia

250

(z)civilizovat   v /ˈsɪvəlaɪz/ to make someone behave in a more polite and reasonable way The time has come for us to civilize ourselves.

civilize

251

celý *** adj /həʊl/ all of something I’m getting tired of the whole thing.

whole

252

díra *** n C /həʊl/ a space in the surface of something that goes partly or completely through it Rain poured through a gaping hole in the roof.

hole

253

segregace, oddělování   n U /ˌseɡrɪˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n/ the policy of keeping people from different groups, especially different races, separate. Integration is the policy of bringing these groups together Racial segregation in schools is no longer legal in the US.

segregation

254

dát pokutu * v /faɪn/ to make someone pay an amount of money as punishment for breaking the law She was fined £250 for speeding.

fine

255

povstání; vzpoura; revolta   n C /rɪˈbeljən/ opposition to someone in authority or to accepted ways of doing things We can achieve our aims through disobedience and through rebellion.

rebellion

256

mezistátní   adj /ˌɪntə(r)ˈsteɪt/ existing or taking place between states, especially between the states in the US or Australia He's an expert in interstate commerce.

interstate

257

vládnout *** v /ruːl/ to officially control or govern a country or area Portugal ruled East Timor for nearly four centuries.

rule

258

ošizený (zákazník)   adj /ˌʃɔː(r)tˈtʃeɪndʒd/ if someone is short-changed, they do not receive back enough money for something they have paid for after they have paid more than the full price for the things After walking out of a store, they discover they were short-changed by £3.

short-changed

259

reflex, odraz   n C /ˈriːfleks/ a way of reacting to something that you do very quickly, without thinking about it A phobia is a conditioned reflex.

reflex

260

příliš zdůrazňovat   v /ˌəʊvərˈemfəˌsaɪz/ to treat something as more important than it really is We cannot overemphasize how damaging these results are to our reputation.

overemphasize

261

genetický ** adj /dʒəˈnetɪk/ relating to genes, or to the study of genes Doctors believe the condition is caused by a genetic defect.

genetic

262

hladovět; mít velký hlad * v /stɑː(r)v/ to suffer or to die because there is not enough food Better to starve free than be a fat slave.

starve

263

kandidát; uchazeč   n C /ˌkæmˈpeɪnə(r)/ someone who tries to achieve political or social change by persuading other people or the government to do something Animal rights campaigners are trying to close down the farm.

campaigner

264

bez ohledu na ** adv /rɪˈɡɑː(r)dləs/ without being affected or influenced by someone or something President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Bill which granted equal rights to all American citizens regardless of the colour of their skin.

regardless

265

obrátit; obrácený; opak ** v /rɪˈvɜː(r)s/ to change the order or development of events, a process, or a situation to be the opposite of what it was The effects of the disease can only be reversed by a bone-marrow donation.

reverse

266

otrok; nevolník ** n C /sleɪv/ someone who belongs by law to another person as their property and has to obey them and work for them Better to starve free than be a fat slave.

slave

267

částečně propečený (steak)   adj /ˌmiːdiəmˈreə(r)/ meat that is medium-rare has been cooked for a short time so that it is still slightly red in the middle They are in a restaurant and order a steak medium-rare.

medium-rare

268

podstata; princip *** n C /ˈprɪnsəp(ə)l/ a basic belief, theory, or rule that has a major influence on the way in which something is done Don’t move and he’ll stay still, too. In principle anyway!

principle

269

kořist ** n C /preɪ/ an animal that is caught by another animal and eaten Spiders usually catch their prey by building webs.

prey

270

výtěžek, zisk * n pl /ˈprəʊˌsiːdz/ money that a person or organization makes from selling or winning something, or from organizing an event or activity The proceeds will go to the school for refugee children.

proceeds

271

škodlivý * adj /ˈhɑː(r)mf(ə)l/ causing harm This decision could have harmful consequences.

harmful

272

medvěd ** n C /beə(r)/ a large wild animal with thick fur. There are several different types of bears, for example the polar bear and the grizzly bear. A young bear is called a bear cub. They were attacked by a bear.

bear