Unit 5- Pathology, Otorhinolaryngology, and Prefixes dys-, brady-, tachy-, poly-, syn- Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5- Pathology, Otorhinolaryngology, and Prefixes dys-, brady-, tachy-, poly-, syn- Deck (169):
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Pathology

Specialty that studies diseases, especially infectious diseases

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cocc/i

spherically shaped family of bacteria
means berry, grain, or seed
singular=coccus
plural=cocci
3 main types of cocci: displo, strepto, and staphylo
pneumococcus=pneumonia
meningococcus=meningitis

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diplococcus

cocci growing in pairs
gonorrhea

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streptococcus

cocci growing in twisted chains

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staphylococcus

cocci growing in clusters
most bacteria that form pus
commonly responsible for acne infections

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strept/o

twisted chains or strips

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staphyl/o

growing in bunches/clusters like grapes
also, the uvula

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MRSA

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas
Bacterium that causes difficult to treat infection
Most common in elderly and those with poor immune systems

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genus and species names

Used to identify bacteria and parasites
Italicized, genus capitalized
Abbreviate with genus initial and species name, but not in italics

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bacillus

rod-shaped bacterium
pl. bacilli
pneumobacillus

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diplobacillus

rod-shaped double bacillus

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streptobacillus

rod-shaped bacillus growing in twisted chains

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bacteria singular

bacterium

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bacillus plural

bacilli

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hemorrhagic colitis

Caused by ingesting E. coli
Severe abdominal pain and cramping, diarrhea, watery/bloody stool, low-grade or absent fever, occasional vomiting
Lasts avg of 8 days
Infants, children, elderly, and immunocompromised may develop severe life-threatening conditions like kidney failure due to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)

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staphyloplasty

surgical repair of the uvula

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staphylitis (uvulitis)

inflammation of the uvula

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staphylectomy (uvulectomy)

excision of the uvula

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uvul/o

uvula

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py/o

pus

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pyocele

hernia containing pus

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-genic, -genesis

producing of forming

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pyogenic

pus producing

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oncogenic

tumor producing

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pathogenic

produce disease

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pyothorax

accumulation of pus in thoracic cavity
caused by pneumonia and lung abcesses

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purulent

contains pus

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-rrhea

flow or discharge

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diarrhea

to flow through

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pyorrhea

flow or discharge of pus

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ot/o

ear

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otorrhea

discharge from the ear(s)

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otoscope

instrument used to examine the ear

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otic

pertaining to the ear

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otoscopy

process of examining the ear using an otoscope

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otitis

inflammation of the ear

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auris sinistra

left ear

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auris dextra

right ear

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auris uterque

both ears

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otalgia/ otodynia

ear pain, ear ache

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membrana tympani dextra (MTD)

right eardrum

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membrana tympani sinistra (MTS)

left eardrum

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rhinorrhea

runny nose, discharge from the nose

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tympan/o

tympanum, eardrum, drum

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tympanic

pertaining to the eardrum

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tympanotomy, myringotomy

incision into the eardrum
ex: inserting tubes into the eardrum

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tympanectomy

excision of the eardrum

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metr

measure

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-metry

process of measuring

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tympanometry

process of measuring the function of the eardrum

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tympanites

distended with gas, as tight as a drum

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a-, an-

not, lack of
a- before consonant
an- before vowel

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brady-

abnormally slow

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dys-

difficult, abnormal, poor, painful

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tachy-

abnormally fast

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audi/o

hearing

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audiology

study of hearing

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audiometer

process of measuring hearing

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audiometry

process of measuring hearing

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audiogram

record made by the instrument used to test hearing

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audiologist

hearing specialist

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phon/o

voice, vocal sounds

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aphonia

unable to make sounds

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dysphonia

weak voice

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bradyphasia

slow speech

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phas

speech

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aphasia

absence of speech

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phonic

pertaining to the voice

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phonometer

instrument used for measuring intensity of vocal sounds

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phonology

study of voice/vocal sounds

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audiology

study of hearing

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phasology

study of speech

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rhin/o

nose

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rhinitis

inflammation of the nose

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rhinoplasty

surgical repair of the nose

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rhinotomy

incision of the nose

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lith/o

calculus or stone

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rhinolith

calculus or stone in the nose

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lithogenesis

producing or forming calculi or stones

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calculus

"pebble used for counting"
stone formed in the body

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lithiasis

infestation of the body with stones

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lithology

science of dealing with or studying calculi/stones

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lithotomy

incision for the removal of a stone

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lithometer

instrument for measuring the size of calculi

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cholelith

gallstone

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chol/e

gall or bile

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-iasis

suffix used to indicate a pathologic condition
infestation

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cholelithiasis

presence of gallstones in the gallbladder

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trichomonas vaginalis

protozoan parasite with a flagella
may cause trichomoniasis, infect urinary and repro tract and considered an STD

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cholecyst

gallbladder

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cholecystogram

x-ray of the gallbladder

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cholecystography

process of taking gallbladder x-ray

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cholecystitis

inflammation of the gallbladder
accompanied by pain and hyperemesis
fatty foods aggravate symptoms

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cholecystotomy

incision into the gallbladder to remove a gallstone

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cholecystectomy

excision of the gallbladder

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bradycardia

slow heart action

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bradyphasia

slowness in eating or swallowing

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phag/o

eat

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tachycardia

rapid heart action

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tachogram

record of the velocity of blood flow

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pne/o

respiration or breathing

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-pnea

breathing

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bradypnea

slow breathing

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tachypnea

rapid breathing

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apnea

without breathing, cessation of breathing

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agenesis

without generation, failure to develop or lack of development

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carcinogenesis

development of cancer

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carcinogenic

pertaining to the development of cancer

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men/o

menstruation

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dysmenorrhea

painful or difficult menstruation

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amenorrhea

absence of menstruation

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dystrophy

poor development

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dyspnea

difficult breathing

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peps/o, pep/tic

digestion

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dyspepsia

poor digestion

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apepsia

cessation of digestion

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bradypepsia

slow digestion

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arrhythmia, dysrrhythmia

loss of correct rhythm
tachy and bradycardia are types of arrhythmias

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lexis

word or phrase

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dyslexia

condition of difficulty recognizing words and transposing letters or numbers

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dysphonia

condition characterized by difficulty vocalizing

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dysphasia

condition characterized by difficulty speaking

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therm/o

heat

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thermometer

instrument used to measure heat

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thermal, thermic

pertaining to heat

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thermoesthesia, thermoalgesia

oversensitivity to heat

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thermogenesis

formation of body heat

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thermophobia

abnormal fear of heat

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thermoplegia

heatstroke (paralysis)

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diathermy

heating through tissue (treatment)

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hyperthermia

high body temperature (fever)

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hypothermia

low body temperature

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microcephalus

abnormally small head

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microcyst

very small cyst

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microcyte

very small cell

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microcardia

condition of having a small heart

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microgram

one thousandth of a milligram

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microsurgery

surgery performed on minute structures using a microscope and small instruments

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macrocytes

very large cells

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macrocephalus

abnormally large head

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macroblast

large embryonic (germ) cell

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macrococcus

very large coccus (bacterium)

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macroglossia

abnormally large tongue

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macrotia

large ears

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macrorhinia

large nose

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macrocheilia

large lips

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dactyl/o

fingers or toes

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dactylomegaly, macrodactylia

large fingers or toes

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dactylitis

inflammation of a digit

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dactylospasm

cramp/ spasm of a digit

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dactylogram

fingerprint

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polydactylism

too many fingers or toes

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syn-

with, together

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syndactylism

a joining together of two or more digits

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synergism

occurs when two or more drugs or organs working together produce an increased effect

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synergetic

working together, usually referring to muscles

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synarthrosis

immovable joint
ex: sacrum, pelvis, skull

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drom/o

run

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dromomania

insane impulse to wander or roam

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syndrome

variety of symptoms occurring (running along) together
complete picture of a disease

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Korsakoff's syndrome

syndrome due to alcoholism
characterized by nerve inflammation, insomnia, hallucinations, disorientation, and nerve pain

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Reye's syndrome

behavior changes and hyperemesis following a viral infection and fever may indicate this

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prodrome

running before a disease
symptom indicating an approaching disease

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dips

thirst

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polydipsia

excessive thirst
causes: excess salt, upset pituitary secretion, high blood sugar and lack of insulin

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dipsomania

alcoholism (old term)
abnormal compulsion to drink

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cholangiogram

x-ray of the bile ducts

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moniliasis

yeast infection

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paraphasia

abnormal speech